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Standards

State Standards

Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans, which are required to be at least as effective as Federal OSHA, but may adopt their own standards and enforcement policies. However, most have adopted standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. Other federal standards related to agricultural operations are included for reference.

Powered industrial trucks are addressed in specific standards for the general industry, construction, marine terminals, and longshoring. This section highlights OSHA standards, Federal Register documents (rules, proposed rules, and notices), directives (instructions for compliance officers), and standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to powered industrial trucks. OSHA compliance information that applies to specific activities is also available, including: Loading and Unloading, Working with Hazardous Materials, and Vehicle Maintenance. For additional citation information by industry group, see Frequently Cited OSHA Standards. Standards published by other federal agencies, as well as, consensus standards related to powered industrial truck hazards are included for reference.

General Industry (29 CFR 1910)

Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917)

  • 1917.43, Powered industrial trucks
  • 1917.44, General rules applicable to vehicles
  • 1917.50, Certification exception for powered industrial trucks (see also mandatory appendix I, of this part)
  • Longshoring Industry (PDF). OSHA Publication 2232 (2001). Contains all the safety and health standards concerning the marine terminal and longshoring industries, as contained in 29 CFR 1917 and 29 CFR 1918 as of June 30, 2000.

Longshoring (29 CFR 1918)

  • 1918.65, Mechanically powered vehicles used aboard vessels
  • Longshoring Industry (PDF). OSHA Publication 2232 (2001). Contains all the safety and health standards concerning the marine terminal and longshoring industries, as specified by 29 CFR 1917 and 29 CFR 1918 as of June 30, 2000.

OSHA Federal Registers

OSHA Directives: Instructions to OSHA staff

OSHA Enforcement Standard Interpretations

Other Federal Agency's Standards and Guidance

Other Federal agencies have standards relevant to powered industrial trucks. The following is an overview of the major laws enacted, regulations, training requirements, and other resources:

US Department of Labor (DOL)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

US Department of Transportation (DOT)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

DOT regulations focus on the transportation requirements for "hazardous materials," which include low-level radioactive waste. These regulations govern, for example, the types of containers that must be used for various materials, labeling on containers and vehicles, and papers that must accompany each shipment.

  • 49 CFR 107, Hazardous materials program procedures
  • 49 CFR 171, General information, regulations, and definitions
  • 49 CFR 172, Hazardous materials table, special provisions, hazardous materials communications, emergency response information, and training requirements. In 1992, Congress passed amendments to 49 CFR, Subpart H of Part 172.704 and 49 CFR 173.1, in which Congress directed OSHA to develop a standard to protect workers involved with loading, unloading, handling, marking, labeling, preparing, or representing or transporting hazardous materials that are listed in DOT's List of Hazardous Substances and Reportable Quantities:
    • 49 CFR 172.704, Training Requirements. Specify differing amounts of training depending on job function and role.
      • 49 CFR 172.704(a)(1). Includes shipping papers, the DOT Hazardous Materials Table, packaging and shipping materials, and the safe loading and unloading of hazardous materials.
      • 49 CFR 172.704 (a)(3). Includes identifying hazardous materials, self-protection and employer-provided protection methods, emergency response procedures, and transportation mode-specific training.
      • 49 CFR 172.704 (a)(4). Includes the new requirement for security awareness training and how to recognize and respond to possible security threats; employers must provide this training to employees within 90 days of employment.
      • 49 CFR 172.704 (a)(5). Contains the new requirements for in-depth security awareness training, including a company security plan, company security objectives, employee responsibilities, actions to take in the event of a security breach, and the organizational security structure.
      • OSHA-required, EPA-required, and other training provided by employers may be used to satisfy the training requirements specified in 49 CFR 172.704(a) to the extent that such training addresses the training components.
  • 49 CFR 173, Shippers - General requirements for shipments and packaging. The training requirements specify different amounts of classroom training for workers subject to the standards according to their job functions and roles they may serve.
  • 49 CFR 174, Carriage by rail
  • 49 CFR 175, Carriage by aircraft
  • 49 CFR 176, Carriage by vessel
  • 49 CFR 177, Carriage by public highway
  • 49 CFR 178, Specifications for packagings
  • Regulations. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA).

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

EPA's mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment-air, water, and land-upon which life depends. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution-prevention programs and energy-conservation efforts.

Radioactive Material

It is estimated that more than 4 million packages containing radioactive material are transported in commerce annually in the United States. To date, there have been no known deaths or serious injuries to transport workers, emergency services personnel, or the general public as a result of commercially transporting radioactive material. This safety record can be attributed to the proper packaging of radioactive material and the effectiveness of the transportation safety standards and regulations.

  • 40 CFR 264, Standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Includes the training requirements of 40 CFR 264.16.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

Radioactive Material

NRC regulations establish licensing requirements for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and standards for packaging and shipping low-level radioactive waste. A commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility must obtain a license from the NRC before it can begin operations. 10 CFR 61 establishes the standards for issuing a license to a low-level waste disposal facility. The training requirements for workers are:

  • 10 CFR 19, Notices, instructions and reports to workers: inspection and investigations. Includes the training requirements found in 10 CFR 19.12.
Consensus Standards and Recommendations from other Professional Organizations

Voluntary standards help the government fulfill its mandate to ensure public safety and health, and to provide sound technical solutions to critical issues, without creating additional cost and operations burdens. Organizations that develop national consensus standards, including those organizations addressing powered industrial trucks, include:

Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation (ITSDF)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

B56 Standards. Copies of these standards are available for free download upon request:

  • ANSI/ITSDF B56.1 Safety Standard for Low Lift and High Lift Trucks. This standard became effective 10/7/2010. This Standard defines the safety requirements relating to the elements of design, operation, and maintenance of low lift and high lift powered industrial trucks controlled by a riding or walking operator, and intended for use on compacted, improved surfaces.
  • B56.6-2005, Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks (2005). Defines the safety requirements related to the elements of design, operation, and maintenance of rough-terrain forklift trucks. These trucks are for operation on unimproved natural terrain, as well as the disturbed terrain of construction sites.
    • B56.6, Interpretations (2006).
  • B56.10-2006, Safety Standard for Manually Propelled High Lift Industrial Trucks (2006). Defines the safety requirements related to the design, operation, and maintenance of manually propelled high-lift industrial trucks controlled by a walking operator, and used on level, improved surfaces.
  • B56.11.4-2005, Hook-Type Forks and Fork Carriers for Powered Industrial Forklift Trucks (2005). Includes standards related to hook-type fork carriers and the attaching elements of fork arms and load-handling attachments for forklift trucks, for trucks with manufacturers' rated capacities of up to, and including, 11,000 kg (24,000 lb).
  • B56.11.6-2005, Evaluation of Visibility from Powered Industrial Trucks (2005). Establishes the conditions, procedures, equipment, and acceptability criteria for evaluating visibility from powered industrial trucks. It applies to internal combustion engine-powered and electric-powered high-lift, counterbalanced, sit-down rider industrial trucks up to, and including, 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) capacity.
  • B56.11.7-2005, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fuel Cylinders (Horizontal or Vertical) Mounting - Liquid Withdrawal (2005). Establishes dimensions for LPG fuel cylinders used on powered industrial trucks.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

  • NFPA-30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (2008). Identifies how to properly use, contain, and store flammable and combustible liquids.
  • NFPA-58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code (2008). Identifies requirements for all large tank installations, operating and maintenance procedures, and fire safety analyses.
  • NFPA-505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, and Operations (2006). Identifies industrial truck types for use in hazardous (classified) locations, truck conversions, and maintenance and operation requirements for industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
  • Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials (2001). Contains much of the data contained in NFPA documents derived from hundreds of reference sources.
    • NFPA-49, Hazardous Chemicals Data. Identifies 325 chemicals in Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) format.
    • NFPA-325, Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids. Identifies over 1,300 chemicals in tabular format listing various data.
    • NFPA-491, Guide for Hazardous Chemical Reactions. Identifies 3,550 dangerous mixtures documented from real-life incidents.
    • NFPA-497, Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas (2008). Contains detailed guidelines and diagrams that assist in Class I hazardous (classified) area classification for the purpose of properly selecting and installing electrical equipment that will not be an ignition source in environments where flammable or combustible liquids, gases, or vapors are processed or handled.
    • NFPA-704, Standard for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response. (2007). Provides a readily recognized and easily understood system, the "Diamond Hazard" for identifying specific hazards and their severity. Hazards are identified using spatial, visual, and numerical methods to describe in simple terms the relative hazards of a material. It addresses the health, flammability, instability, and related hazards that may be presented as short-term, acute exposures that are most likely to occur as a result of a fire, spill, or similar emergency.

      Data and information has also been extracted from the following documents:

      • NFPA-77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity. Identifies combustibility parameters and static electric characteristics.
      • NFPA-430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers (2004). Identifies oxidizer classifications for 90 chemicals.
      • NFPA-499, Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas. Identifies parameters to determine the degree and extent of hazardous locations for dusts, including National Electric Code (NEC) groups.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

  • TC 110 Industrial Trucks
    • TC 110/SC 1 General terminology
      • 5053:1987, Powered industrial trucks - Terminology
    • TC 110/SC 2 Safety of powered industrial trucks
      • 509:1996, Pallet trucks - Principal dimensions
      • 938:1975, Hand-operated stillage trucks - Principal dimensions
      • 1044:1993, Industrial trucks - Lead-acid traction batteries for electric trucks - Preferred voltages
      • 1074:1991, Counterbalanced fork-lift trucks - Stability tests
      • 1756:1975, Industrial trucks - Dimensions of stillages - Connection gauge
      • 2328:2007, Fork-lift trucks - Hook-on type fork arms and fork arm carriages - Mounting dimensions
      • 2330:2002, Fork-lift trucks - Fork arms - Technical characteristics and testing
      • 2331:1974, Fork lift trucks - Hook-on type fork arms - Vocabulary
      • 3184:1998, Reach and straddle fork-lift trucks - Stability tests
        • 3184:1998/Cor 1:2000
      • 3287:1999, Powered industrial trucks - Symbols for operator controls and other displays
      • 3691:1980, Powered industrial trucks - Safety code
        • ISO 3691:1980/Amd 1:1983
      • 3739-3:1995, Industrial tyres and rims - Part 3: Rims
      • 5057:1993, Industrial trucks - Inspection and repair of fork arms in service on fork-lift trucks
      • 5766:1990, Pallet stackers and high-lift platform trucks - Stability tests
      • 5767:1992, Industrial trucks operating in special condition of stacking with mast tilted forward - Additional stability test
        • 5767:1992/Amd 1:1999
      • 6055:2004, Industrial trucks - Overhead guards - Specification and testing
      • 6292:1996, Powered industrial trucks and tractors - Brake performance and component strength
      • 8379:1998, Rough terrain trucks - Stability tests
      • 10525:1997, Counterbalanced trucks handling freight containers of 6 m (20 ft) length and above - Additional stability tests
      • 13562-1:2000, Industrial variable-reach trucks - Part 1: Stability tests
      • 13562-2:2001, Industrial variable-reach trucks - Part 2: Additional stability tests for trucks handling freight containers of 6 m length and above
      • 13563-1:2001, Single side loading fork-lift trucks - Part 1: Stability tests
      • 13563-2:2001, Single side loading fork-lift trucks - Part 2: Additional stability tests for trucks handling freight containers of 6 m length and above
      • 15794:2001, Bi-directional and multi-directional fork-lift trucks - Stability tests
      • 15870:2000, Powered industrial trucks - Safety signs and hazard pictorials - General principles
      • 15871:2000, Industrial trucks - Specifications for indicator lights for container handling and grappler arm operations
    • TC 110/SC 4 Rough-terrain trucks

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.

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