Page last reviewed: 05/15/2007
- OSHA issues final rule to broaden exemption for digger derricks in its Cranes and Derricks standard. OSHA News Release, (2013, May 28).
- OSHA issues final rule to protect workers using cranes and derricks in demolition and underground construction. OSHA News Release, (2013, April 23).
- Stakeholder Meetings on Crane Operator Certification Requirements
- Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Final Rule for Cranes and Derricks in Construction. OSHA Publication 3433-05, (2011).
Subpart CC – Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Qualified Rigger
[45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, October).
Subpart CC – Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Signal Person Qualification
[45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, October).
- US Department of Labor's OSHA publishes final rule on cranes and derricks in construction. OSHA News Release, (2010, July 28)
- Federal Register [2 MB PDF*, 273 pages]. The Office of the Federal Register published the final rule on August 9, 2010. Effective date is Nov. 8, 2010.
- Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, July 28).
- Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule. OSHA. Issues rules on Cranes and Derricks in Construction to provide protection to workers.
Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety
Moving large, heavy loads is crucial to today's
manufacturing and construction industries. Much technology has been developed
for these operations, including careful training and extensive workplace
precautions. There are significant safety issues to be considered, both for the
operators of the diverse "lifting" devices, and for workers in proximity to
them. This page is a starting point for finding information about these devices,
including elevators and conveyors, and their operation.
Crane, derrick, and hoist safety hazards are addressed in specific standards for the general industry, marine terminals, longshoring, gear certification, and the construction industry.
This section highlights OSHA standards, the Regulatory Agenda (a list of actions being taken with regard to OSHA standards), Federal Registers (rules, proposed rules, and notices), directives (instructions for compliance officers), and standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to crane, derrick, and hoist safety.
Note: Twenty-five states,
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their
own standards and enforcement policies. For the most
part, these States adopt standards that are identical
to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted
different standards applicable to this topic or may
have different enforcement policies.
General Industry (29
Marine Terminals (29 CFR
Longshoring (29 CFR
1918 Subpart F, Vessel's cargo handling gear
- 1918 Subpart
G, Cargo handling gear and equipment
other than ship's gear
1918.62, Miscellaneous auxiliary gear
1918.66, Cranes and derricks other than vessel's
- 1918 Subpart
H, Handling cargo
- 1918 Subpart
I, General working conditions
1918.98, Qualifications of machinery operators and
- 1918 Subpart
J, Personal protective equipment
1918.105, Other protective measures
Appendix I, Cargo gear register and
Gear Certification (29
1919.2, Definition of terms
1919.12, Recordkeeping and related procedures
concerning records in custody of the vessel
1919.15, Periodic tests, examinations and
1919.16, Heat treatment
1919.21, Marking and posting of safe working loads
1919.24, Limitations on use of wire rope
1919.28, Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory
1919.73, Unit proof test and examination of derricks
1919.75, Determination of crane or derrick safe
working loads and limitations in absence of manufacturer's
Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)
1926 Subpart K, Electrical
Specific purpose equipment and installations
1926 Subpart N, Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
[Reserved], Federal Register, 75 FR 48134
Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators
Base-mounted drum hoists
1926 Subpart V, Power transmission and distribution
Material handling. Regulations for crane and
hoist signaling will be found in applicable American National
Standards Institute standards.
For additional information related to construction, see OSHA's Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule page.
- Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Revising the Exemption for Digger Derricks. Final Rule 78:32110-32116, (2013, May 28). OSHA published a direct final rule and a companion notice of proposed rulemaking on November 9, 2012, to broaden the exemption for digger derricks in its construction standard for cranes and derricks. OSHA received a significant adverse comment on the direct final rule during the comment period, and as a result, OSHA withdrew the direct final rule on February 7, 2013. After considering this comment, OSHA is issuing this final rule based on the notice of proposed rulemaking.
- Cranes and Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Underground Construction and Demolition. Final Rule 78: 23837-23843, (2013, April 23). The effective date of the final rule is May 23, 2013.
- Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Revising the Exemption for Digger Derricks. Withdrawl of Direct Final Rule 78: 8985, (2013, February 7).
- Revising the Exemption for Digger Derricks in the Cranes and Derricks in Construction Standard. Final Rule 77:67270-67276, (2012, November 9).
- Cranes and Derricks in Construction. Final Rule 75:47905-48177, (2010, August 9). The effective date of the final rule was November 8, 2010.
- Safety Standards for Cranes and Derricks. Proposed Rules 69:27870, (2004, May 17). OSHA announced that the Crane and Derrick Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee (C-DAC) extended the dates and times of the June meeting in Phoenix, AZ. The meeting will be on June 1, 2, 3 and 4, 2004.
- Safety Standards for Cranes and Derricks. Meeting 69:22748-22749, (2004, April 27). OSHA announces a meeting of the Crane and Derrick Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee on June 2, 3, and 4.
- Safety Standards for Cranes and Derricks. Meeting 69:12098, (2004, March 15). Notice of cancellation of March 29, 30, and 31, 2004 Crane and Derrick Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee meeting.
- Safety Standards for Cranes and Derricks. Notice 68:35172, (2003, June 12).
- Safety Standards for Cranes and Derricks. Notice 68:9036-9037, (2003, February 27). Links to a notice of proposed Negotiated Rulemaking Committee membership; request for comments. Comments must be received by March 31, 2003.
Search all available Federal Registers.
Maritime Cargo Gear Standards and 29 CFR Part 1919 Certification. CPL 02-01-055, (2013, September 30). Provides national, regional and area offices, interested industry groups, and
State and federal agencies guidance concerning OSHA’s policy and procedures on the enforcement of standards and the requirements for 29 CFR Part 1919 Gear Certification in the maritime industry (shipyard employment, marine terminals and longshoring operations).
- 29 CFR 1926.605(a)(1) as Applied to Marine Construction. STD 03-13-002 [STD 3-13.2], (1982, July 15). Discusses testing and certification of construction equipment used to handle
- Interpretation of "Normal Operating Conditions" for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, and Derricks. STD 03-12-004 [STD 3-12.4], (1982, February 8).
- Search all available directives.
- A worm drive gearbox is not considered to be a holding brake. (2005, November 15).
- Holding brake requirements on overhead cranes. (1996, November 8).
- Interpretation of the overhead and gantry cranes standard. (1996, September 26).
- The use of crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms (CDSPP) during stack
and chimney erection. (1995, September 5).
- The new fall protection provisions of Subpart M and their application to various types of aerial lifts. (1995, March 27).
- PPM crane repairs. (1995, January 18). Repair of a crane boom without manufacturer authorization.
- Crane overload tests must be performed according to the manufacturers specifications and limitations. (1993, November 10).
- Suspended personnel platforms. (1993, February 17).
of cranes used at a construction site. (1993, February 1).
- Use of personnel platforms suspended from cranes and derricks. (1992, March 3).
- Elevator Hazards During Construction. (1992, February 25).
Use of crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms. (1992, February 18).
Cardiovascular Stress and the use of Crane or Derrick Suspended Personnel Platforms. (1992, February 18).
- Use of Cranes to Lift Personnel in Drilled Pier Operations. (1992, January 28).
- Construction crane certifications. (1981, August 18).
- Search all available standard interpretations.
Hazards and Solutions
To a crane operator, few experiences may be as frightening as when a crane becomes unbalanced while a load is being lifted or when the crane collapses under the weight of an excessive load. The following references aid in recognizing and evaluating hazards in the workplace.
- Subpart CC – Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Qualified Rigger [45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, October).
Subpart CC – Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Signal Person Qualification [45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, October).
- Construction. OSHA eTool. A Spanish version is also available. Helps workers identify and control the hazards that cause the most serious
- Working Outdoors in Warm Climates [26 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2005, September).
- Construction Resource Manual: Table of Contents. OSHA. Includes links to various sections on crane and hoist safety.
- Crane Safety Awareness For Site Superintendents. OSHA Video. Discusses some of the hazards and risks involved in crane operations and identifies information managers should be familiar with if cranes are operating on their site.
- DOE-STD-1090-2011; Hoisting and Rigging Standard (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), (2011, September 30). Provides a table of contents to a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites.
- Wildfires. OSHA. Includes links to OSHA fact sheets & QuickCards, related Safety and Health Topics Pages, training programs, and other resources.
- Hurricane Preparedness and Response. OSHA. Includes information such as news releases, public service announcements, fact sheets, frequently asked questions, and more.
- For additional information, see OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Pages on:
OSHA Bulletins (SHIBs), (HIBs) and (TIBs)
- Hazards of Transporting, Unloading, Storing and Handling Granite, Marble and Stone Slabs. (2008, August 12).
- Overhead Launching Gantry Crane. (2006, May 1). Also available as a 79 KB PDF, 4 pages.
- Hazards of Manually Lifting Balloon Framed Walls. (2005, November 17). Also available as a 58 KB PDF, 3 pages.
- Hazards Associated with Transporting Granite and Marble Slabs. (2005, September 8). Also available as a 38 KB PDF, 3 pages.
- Key Switch Controlled Elevating and Rotating Aerial Lifts. (2002, April 11). Also available as a 15 KB PDF, 3 pages. Informs users of aerial lifts that emergency rescue of employees on the lifts can be delayed.
- Retrofit of Boom Pin Retention Assembly on Digger Derricks and Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms. (1998, May 5).
- Improper Support of an Elevator Car During Installation. (1995, June 22). OSHA investigated a fatality involving an elevator car sling and platform (these are also known as platforms, car frames and platforms, car slings, car frames, and safety planks) which was improperly supported during the erection and installation of a traction elevator.
- Link-Belt Model LS-718 Crawler Crane. (1994, January 31).
- Crane Modifications. (1993, April 19). Discusses hazardous conditions created as a result of modifications for "auger piling" operations.
- Use of Improperly Sized Wedges and Sockets in Boom Anchor Systems. (1992, July 13).
- Use of Merrill-Chinbro Beam Clamps. (1989, March 1).
- Lorain Hydraulic Rough Terrain Cranes. (1985, November 8).
OSHA and the Crane, Hoist and Monorail Alliance
- Fact Sheet No. 1: Proper Inspection and Maintenance of Overhead Cranes and Hoists [47 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Describes standards, reference manuals
and safety tips for the application and operation of overhead material handling equipment. A Spanish version [47 KB PDF*, 1 page] is also available.
- Fact Sheet No. 2: Hoists, Cranes and Pullers - Safety & Warning Labels and Test Certification [45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Identifies items that operators and inspectors need to know when purchasing, installing or using hoist, crane
and puller equipment. A Spanish version [46 KB PDF*, 1 page] is also available.
- Safety Tips Sheet No. 1: Proper use of Hand Signals for cab-controlled cranes [76 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Includes nine industry standard hand signals that are used for communication between the operator in the crane’s cab and the floor person.
- Safety Tips Sheet No. 2: Pre-operational equipment check of Cranes and Hoists [37 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Includes a pre-operational equipment checklist for cranes and
- Safety Tips Sheet No. 3: Safe Lifting Practices [45 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Describes safe
lifting practices for moving loads of material. A Spanish version [46 KB PDF*, 1 page] is also available.
- Safety Tips Sheet No. 4: Hoist Operation [36 KB PDF
*, 1 page]. Describes what an
operator should and should not do while operating a hoist.
Related Safety and Health Topics Pages
- Safe Work Australia. Australian Government. Provides several publications related to crane and hoist operations which can be found through the search page.
Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.
*These files are provided for downloading.