Hierarchy of Controls
Washington State Department of Labor and Industries Technical Report No. 21-3-1999, (August 1999). In this 1999 publication, Washington State Department of Labor and Industries defines hierarchy of controls as "a ranking of methods that can be used in the workplace to prevent or minimize worker exposures - from the most effective to the least effective. Conceptually, a workplace exposure can be visualized as a source of potentially hazardous material, and a pathway along which the hazardous material travels to reach and affect the worker. The exposures can be controlled by eliminating the source (product substitution), capturing the contaminant along the pathway (engineering controls), and finally controlling exposures at the worker (personal protective equipment [PPE], administrative controls, and personal hygiene). This ranking of controls applies to practically all workplace exposures, and is readily applicable to reproductive and developmental hazards."
General Reproductive Hazards
- Hospitals. OSHA eTool. Focuses on some of the hazards and controls found in the hospital setting and describes standard requirements as well as recommended safe work practices for employee safety and health.
Physical Reproductive Hazards
- 10 CFR 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation. The NRC requires licensees to maintain exposure to the fetus of an occupationally exposed individual to 500 mrem (5 mSv) or less during the gestation period.
- Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Develops and issues the Department of Energy's occupational radiation protection policy, requirements and guidance.
Chemical Reproductive Hazards
- Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide During Anesthetic Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-100, (1994). A Worker/Employer Summary Sheet is also available. Presents control measures for preventing or greatly reducing exposure to nitrous oxide during the administration of anesthetic gas.
- Update on Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, (August 1, 2016). A recent systematic review of existing programs and requirements.
- Ethylene Oxide. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2002). Provides exposure hazards including reproductive hazards with safety measures and controls outlined by the ethylene oxide standard.
- Ethylene Oxide Sterilizers in Health Care Facilities: Engineering Controls and Work Practices. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication 89-115 (Current Intelligence Bulletin 52), (July 1989). Describes exposure control methods for sterilizers, including Work Practice Guidelines, available to copy and post by sterilizers, supply cylinders, and mechanical access rooms.
- OSHA Technical Manual (OTM). OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A], (January 20, 1999).
- Hospital Investigations: Health Hazards. Deals briefly with the hazards of anesthetic agents and antineoplastic drug exposures in the hospital setting.
- Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic Agents. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic. In September 2004, NIOSH published an Alert: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Setting [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165] and this topic page is an expanded bibliography of related publications drawn from the published literature related to the Alert. Additional information on this topic can also be found on the NIOSH Hazardous Drug Exposures in Health Care topic page.
- NIOSH Warns: Nitrous Oxide Continues to Threaten Health Care Workers. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-118, (June 14, 1994). Warns health professionals that scavenging systems need to be continuously monitored and maintained to effectively reduce exposure to nitrous oxide.
- Anesthetic Gases: Guidelines for Workplace Exposures. OSHA, (Revised May 18, 2000). Provides preventive measures to help minimize hazards including reproductive hazards from exposure to anesthetic gases.
- For additional information on hazardous drugs, see OSHA's Hazardous Drugs Safety and Health Topics Page.
Biological Reproductive Hazards
- Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Provides a list of primary, CDC published, guidelines and recommendations for the prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections.
This topics page is not a standard or regulation and it creates no new legal obligations. It contains recommendations as well as descriptions of mandatory safety and health standards. The recommendations are advisory in nature, informational in content and are intended to assist employers in providing a safe and healthful workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act requires employers to comply with safety and health standards and regulations promulgated by OSHA or by a state with an OSHA-approved state plan. In addition, the Act’s General Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1), requires employers to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.