Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs)
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of diseases caused by ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses from four distinct families. These diseases include Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Lassa fever, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, and Yellow Fever. Symptoms vary with the disease, but often include fever, fatigue, and muscle aches. There may be bleeding, although death from blood loss is rare. Severe cases can include shock and coma. Although some types of VHFs are relatively mild illnesses, many of them can cause severe, life-threatening disease with high fatality rates.
Along with smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, and tularemia, hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the six agents identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the most likely to be used as biological weapons. Many VHFs can cause severe, life-threatening disease with high fatality rates.
Provides references that focus on the preparedness and response of the medical community in the event of a terrorist attack involving VHFs.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is experiencing a significant, ongoing Ebola outbreak. OSHA's Ebola webpage provides a comprehensive source of information for protecting workers from exposure to the Ebola virus, including airline crews who travel to affected regions.