Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD) / Dirty Bombs
Frequently Asked Questions
The following questions link to information relevant to radiological dispersal devices (RDD)/dirty bombs.
How will clean-up workers be protected?
- Hazardous Waste. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page.
- Ionizing Radiation. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page.
What are dirty bombs and how are they hazardous?
- Fact Sheet on Dirty Bombs. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), (August 2010). Includes the following subsections: Background, Impact of a Dirty Bomb, Sources of Nuclear Material, Control of Nuclear Material, Increased Security of Nuclear Material, Response to a Dirty Bomb, and Federal Role.
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Dirty Bombs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emergency Preparedness & Response.
How will workers in the surrounding area be protected?
- Guidance for Protective Actions Following a Radiological Terrorist Event. Health Physics Society (HPS), (January 2004). A position statement from the Health Physics Society, a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose mission is to promote the practice of radiation safety.
- Background Information on "Guidance for Protective Actions Following a Radiological Terrorist Event". Provides background information on the position statement listed above.
How will first responders be protected?
- Working Group on Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Preparedness. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Medical Preparedness and Response Sub-Group, (May 1, 2003). Medical treatment of radiological casualties.
- Example Safety and Health Plans
- Radiological Emergency Response Team. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Responds to emergencies involving releases of radioactive materials from incidents at nuclear power plants, to transportation accidents involving shipments of radioactive materials, to deliberate acts of nuclear terrorism.
- U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
- Survey instrumentation and personal monitoring
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
- Medical Surveillance
- Key Elements of Preparing Emergency Responders for Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism. National Council for Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) Commentary 19, (2005).
How will health care workers be protected?
- Medical Management of Radiological Casualties. Military Medical Operations Office, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, (July 2013). A supplement to the Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation Course, offered by the U.S. Department of Defense for training health-care professionals in the management of uncontrolled ionizing radiation exposure.
- Initial Management of Irradiated or Radioactively Contaminated Personnel. U.S. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, (September 26, 2003). Provides direction to the Medical Department, civilian medical personnel of the naval services and Navy and Marine Corps commands for the initial exposure assessment, management, and treatment of individuals who are irradiated or externally or internally radioactively contaminated.
What organizations and authorities are involved in RDD response?
- Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Site Office. Gathers radiological information such as plume and deposition predictions, air and ground concentrations, exposure rates and dose projections, assurance of data quality, and current meteorological conditions and weather forecasts. FRMAC provides the results of the data collection, sample analysis, evaluations, assessments, and interpretations to the key decision makers in the affected areas of the emergency.
- U.S. National Response Team (NRT)
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- Emergency Response. Prepares for and responds to emergencies involving radioactive materials. In the event of a radiological emergency, EPA's Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT) works with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and international organizations to monitor, contain, and clean up the release while protecting people and the environment from harmful exposure to radiation.
- U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)
- U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)
What can be done to secure radioactive materials?
- State and Federal Action is Needed for Better Control of Orphan Sources. Health Physics Society (HPS), (April 2002). Provides recommendations regarding orphan sources-radioactive sources that have escaped institutional control, such as, sources that have been lost, stolen, or abandoned.
- Background Information on "State and Federal Action is Needed for Better Control of Orphan Sources". Health Physics Society (HPS), (April 2002).
- Professional Society of Radiation Specialists Supports Radioactive Source Legislation. Health Physics Society (HPS). Presents the HPS position on proposed radioactive source legislation.
- Guarding Nuclear Reactors and Materials from Terrorists and Thieves. Arms Control Association (ACA), (October 2001). Promotes more stringent physical protection standards for nuclear materials.