daily drilling report n: a record made each day of the operations on a
working drilling rig and, traditionally, phoned, faxed, emailed, or radioed in
to the office of the drilling company and possibly the operator every morning.
dampener n: an air or inert gas device that
minimizes pressure surges in the output line of a mud pump. Sometimes called a
daylight tour (pronounced "tower") n: in
areas where three eight-hour tours are worked, the shift of duty on a drilling
rig that starts at or about daylight. Compare evening tour, morning
day tour (pronounced "tower") n: in areas where two 12-hour
tours are worked, a period of 12 hours, usually during daylight, worked by a
drilling or workover crew when equipment is being run around the clock.
deadline n: the drilling line from the crown block
sheave to the anchor, so called because it does not move. Compare fast line.
deadline anchor n: see deadline tie-down anchor.
deadline sheave n: the sheave on the crown block over which the
deadline is reeved.
deadline tie-down anchor n: a device to which the deadline is attached,
securely fastened to the mast or derrick substructure. Also called a deadline
deck n: (nautical) floor.
degasser n: the equipment used to remove unwanted gas from a liquid, especially from
density n: the mass or weight of a substance per
unit volume. For instance, the density of a drilling mud may be 10 pounds per
gallon, 74.8 pounds/cubic foot, or 1,198.2 kilograms/cubic meter. Specific
gravity, relative density, and API gravity are other units of density.
density log n: a special radioactivity log for
open-hole surveying that responds to variations in the specific gravity of
formations. It is a contact log (i.e., the logging tool is held against the
wall of the hole). It emits neutrons and then measures the secondary gamma
radiation that is scattered back to the detector in the instrument. The
density log is an excellent porosity-measure device, especially for shaley
sands. Some trade names are Formation Density Log, Gamma-Gamma Density Log,
derrick n: a large load-bearing structure, usually
of bolted construction. In drilling, the standard derrick has four legs
standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown block.
The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick and
provide space to install blowout preventers, casingheads, and so forth.
derrick floor n: also called the rig floor.
derrickhand n: the crew member who handles the upper end of the drill
string as it is being hoisted out of or lowered into the hole. On a drilling
rig, he or she may be responsible for the circulating machinery and the
conditioning of the drilling or workover fluid.
derrickman n: see derrickhand.
desander n: a centrifugal device for removing sand from drilling fluid to prevent
abrasion of the pumps. It may be operated mechanically or by a fast-moving
stream of fluid inside a special cone-shaped vessel, in which case it is
sometimes called a hydrocyclone.
desilter n: a centrifugal device, similar to a desander, used to remove very fine
particles, or silt, from drilling fluid to lower the amount of solids in the
diamond bit n: a drill bit that has small industrial
diamonds embedded in its cutting surface.
dies n: a tool used to shape, form, or finish other
tools or pieces of metal. For example, a threading die is used to cut threads
die insert n: a removable, hard-steel, serrated
piece that fits into the jaws of the tongs and firmly grips the body of the
drill pipe, drill collars, or casing while the tongs are making up or breaking
out the pipe.
diesel-electric power n: the power supplied to a
drilling rig by diesel engines driving electric generators.
diesel engine n: a high-compression,
internal-combustion engine used extensively for powering drilling rigs. In a
diesel engine, air is drawn into the cylinders and compressed to very high
pressures; ignition occurs as fuel is injected into the compressed and heated
air. Combustion takes place within the cylinder above the piston, and
expansion of the combustion products imparts power to the piston.
diesel fuel n: a light hydrocarbon mixture for
diesel engines; it has a boiling range just above that of kerosene.
dipmeter log n: see dipmeter survey.
dipmeter survey n: an oilwell-surveying method that
determines the direction and angle of formation dip in relation to the
borehole. It records data that permit computation of both the amount and
direction of formation dip relative to the axis of the hole and thus provides
information about the geologic structure of the formation. Also called
dipmeter log or dip log.
directional drilling n: 1. intentional deviation of
a wellbore from the vertical. Although wellbores are normally drilled
vertically, it is sometimes necessary or advantageous to drill at an angle
from the vertical. Controlled directional drilling makes it possible to reach
subsurface areas laterally remote from the point where the bit enters the
directional hole n: a wellbore intentionally drilled
at an angle from the vertical. See directional drilling.
displacement fluid n: in well cementing, the fluid,
usually drilling mud or salt water, that is pumped into the well after the
cement is pumped into it to force the cement out of the casing and into the
dissolved gas n: natural gas that is in solution
with crude oil in the reservoir.
dissolved-gas drive n: a source of natural reservoir
energy in which the dissolved gas coming out of the oil expands to force the
oil into the wellbore. Also called solution-gas drive. See reservoir drive
doghouse n: a small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office and/or as a storehouse
for small objects. Also, any small building used as an office or for storage.
dogleg n: 1. an abrupt change in direction in the
wellbore, frequently resulting in the formation of a keyseat. 2. a sharp bend
permanently put in an object such as a pipe, wire rope, or a wire rope sling.
double n: a length of drill pipe, casing, or tubing consisting of two
joints screwed together.
downhole adj, adv: pertaining to the wellbore.
downhole motor n: a drilling tool made up in the
drill string directly above the bit. It causes the bit to turn while the drill
string remains fixed. It is used most often as a deflection tool in
directional drilling, where it is made up between the bit and a bent sub (or,
sometimes, the housing of the motor itself is bent). Two principal types of
downhole motor are the positive-displacement motor and the downhole turbine
drawworks n: the hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig. It is essentially a large winch
that spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus lowers or raises the
drill stem and bit.
drawworks brake n: the mechanical brake on the
drawworks that can slow or prevent the drawworks drum from moving.
drawworks drum n: the spool-shaped cylinder in the
drawworks around which drilling line is wound or spooled.
drill v: to bore a hole in the earth, usually to
find and remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and gas.
drillable adj: pertaining to packers and other tools
left in the wellbore to be broken up later by the drill bit. Drillable
equipment is made of cast iron, aluminum, plastic, or other soft, brittle
drillable packer n: a permanent packer that can only
be removed by drilling it out.
drill ahead v: to continue drilling operations.
bit n: the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas
wells. Most bits used in rotary drilling are roller-cone bits. The bit
consists of the cutting elements and the circulating element. The circulating
element permits the passage of drilling fluid and utilizes the hydraulic force
of the fluid stream to improve drilling rates.
collars n: a heavy, thick-walled tube, usually steel, used between
the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem, used to stiffen the drilling
assembly an put weight on the bit so that the bit can drill.
drill collar sub n: a sub made up between the drill
string and the drill collars that is used to ensure that the drill pipe and
the collar can be joined properly.
driller n: the employee normally in charge of a
specific (tour) drilling or workover crew. The driller’s main duty is
operation of the drilling and hoisting equipment, but this person may also be
responsible for downhole condition of the well, operation of downhole tools,
and pipe measurements.
driller’s position n: the area immediately
surrounding the driller’s console.
drill floor n: also called rig floor or derrick
floor. See rig floor.
drill in v: to penetrate the productive formation
after the casing is set and cemented on top of the pay zone.
drilling contract n: an agreement made between a
drilling company and an operating company to drill a well. It generally sets
forth the obligation of each party, compensation, identification, method of
drilling, depth to be drilled, and so on.
drilling crew n: a driller, a derrickhand, and two
or more helpers who operate a drilling or workover rig for one tour each day.
drilling engine n: an internal-combustion engine
used to power a drilling rig. These engines are used on a rotary rig and are
usually fueled by diesel fuel, although liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas,
and, very rarely, gasoline can also be used.
drilling engineer n: an engineer who specializes in
the technical aspects of drilling.
fluid n: circulating fluid, one function of which is to lift cuttings
out of the wellbore and to the surface. It also serves to cool the bit and to
counteract downhole formation pressure.
drilling hook n: the large hook mounted on the
bottom of the traveling block and from which the swivel is suspended.
drilling mud n: a specially compounded liquid
circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling operations. See
drilling fluid, mud.
pipe n: the heavy seamless tubing used to rotate the bit and
circulate the drilling fluid. Joints of pipe are generally approximately 30
feet long are coupled together by means of tool joints.
drill stem n: all members in the assembly used for
rotary drilling from the swivel to the bit, including the kelly, the drill
pipe and tool joints, the drill collars, the stabilizers, and various
specialty items. Compare drill string.
drill stem test (DST) n: a method of formation testing. The basic drill
stem test tool consists of a packer or packers, valves or ports that may be
opened and closed from the surface, and two or more pressure-recording
devices. The tool is lowered on the drill string to the zone to be tested. The
packer or packers are set to isolate the zone from the drilling fluid column.
console n: the control panel, where the driller controls drilling
line n: a wire rope hoisting line, reeved on sheaves of the crown
block and traveling block (in effect a block and tackle), the primary purpose
of which is to hoist or lower drill pipe or casing from or into a well.
drilling out n: the operation during the drilling
procedure when the cement is drilled out of the casing.
drill string n: the column, or string, of drill pipe
with attached tool joints that transmits fluid and rotational power from the
kelly to the drill collars and the bit. Often, the term is loosely applied to
include both drill pipe and drill collars.
drive bushing n: see kelly bushing.
drive chain n: a chain by means of which a machine
drive-in unit n: a type of portable service or workover rig that is
self-propelled, using power from the hoisting engines. The driver's cab and
steering wheel are mounted on the same end as the mast support; thus the unit
can be driven straight ahead to reach the wellhead.
drive pipe n: see conductor casing.
drum (rope) n: a rotating cylinder with side flanges
on which wire or other rope used in machine operation is wrapped.
dry hole n: any well that does not produce oil or
gas in commercial quantities. A dry hole may flow water, gas, or even oil, but
not in amounts large enough to justify production.
dual completion n: a single well that produces from two separate
formations at the same time. Production from each zone is segregated by
running two tubing strings with packers inside the single string of production
casing, or by running one tubing string with a packer through one zone while
the other is produced through the annulus. In a miniaturized dual completion,
two separate casing strings are run and cemented in the same wellbore.
dump bailer n: a bailing device with a release valve, usually of the
disk or flapper type, used to place, or spot, material (such as cement slurry)
at the bottom of the well.