Due to the time lapse between exposure and the onset of symptoms following a bioterrorist attack, such attacks are difficult to determine and control. With the rapid transit network in the U.S., people could be exposed in one area and then return home before developing symptoms, potentially exposing hundreds of other people. The following references provide ways to prepare for responding to a bioterrorist attack, including state and federal disease surveillance and epidemiology, stockpiling vaccine for emergency use, mass vaccination of first responders, and training for medical personnel.
- Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2002-139, (May 2002). Identifies actions that a building owner or manager can implement without undue delay to enhance occupant protection from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attack.
- Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO guidance. World Health Organization (WHO), (2004). Addresses public health issues surrounding a chemical/biological attack, and provides risk management principles for planning a response to such an attack. Also describes international sources of assistance.
- Biological Warfare: A Nation at Risk - A Time to Act. National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies No. 58, (January 1996). Provides insights on the prospect of biological warfare. Examines the issue from the perspective of U.S. enemies. Suggests what preparation needs to be done in the future in defense against bioterrorism.
- Bioterrorism Readiness Plan: A Template for Healthcare Facilities. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC) Bioterrorism Task Force and CDC Hospital Infections Program Bioterrorism Working Group, (April 13, 1999). Aids individual healthcare institutions in the preparation of bioterrorism readiness plans.
- "Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4(August 1999). Contains articles on a wide range of issues related to bioterrorism.
- McDade, Joseph E. "Addressing the Potential Threat of Bioterrorism - Value Added to an Improved Public Health Infrastructure." Pages 591-592. Addresses the benefits of preparing for a bioterrorist attack.
- Hamburg, Margaret A. "Addressing Bioterrorist Threats: Where Do We Go From Here?" Pages 564-565. Describes what needs to be done at local, state, and federal levels to prepare for a bioterrorist attack.
- Russell, Phillip K. "Vaccines in Civilian Defense Against Bioterrorism." Pages 531-533. Discusses the feasibility of using immunizations as a defense against bioterrorism, both at the military and general public level. It calls special attention to the feasibility of administering smallpox and anthrax vaccines to the general public.
- Shalala, Donna E. "Bioterrorism: How Prepared Are We?" Pages 492-493. Addresses what government organizations must do to prepare for a bioterrorist attack.
- Stern, Jessica. "The Prospect of Domestic Bioterrorism." Pages 517-522. Addresses the main factors that motivate and inhibit bioterrorist groups.
- Kaufman, Arnold F., Martin I. Meltzer, and George P. Schmid. "The Economic Impact of a Bioterrorist Attack: Are Prevention and Postattack Intervention Programs Justifiable?" Emerging Infectious Diseases 3.2(June 1997). Includes cost analyses of bioterrorist attacks with Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, and Francisella tularensis.