Due to the time lapse between exposure and the onset of symptoms following a bioterrorist attack, such attacks are difficult to determine and control. With the rapid transit network in the U.S., people could be exposed in one area and then return home before developing symptoms, potentially exposing hundreds of other people. The following references provide ways to prepare for responding to a bioterrorist attack, including state and federal disease surveillance and epidemiology, stockpiling vaccine for emergency use, mass vaccination of first responders, and training for medical personnel.
Biological Warfare: A Nation at Risk - A Time to Act (PDF). National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies No. 58, (January 1996). Provides insights on the prospect of biological warfare. Examines the issue from the perspective of U.S. enemies. Suggests what preparation needs to be done in the future in defense against bioterrorism.
Bioterrorism Readiness Plan: A Template for Healthcare Facilities (PDF). Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC) Bioterrorism Task Force and CDC Hospital Infections Program Bioterrorism Working Group, (April 13, 1999). Aids individual healthcare institutions in the preparation of bioterrorism readiness plans.
Russell, Phillip K. "Vaccines in Civilian Defense Against Bioterrorism." Pages 531-533.
Discusses the feasibility of using immunizations as a defense against bioterrorism, both at the military and general public level. It calls special attention to the feasibility of administering smallpox and anthrax vaccines to the general public.
Secretary Thompson Testifies on Bioterrorism Preparedness. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), (October 3, 2001). Includes statements made by DHHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson before the Senate
Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies concerning bioterrorism preparedness.
HHS Accelerates Bioterrorism Research. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institutes of Health, (December 6, 2001). Provides information regarding initiatives to accelerate bioterrorism research and help strengthen the nation's ability to deal with the public health threat posed by bioterrorism.
All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.
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