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Steel Erection » Cranes
Hoisting and Rigging [29 CFR 1926.753]
Rigging and hoisting of steel members and materials are essential parts of the steel erection process. However, in addition to the dangers usually associated with cranes and derricks, steel erection also presents specialized hazards, such as the use of cranes to hoist employees, suspend loads over certain employees, and perform multiple lifts. Because of the specialized nature of these hazards, the provisions below are intended to supplement, rather than displace, the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.550, the OSHA standard covering cranes and derricks in general construction.
- In addition to paragraphs 29 CFR 1926.753(c) through 29 CFR 1926.753(e), all the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.550 apply to hoisting and rigging with the exception of 29 CFR 1926.550(g)(2), 29 CFR 1926.753(a), and 29 CFR 1926.753(b).
- The crane operators must be responsible for operations under their direct control. Whenever there is any doubt as to safety, the operator must have the authority to:
- Stop all hoisting activities.
- Refuse to handle loads until safety has been assured. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(iv)]
- Cranes or derricks may be used to hoist employees on a personnel platform when steel erection is being conducted, provided that all provisions of 29 CFR 1926.550 (except for 29 CFR 1926.1501(g)(2)) are met. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(4)]
- The headache ball, hook or load must not be used to transport personnel except as provided in paragraph 29 CFR 1926.753(c)(4) of this section. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(3)]
- Safety latches on hooks must not be deactivated or made inoperable except [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(5)]:
Before each shift, cranes being used in steel erection activities must be visually inspected by a competent person. The inspection must include observation for deficiencies during operation, including, at a minimum [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)]:
- All control mechanisms for maladjustments. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(A)]
- Control and drive mechanism for excessive wear of components and contamination by [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(B)]:
- Other foreign matter
- Safety devices, including but not limited to [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(C)]:
- Boom-angle indicators
- Boom stops
- Boom kick-out devices
- Anti-two block devices
- Load moment indicators, where required
- Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines, especially those that flex during operation, for [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(D)]:
- Hooks and latches for [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(E)]:
- Chemical damage
- Wire rope reeving for compliance with hoisting equipment manufacturer's specifications. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(F)]
- Electrical apparatus for [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(G)]:
- Signs of excessive deterioration
- Moisture accumulation
- Hydraulic system for proper fluid level. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(H)]
- Tires for proper inflation and condition. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(I)]
- Ground conditions around the hoisting equipment for [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(J)]:
- Proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers.
- Ground water accumulation
- Similar conditions
- The hoisting equipment for level position. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(K)]
- The hoisting equipment for level position after each move and setup. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(i)(L)]
- If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(ii)]
- If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard, the hoisting equipment must be removed from service, until the deficiency has been corrected. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(1)(iii)]
- A qualified rigger (a rigger who is also a qualified person) must inspect the rigging prior to each shift in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.251. [29 CFR 1926.753(c)(2)]
- Routes for suspended loads must be preplanned to ensure that no employee is required to work directly below a suspended load, except for 29 CFR 1926.753(d)(1):
- When employees work under suspended loads, the following criteria must be met [29 CFR 1926.753(d)(2)]:
- Materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement. [29 CFR 1926.753(d)(2)(i)]
- Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent must be used to prevent components from slipping out of the hook. [29 CFR 1926.753(d)(2)(ii)]
- All loads must be rigged by a qualified rigger. [29 CFR 1926.753(d)(2)(iii)]
- A multiple lift may be performed only if the following criteria are met [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)]:
- A multiple-lift rigging assembly is used. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)(i)]
- A maximum of five members are hoisted per lift. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)(ii)]
- Only beams and similar structural members are lifted. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)(iii)]
- All employees engaged in the multiple lift have been trained in these procedures in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.761(c)(1). [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)(iv)]
- No crane is permitted to be used for a multiple lift where such use is contrary to the manufacturer's specifications and limitations. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(1)(v)]
- Multiple-lift rigging assembly capacity, for the total assembly and for each individual attachment point, must [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(2)]:
- Be certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger.
- Be based on the manufacturer's specifications.
- Have a 5-to-1 safety factor for all components.
- The total load must not exceed:
- The multiple-lift rigging assembly must be rigged with members:
- The members on the multiple-lift rigging assembly must be set in position from the bottom up. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(5)]
- Controlled load lowering must be used whenever the load is over the connectors. [29 CFR 1926.753(e)(6)]
Commercially manufactured lifting equipment designed to lift and position a load of known weight to a location at some known elevation and horizontal distance from the equipment’s center of rotation.
A "come-a-long" (a mechanical device usually consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end, that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage) is not considered "hoisting equipment."