with OSHA's truck designations and hazardous location classifications. Only use
powered industrial trucks that have the correct designation for the location's
classification. Post signs in hazardous areas. [29
Figure 2. Posted
chemical hazard area.
OSHA Powered Industrial Truck Designations
The OSHA standard
specifies 11 designations of powered industrial trucks [29
- D. Diesel powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire
Diesel powered units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and
Diesel powered units that have all the safeguards of DS units, plus do not have
any electrical equipment including the ignition. They have temperature
- E. Electrically powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent
Electrically powered units with additional safeguards to the electrical system
to prevent emission of hazardous sparks and to limit surface temperatures.
Electrically powered units that have all the safeguards of the E and ES units,
plus the electric motor and all other electrical equipment are completely
- EX. Electrically powered units with electrical fittings and equipment designed,
constructed, and assembled so that the units can be used in certain atmospheres
containing flammable vapors or dusts.
- G. Gasoline powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire
Gasoline powered units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and
Liquefied petroleum gas units with minimal acceptable safeguards against
inherent fire hazards.
Liquefied petroleum gas units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel,
and electrical systems.
The OSHA standard [29
CFR 1910.178(c), see Table N-1] provides a listing of classified locations
where trucks with each type of designation can operate.
When used indoors, forklifts powered
with internal combustion engines can present indoor air quality hazards. Cold
weather, with the closing of doors and windows, may increase the risk.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
- Do not operate a gasoline/propane/diesel engine for long periods of time in
a confined area, such as a truck trailer
- Shut the engine off when staying inside a small confined area like a trailer.
- Do not operate a combustion engine within a warehouse, plant or onboard ship without adequate ventilation.
- Be careful in cold weather. Doors and windows which are normally open may be closed and exhaust and other
gases may concentrate.
- Be careful in small rooms or blocked off areas where gases may accumulate.
- Drive sensibly. Avoid racing the engine or idling for long periods of time.
- Properly maintain engines and do not operate an engine requiring servicing.
- Consider switching to battery-powered forklifts, if much of the work is in
poorly ventilated spaces or operators may be over-exposed to exhaust byproducts.
- Consider upgrading the ventilation system.
- Install CO monitors to detect levels.
Note: Special Precautions Onboard Ship
Figure 3. Powered
industrial truck engaged in roll-on roll-off (Ro-Ro) operations and subject to
29 CFR 1915.12.
If the space to be entered contains an oxygen deficient atmosphere, the space shall be labeled "Not Safe for Workers"
or, if oxygen-enriched, "Not Safe for Workers - Not Safe for Hot Work." If an oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched
atmosphere is found, ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the oxygen content is
maintained at or above 19.5 percent and below 22.0 percent by volume. The warning label may be removed when the oxygen content
is equal to or greater than 19.5 and less than 22.0 percent by volume.
For additional information, see the
Materials Handling: Hoisting and Hauling Equipment module of the Shipyard
powered with internal combustion engines can cause high levels of carbon
monoxide in enclosed work areas.
Figure 4. Danger
of carbon monoxide poisoning in confined spaces.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
- Unconsciousness and death may result from carbon monoxide overexposure as the
concentration in the bloodstream rises.
- Train employees to recognize the warning signs of excessive exposure.
- Learn to recognize the symptoms and signs of carbon monoxide overexposure.
- Be especially aware of the dangers onboard ship.