Electric Power >> Hazardous Energy Control
Hazardous Energy Control: General Requirements
Hazardous energy control programs help safeguard workers from the risks of
hazardous energy associated with the servicing or maintenance work performed on
machine and equipment systems, including those involving generation,
transmission, and distribution systems. A system is disabled so that certain
work can be performed safely and, in some cases, workers do not need to use
protective equipment if all the hazards have been effectively controlled.
Formal energy control procedures have long been used in the electric power
generation, transmission, and distribution industry and are regulated by 29 CFR 1910.269(d) for power generation installations and 29 CFR 1910.269(m) for power
transmission and distribution lines and equipment. The hazardous energy control
requirements for generation apply to all types (and forms) of hazardous energy
and are different than the electrical energy control requirements for T&D lines
and equipment. For discussion purposes, hazardous energy control practices for
electric power generation and related equipment will be referred to as lockout/tagout
(LOTO), and the deenergization and grounding practices for transmission and
distribution (T&D) will be referenced as deenergizing lines and equipment for
employee protection (T&D deenergization).
If electrical installation systems are not disabled in total compliance with all
the electrical control requirements of the "269" standard, then work is
considered to be live (energized) work, and all the procedures required for live
work must be used. Additional guidance may be found in the OSHA Instruction CPL
02-01-038, Appendix B.
|| Although "Lockout/Tagout" (LOTO) is used by workers performing
transmission and distribution (T&D) work, the correct term according to 1910.269(m) is "Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection"
Boundary line between generation and T&D. "269" does not define generation and
T&D, so OSHA provides criteria in its OSHA Instruction CPL 02-01-038 (Issue 2 in
Appendix B) as to when generation stops and transmission begins. Thus, the "269"
standard allows each company to establish, within a generation station, its own
demarcation line between generation and T&D, provided that:
Once the boundary is established, the line must be well defined and remain
consistent. Communicating the boundary between generation and T&D to workers
is especially important to ensure the safety of all, especially when different
companies own and operate generating plants and T&D systems.
- The transmission or distribution system begins somewhere between the load side
of the generator disconnects and the output side disconnects of the generator
step-up transformers, inclusive of those points;
- Employees who are not 1910.269 qualified do not have access to the disconnects
or the protective grounds for the transmission system;
- The employer has clearly identified this demarcation point in his or her
hazardous energy control program;
- Hazards posed by non-electrical energy sources are addressed by the employer's
hazardous energy control program under paragraph(d); and
| Diagram courtesy of The Lineman's and Cableman's Handbook (9th Ed.)
- Affected employees are trained in the interface between the generation
system and the transmission system and in the associated hazardous energy
Some additional energy control requirements include:
- Job briefings must include, in part, for all workers to be protected, a
review of the particular sources and hazards or potential hazardous energy
present, including the methods to control the potential hazards. (See 29 CFR 1910.269(d)(6).)
[See Hazard Assessment and Job Briefing]
- Workers must maintain a safe distance from energized parts in accordance
with the Minimum Approach Distances for unqualified and qualified employees.
Deenergizing Lines and Equipment for Employee Protection
Minimum Approach Distances
Energized vs. Deenergized Work
Hazard Assessments and Job Briefings