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Crystalline Silica Rulemaking

Inhalation of very small (respirable) crystalline silica particles puts workers at risk for silicosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and kidney disease. OSHA recently released a proposed rule to protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica.

This is a proposal, not a final rule. OSHA encourages the public to participate in development of the rule by submitting comments and participating in public hearings. Your input will help OSHA develop a rule that ensures healthy working conditions for employees and is feasible for employers.

"Exposure to silica can be deadly, and limiting that exposure is essential. Every year, many exposed workers not only lose their ability to work, but also to breathe. This proposal is expected to prevent thousands of deaths from silicosis – an incurable and progressive disease – as well as lung cancer, other respiratory diseases, and kidney disease. Workers affected by silica are fathers, mothers, sisters and brothers lost to entirely preventable illnesses. We're looking forward to public comment on the proposal."

Dr. David Michaels Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health

OSHA estimates that the proposed rule will save nearly 700 lives and prevent 1,600 new cases of silicosis per year, once the full effects of the rule are realized.

The proposed rule is the result of extensive review of scientific evidence relating to the health risks of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, analysis of the diverse industries where worker exposure to crystalline silica occurs, and robust outreach efforts to affected stakeholders. OSHA carefully considered current industry consensus standards on crystalline silica exposure, recommendations from small business representatives, and input from other interested parties and partner agencies in developing the proposed rule.

OSHA currently enforces 40-year-old permissible exposure limits (PELs) for crystalline silica in general industry, construction and shipyards that are outdated, inconsistent between industries, and do not adequately protect worker health. The proposed rule brings protections into the 21st century.

"The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is pleased to join with Dr. Michaels and our partners in labor and industry in OSHA's announcement of the notice of proposed rulemaking on occupational exposure to crystalline silica. NIOSH has a long history of research and recommendations on preventing worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica. Ensuring the health and safety of all workers is an important part of ensuring a strong economy and future economic growth."

Dr. John Howard Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Select from the tabs at the top of the page to learn more about the proposed rule and ways you can contribute during the rulemaking process.

Without proper engineering controls, workers can be exposed to harmful levels of respirable crystalline silica that can cause silicosis, lung cancer, and other lung and kidney diseases (below)

Saw cutting Images

Courtesy New Jersey Department of Health

Applying water to a saw blade when cutting materials that contain crystalline silica — such as stone, rock, concrete, brick, and block — substantially reduces the amount of dust created during these operations (right)

Saw cutting Images

Courtesy Husqvarna AB

Silica Rulemaking Information/Press/Statements

News Releases


Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Dr. David Michaels' Opening Statement at Silica Hearing [3/18/14]

Statements on Announcement of Proposed Rule:

Silica Blog

FACT SHEET: OSHA's Proposed Crystalline Silica Rule: Overview [PDF* 430 KB] ] En español [PDF* 375 KB]

FACT SHEET: Construction [PDF* 445 KB] En español [PDF* 428 KB]

FACT SHEET: General Industry & Maritime [PDF* 525 KB] En español [PDF* 497 KB]

FACT SHEET: Information for Small Businesses [PDF* 485 KB] En español [PDF* 449 KB]

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) [PDF* 183 KB]

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM)
The NPRM is OSHA's formal notice of regulatory action related to Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica. The NPRM contains some background information on analyses related to the proposed rule, as well as the proposed regulatory text. OSHA welcomes public comments on the NPRM.

Health Effects & Risk Assessment Background Documents [PDF* 2.28 MB]
As part of the rulemaking process, OSHA carefully evaluated health effects of and the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with occupational exposure to crystalline silica. A Health Effects Supplement [PDF*] contains OSHA's assessment of additional literature published after its preliminary analysis was complete. OSHA welcomes public comments on these background documents.

Preliminary Economic Analysis (PEA) [PDF* 12 MB]
The PEA details OSHA's estimation of costs, benefits, and other economic impacts of the proposed rule. OSHA welcomes public comments on the PEA.

Employment Analysis [PDF* 397 KB]
Inforum, an independent, not-for-profit research entity, estimated the industry and aggregate employment effects of the proposed silica rule

Federal Docket for Silica Rulemaking
Visit the federal docket folder on to examine supporting materials for the proposed rule and review comments submitted by other members of the public, workers and worker groups, affected industries, and other interested parties. However, some information (e.g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through that website. All submissions to the docket, including copyrighted material, are available for inspection and, where permissible, copying at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, Room N-2625, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210.

Hearing Information

Hearing Schedule

Hearing Procedures

Amendment to Hearing Procedures

Second Amendment to Hearing Procedures

Scientific and Technical Resources

Additional Resources

Safety & Health Topics Page on Crystalline Silica
OSHA's Safety & Health Topics page on Crystalline Silica is the Agency's main resource for information about silica hazards, health effects, control methods, and other standards applicable to protecting workers who are exposed to respirable crystalline silica on the job.

MSHA Silicosis Prevention web page
The Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) provides information about silica hazards specific to the mining industry. Miners and mine employers can find useful information about hazard identification and control from this page.

NIOSH Silica Information web page
The National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) has conducted extensive research about health hazard identification and control for respirable crystalline silica.

Archived Silica Web Chat


OSHA's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica was published in the Federal Register on September 12, 2013. The NPRM is available from the Federal Register in print (Document number: 2013-20997) or online at

2013 "Deadly Dust" Silica Video

Many American families have seen first-hand the tragic effects of silicosis. Watch OSHA's new "Deadly Dust" video to learn more about their stories and how dust control methods can help limit workers' exposure to crystalline silica.


Contractors adopt innovative concrete drill jig to reduce silica exposures during concrete drilling operations

Contractors adopt innovative concrete drill jig to reduce silica exposures during concrete drilling operations. Read more.

1938 "Stop Silicosis" Video

This 1938 video features former Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins (1933-1945), and describes both the hazards associated with silica exposure and the U.S. Department of Labor's early efforts to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for America's working men and women. Although tremendous progress has been made since this video was produced, evidence indicates that a substantial number of workers still suffer from silica-related diseases. This video is available for download at

What is Crystalline Silica?

Respirable crystalline silica – very small particles at least 100 times smaller than ordinary sand you might encounter on beaches and playgrounds – is created during work operations involving stone, rock, concrete, brick, block, mortar, and industrial sand. Exposures to respirable crystalline silica can occur when cutting, sawing, grinding, drilling, and crushing these materials. These exposures are common in brick, concrete, and pottery manufacturing operations, as well as during operations using industrial sand products, such as in foundries, sand blasting, and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations in the oil and gas industry.

* Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Standards and Guidance at (202) 693-1950 for assistance accessing DOC, PDF, PPT, MP3 or MP4 documents.

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