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[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 169 (Monday, August 31, 2020)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 53910-53999]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-18017]




Vol. 85

Monday,

No. 169

August 31, 2020

Part II





 Department of Labor





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 Occupational Safety and Health Administration





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29 CFR Parts 1915 and 1926





Occupational Exposure to Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds in 
Construction and Shipyard Sectors; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 169 / Monday, August 31, 2020 / Rules 
and Regulations



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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Parts 1915 and 1926

[Docket No. OSHA-H005C-2006-0870]
RIN 1218-AD29


Occupational Exposure to Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds in 
Construction and Shipyard Sectors

AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: OSHA is amending its existing construction and shipyard 
standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium 
compounds to clarify certain provisions and simplify or improve 
compliance. These changes are designed to accomplish three goals: to 
more appropriately tailor the requirements of the construction and 
shipyards standards to the particular exposures in these industries in 
light of partial overlap between the beryllium standards' requirements 
and other OSHA standards; to aid compliance and enforcement across the 
beryllium standards by avoiding inconsistency, where appropriate, 
between the shipyards and construction standards and recent revisions 
to the general industry standard; and to clarify certain requirements 
with respect to materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium. 
This final rule does not affect the general industry beryllium 
standard.

DATES: This rule is effective September 30, 2020.

ADDRESSES: For purposes of 28 U.S.C. 2112(a), OSHA designates Mr. 
Edmund C. Baird, Associate Solicitor of Labor for Occupational Safety 
and Health, to receive petitions for review of the final rule. Contact 
the Associate Solicitor at the Office of the Solicitor, Room S-4004, 
U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 
20210; telephone: (202) 693-5445.
    Copies of this Federal Register document and news releases: 
Electronic copies of these documents are available at OSHA's web page 
at https://www.osha.gov.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Press inquiries: Mr. Frank Meilinger, 
OSHA Office of Communications; telephone: (202) 693-1999; email: 
meilinger.francis2@dol.gov.
    General information and technical inquiries: Ms. Maureen Ruskin, 
Directorate of Standards and Guidance; telephone: (202) 693-1950; 
email: ruskin.maureen@dol.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Table of Contents

I. Background
II. Pertinent Legal Authority
III. Summary and Explanation of the Final Rule
IV. Final Economic Analysis
V. Economic Feasibility Analysis and Regulatory Flexibility 
Certification
VI. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995
VII. Federalism
VIII. State Plans
IX. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
X. Environmental Impacts
XI. Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments
Authority and Signature

I. Background

    On January 9, 2017, OSHA published its final rule Occupational 
Exposure to Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds in the Federal Register 
(82 FR 2470). The final rule established three comprehensive health 
standards to protect workers from occupational exposure to beryllium 
and beryllium compounds in the general industry (29 CFR 1910.1024), 
construction (29 CFR 1926.1124), and shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1024) 
sectors. In the final rule, OSHA concluded that employees exposed to 
beryllium and beryllium compounds at the preceding permissible exposure 
limits (PELs) were at significant risk of material impairment of 
health, specifically chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer. 
The agency further determined that limiting employee exposure to an 8-
hour time-weighted average (TWA) PEL of 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\ would reduce 
this significant risk to the maximum extent feasible. Therefore, the 
2017 final rule adopted a TWA PEL of 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\. In addition to 
the revised PEL, the 2017 final rule established a new short-term 
exposure limit (STEL) of 2.0 [micro]g/m\3\ over a 15-minute sampling 
period and an action level of 0.1 [micro]g/m\3\ as an 8-hour TWA, along 
with a number of ancillary provisions intended to provide additional 
protections to employees. The ancillary provisions included 
requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, 
respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, 
housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and 
recordkeeping that are similar to those found in other OSHA health 
standards. The 2017 final rule went into effect on May 20, 2017, and 
OSHA began enforcing the PEL and STEL in the construction and shipyard 
sectors on May 11, 2018. See Updated Interim Enforcement Guidance for 
the Beryllium Standards, available at https://www.osha.gov/laws-regs/standardinterpretations/2018-12-11.
    On June 27, 2017, based on stakeholder feedback and a review of 
applicable existing standards, OSHA published a notice of proposed 
rulemaking (NPRM) proposing to revoke the ancillary provisions for both 
the construction and shipyards standards while retaining the new lower 
PEL of 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\ and STEL of 2.0 [mu]g/m\3\ for those sectors 
(82 FR 29182).\1\ OSHA stated in the proposal that it was also 
considering extending the compliance dates in the January 9, 2017, 
final rule by a year for the construction and shipyard standards. OSHA 
reasoned that this potential extension would give affected employers 
additional time to come into compliance with the final rule's 
requirements, which could be warranted by the uncertainty created by 
the proposal. OSHA also stated in the proposal that it would not 
enforce the construction and shipyard standards without further notice 
while the rulemaking was underway.\2\
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    \1\ For a full discussion of the events leading to the proposed 
rule, see the preamble to the 2017 NPRM (82 FR at 29185-88).
    \2\ Subsequently, in March 2018, OSHA stated that it would begin 
enforcing the PEL and STEL on May 11, 2018 (see Memorandum for 
Regional Administrators, Delay of Enforcement of the Beryllium 
Standards under 29 CFR 1910.1024, 29 CFR 1915.1024, and 29 CFR 
1926.1124, Mar. 2, 2018, available at https://www.osha.gov/laws-regs/standardinterpretations/2018-03-02).
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    On May 7, 2018, OSHA issued a direct final rule (DFR) adopting a 
number of clarifying amendments to the general industry beryllium 
standard to address the application of that standard to materials 
containing trace amounts of beryllium (83 FR 19936). The DFR amended 
the text of the general industry standard to clarify OSHA's intent with 
respect to certain terms in the standard, including the definition of 
beryllium work area, the definition of emergency, and the meaning of 
the terms dermal contact and beryllium contamination. The DFR also 
clarified OSHA's intent with respect to provisions for disposal and 
recycling and with respect to provisions that the agency intended to 
apply only where skin can be exposed to materials containing at least 
0.1 percent beryllium by weight. The DFR became effective on July 6, 
2018, because OSHA did not receive significant adverse comment in 
response to the DFR (see 83 FR 1045).
    On December 11, 2018, OSHA published another NPRM to modify several 
of the general industry beryllium standard's definitions, along with 
the provisions for methods of compliance, personal protective clothing 
and equipment, hygiene areas and practices,


housekeeping, medical surveillance, communication of hazards, and 
recordkeeping (83 FR 63746). OSHA reasoned in part that the proposed 
modifications would provide clarification and simplify or improve 
compliance. OSHA recently finalized this proposal in a final rule 
published on July 14, 2020 (85 FR 42582).
    On September 30, 2019, OSHA issued a final rule in which the agency 
declined to revoke the ancillary provisions of the construction and 
shipyards standards as proposed in the June 27, 2017 NPRM (84 FR 
51377). Based on comments received and the record as a whole, the 
agency determined that there is not complete overlap in protections 
between the beryllium standards' ancillary provisions and existing 
standards applicable to these sectors. Thus, revoking all of the 
ancillary provisions and leaving only the PEL and STEL would be 
inconsistent with OSHA's statutory mandate to protect workers from the 
demonstrated significant risks of material impairment of health 
resulting from exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. However, 
after careful review, OSHA determined that some revisions to the 
construction and shipyards standards were appropriate. To give the 
agency time to finalize a new proposal with these more limited changes 
to the construction and shipyards standards, the final rule delayed the 
compliance dates for all ancillary provisions of these standards until 
September 30, 2020. The final rule did not impact the PEL or STEL, 
which OSHA has been enforcing since May 11, 2018.
    On October 8, 2019, OSHA published the proposal being finalized 
here (84 FR 53902). In the NPRM, the agency proposed several revisions 
to the ancillary provisions of the construction and shipyard standards 
to more appropriately tailor the standards to these industries, to 
align certain provisions with recent changes to the general industry 
standard, and to clarify OSHA's intent with respect to materials 
containing trace amounts of beryllium. The NPRM proposed revisions to 
the paragraphs for definitions, methods of compliance, respiratory 
protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, hygiene areas 
and practices, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard 
communication, and recordkeeping. In developing its proposal, OSHA 
considered relevant comments received in response to the June 2017 
construction and shipyards proposal, as well as general industry 
stakeholder input that led to the 2018 general industry DFR. In 
addition, OSHA proposed some revisions to align with changes proposed 
in the December 12, 2018 general industry NPRM (83 FR 39351).
    OSHA consulted with the Advisory Committee on Construction Safety & 
Health (ACCSH) regarding this proposal on September 9, 2019. ACCSH 
recommended that OSHA proceed with the proposal to ``revise the 
beryllium standard for construction to ensure that the ancillary 
provisions are tailored to the construction industry and align with the 
general industry standard, where appropriate,'' and unanimously 
recommended that OSHA do so as soon as possible (see Document ID OSHA-
2018-0012-0125, Tr. 62-67).
    OSHA requested comments on the proposed changes and provided 
stakeholders 30 days to submit comments. In addition, OSHA held a 
public hearing on the proposal on December 3, 2019, where the agency 
heard testimony from several stakeholders (see Document ID 2222; 2223). 
Participants who filed notices of intention to appear at the hearing 
were permitted to submit additional evidence and data relevant to the 
proceeding for a 44-day period following the hearing. That period ended 
on January 16, 2020. The record remained open for an additional 15 
days, until January 31, 2020, for the submission of final briefs, 
arguments, and summations. OSHA received twenty-five timely comments 
during this rulemaking by the close of the last post hearing comment 
period of January 31, 2020.
    OSHA estimates that these changes will lead to total annualized 
cost savings of $2.5 million at a 3 percent discount rate over 10 
years; at a discount rate of 7 percent over 10 years, the annualized 
cost savings would be $2.6 million. OSHA has determined that these 
changes will maintain safety and health protections for workers, while 
facilitating compliance with the standards and yielding some cost 
savings.
    This rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 regulatory action 
because this rule is not significant under E.O. 12866. Pursuant to the 
Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs designated this rule not a ``major 
rule,'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

II. Pertinent Legal Authority

    The purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 
(``the OSH Act'' or ``the Act''), 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq., is to assure 
so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and 
healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources. 29 
U.S.C. 651(b). To achieve this goal, Congress authorized the Secretary 
of Labor to promulgate occupational safety and health standards 
pursuant to notice and comment rulemaking. See 29 U.S.C. 655(b). An 
occupational safety or health standard is a standard which requires 
conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, 
methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate 
to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment. 29 
U.S.C. 652(8).
    The Act also authorizes the Secretary to ``modify'' or ``revoke'' 
any occupational safety or health standard, 29 U.S.C. 655(b), and under 
the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 551 et seq., regulatory 
agencies generally may revise their rules if the changes are supported 
by a reasoned analysis, see Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Ass'n v. State Farm 
Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 463 U.S. 29, 42 (1983). ``While the removal of a 
regulation may not entail the monetary expenditures and other costs of 
enacting a new standard, and accordingly, it may be easier for an 
agency to justify a deregulatory action, the direction in which an 
agency chooses to move does not alter the standard of judicial review 
established by law.'' Id. at 43.
    The Act provides that in promulgating health standards dealing with 
toxic materials or harmful physical agents, such as the beryllium 
standards, the Secretary must set the standard which most adequately 
assures, to the extent feasible, on the basis of the best available 
evidence, that no employee will suffer material impairment of health or 
functional capacity even if such employee has regular exposure to the 
hazard dealt with by such standard for the period of his working life. 
29 U.S.C. 665(b)(5). The Supreme Court has held that before the 
Secretary can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, he 
must make a threshold finding that significant risk is present and that 
such risk can be eliminated or lessened by a change in practices. See 
Indus. Union Dept., AFL-CIO v. Am. Petroleum Inst., 448 U.S. 607, 641-
42 (1980) (plurality opinion) (``Benzene''). OSHA need not make 
additional findings on risk for this proposal because OSHA previously 
determined that the beryllium standards address a significant risk, see 
82 FR 2545-52, and reaffirmed that finding in the rule finalizing the 
2017 shipyards and construction proposal, the final rule published 
September 30, 2019. See Pub. Citizen Health Research Grp. v. Tyson, 796 
F.2d 1479, 1502 n.16 (D.C. Cir. 1986) (rejecting the argument that


OSHA must ``find that each and every aspect of its standard eliminates 
a significant risk'').
    OSHA standards must also be both technologically and economically 
feasible. See United Steelworkers v. Marshall, 647 F.2d 1189, 1248 
(D.C. Cir. 1980) (``Lead I''). The Supreme Court has defined 
feasibility as ``capable of being done.'' Am. Textile Mfrs. Inst. v. 
Donovan, 452 U.S. 490, 509-10 (1981) (``Cotton Dust''). The courts have 
further clarified that a standard is technologically feasible if OSHA 
proves a reasonable possibility, ``within the limits of the best 
available evidence, . . . that the typical firm will be able to develop 
and install engineering and work practice controls that can meet the 
[standard] in most of its operations.'' Lead I, 647 F.2d at 1272. With 
respect to economic feasibility, the courts have held that ``a standard 
is feasible if it does not threaten massive dislocation to or imperil 
the existence of the industry.'' Id. at 1265 (internal quotation marks 
and citations omitted).
    OSHA exercises significant discretion in carrying out its 
responsibilities under the Act. Indeed, a number of terms of the 
statute give OSHA wide discretion to devise means to achieve the 
Congressionally-mandated goal of ensuring worker safety and health. See 
Lead I, 647 F.2d at 1230. Thus, where OSHA has chosen some measures to 
address a significant risk over other measures, those challenging the 
OSHA standard must ``identify evidence that their proposals would be 
feasible and generate more than a de minimis benefit to worker 
health.'' N. Am.'s Bldg. Trades Unions v. OSHA, 878 F.3d 271, 282 (D.C. 
Cir. 2017).
    Although OSHA is required to set standards ``on the basis of the 
best available evidence,'' 29 U.S.C. 655(b)(5), its determinations are 
``conclusive'' if supported by ``substantial evidence in the record 
considered as a whole,'' 29 U.S.C. 655(f). Similarly, as the Supreme 
Court noted in Benzene, OSHA must look to ``a body of reputable 
scientific thought'' in making determinations, but a reviewing court 
must ``give OSHA some leeway where its findings must be made on the 
frontiers of scientific knowledge.'' Benzene, 448 U.S. at 656. When 
there is disputed scientific evidence in the record, OSHA must review 
the evidence on both sides and ``reasonably resolve'' the dispute. 
Tyson, 796 F.2d at 1500. The ``possibility of drawing two inconsistent 
conclusions from the evidence does not prevent the agency's finding 
from being supported by substantial evidence.'' N. Am.'s Bldg. Trades 
Unions, 878 F.3d at 291 (quoting Cotton Dust, 452 U.S. at 523) 
(alterations omitted). As the D.C. Circuit has noted, where ``OSHA has 
the expertise we lack and it has exercised that expertise by carefully 
reviewing the scientific data,'' a dispute within the scientific 
community is not occasion for the reviewing court to take sides about 
which view is correct. Tyson, 796 F.2d at 1500.
    Finally, because section 6(b)(5) of the Act explicitly requires 
OSHA to set health standards that eliminate risk ``to the extent 
feasible,'' OSHA uses feasibility analysis rather than cost-benefit 
analysis to make standards-setting decisions dealing with toxic 
materials or harmful physical agents (29 U.S.C. 655(b)(5)). An OSHA 
standard in this area must be technologically and economically 
feasible--and also cost effective, which means that the protective 
measures it requires are the least costly of the available alternatives 
that achieve the same level of protection--but OSHA cannot choose an 
alternative that provides a lower level of protection for workers' 
health simply because it is less costly. See Int'l Union, UAW v. OSHA, 
37 F.3d 665, 668 (D.C. Cir. 1994); see also Cotton Dust, 452 U.S. at 
514 n.32. In Cotton Dust, the Court explained that Congress itself 
defined the basic relationship between costs and benefits, by placing 
the ``benefit'' of worker health above all other considerations save 
those making attainment of this ``benefit'' unachievable. The court 
further stated that any standard based on a balancing of costs and 
benefits by the Secretary that strikes a different balance than that 
struck by Congress would be inconsistent with the command set forth in 
section 6(b)(5). Cotton Dust, 452 U.S. at 509. Thus, while OSHA 
estimates the costs and benefits of its proposed and final rules, 
partly in accordance with Executive Orders 12866 and 13771, these 
calculations do not form the basis for the agency's regulatory 
decisions.

III. Summary and Explanation of the Final Rule

    The following discussion summarizes and explains the changes OSHA 
proposed to the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards, 
discusses the comments received on the proposal, and explains OSHA's 
determination with respect to each proposed change.
    The 2017 final rule promulgated three standards designed to protect 
workers from the serious health effects caused by occupational exposure 
to beryllium and beryllium compounds (see 82 FR 2470 (Jan. 9, 2017)). 
Each of the three standards, which cover general industry (29 CFR 
1910.1024), construction (29 CFR 1926.1124), and shipyards (29 CFR 
1915.1024), contains a comprehensive set of protections, consisting of 
the exposure limits in paragraph (c) and a number of ancillary 
provisions, typical of OSHA health standards, in paragraphs (d) through 
(n) (see 82 FR at 2476). The ancillary provisions encompass 
requirements for exposure assessment, competent person (construction) 
or regulated areas (shipyards), methods of compliance, respiratory 
protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, hygiene, 
housekeeping, medical surveillance and medical removal, communication 
of hazards, and recordkeeping (29 CFR 1915.1024(d)-(n); 29 CFR 
1926.1124(d)-(n)).
    Since the publication of the 2017 final rule, OSHA has sought to 
revise the beryllium standards in a number of separate rulemakings. 
Those bearing on this proposal include (1) the June 27, 2017, 
construction and shipyards proposal (82 FR at 29182); (2) the May 7, 
2018, general industry direct final rule (DFR) (83 FR at 19936); (3) 
the December 11, 2018, general industry proposal (83 FR at 63746), (4) 
the October 8, 2019, construction and shipyards proposal (84 FR at 
53902); and (5) the (July 14, 2020) general industry final rule (85 FR 
42582) (see Section I, Background, above for more details). In light of 
the comments OSHA received on these rulemakings and the evidence in the 
record, OSHA is revising several paragraphs of the beryllium standards 
for construction and shipyards.
    OSHA has determined that, taken together, the limited exposures in 
the construction and shipyards industries and the partial overlap 
between the beryllium standards and other OSHA standards make revisions 
to both the construction and shipyards beryllium standards appropriate. 
The rationales for these revisions fall into three categories. First, 
OSHA is removing or modifying some provisions which--although 
appropriate in the general industry context--may be unnecessary or 
require revision to appropriately protect employees in the construction 
and shipyards industries. As will be explained further, operations with 
beryllium exposure in the construction and shipyards industries are 
significantly less varied and employees are exposed to materials with 
significantly lower content beryllium than in the general industry 
sector. In addition, employees in these industries receive the 
protections of several other OSHA standards, as the agency explained in 
the June 27, 2017, construction and shipyards proposal, in the final 
rule published on September


30, 2019, and in the subsequent construction and shipyards proposal 
published on October 8, 2019.
    Second, OSHA is revising some provisions of the construction and 
shipyard standards to avoid inconsistencies with the clarifying changes 
the agency has made in the (July 14, 2020) general industry final rule. 
OSHA is aligning these standards to the extent possible because the 
agency believes that, where there is no substantive difference among 
industries with respect to a particular provision, applying similar 
requirements across industries aids both compliance and enforcement. 
Conversely, applying different requirements to identical situations may 
lead to confusion. While most of the changes in the July 14, 2020, 
final rule were designed specifically for general industry, OSHA is 
aligning changes to paragraph (b), medical definitions; paragraph (k), 
medical surveillance; and paragraph (n), recordkeeping, because the 
rationale underlying these changes applies equally in the construction 
and shipyards contexts.
    Third, OSHA is revising certain paragraphs of the construction and 
shipyard standards to address the application of provisions related to 
dermal contact to materials containing beryllium in trace quantities. 
In the general industry DFR, OSHA clarified that provisions triggered 
by dermal contact with beryllium or beryllium contamination would apply 
only for dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium in 
concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight (83 FR at 
19939). OSHA's rationale regarding this final set of proposed changes 
dates back to the agency's August 7, 2015, beryllium NPRM (which led to 
the 2017 final rule) (80 FR at 47565). There, OSHA proposed to exempt 
materials containing less than 0.1 percent beryllium by weight on the 
premise that workers exposed only to beryllium as a trace contaminant 
are not exposed at levels of concern (80 FR at 47775). However, the 
agency noted evidence of high airborne exposures in construction and 
shipyard sectors, in particular during blasting operations and cleanup 
of spent media (80 FR at 47733). Therefore, OSHA proposed for comment 
several regulatory alternatives, including an alternative that would 
expand the scope of the proposed standard to include all operations in 
general industry where beryllium exists only as a trace contaminant (80 
FR at 47730) and an alternative that would expand the scope to include 
employers in the shipyard and maritime sectors (80 FR at 47777).
    In the 2017 final rule, after considering stakeholders' comments, 
OSHA decided to apply the exemption for materials containing less than 
0.1 percent beryllium by weight only where the employer has objective 
data demonstrating that employee exposure to airborne beryllium will 
remain below the action level of 0.1 [micro]g/m \3\, measured as an 8-
hour TWA, under any foreseeable conditions (82 FR at 2643). OSHA noted 
that the action level exception ensured that workers with airborne 
exposures of concern were covered by the standard. OSHA agreed with the 
many commenters and public hearing testimony expressing concern that 
hazardous exposures to beryllium can occur with materials containing 
trace amounts of beryllium. While the agency acknowledged concerns 
expressed by the Abrasive Blasting Manufacturing Alliance (ABMA) and 
the Edison Electric Institute that processing materials with trace 
amounts of beryllium may not necessarily produce significant exposures 
to beryllium, evidence in the record showed significant exposures in 
some operations using materials with trace amounts of beryllium. OSHA 
explicitly identified abrasive blasting as one such operation. The 
agency determined that preventing airborne exposures at or above the 
action level, even to trace amounts of beryllium, reduces the risk of 
beryllium-related health effects to workers (82 FR at 2643; see also 82 
FR at 2552).
    While adopting this limited exemption for trace materials, OSHA 
also adopted the regulatory alternative expanding the scope of the rule 
to include both construction and shipyards, but recognized that these 
sectors had limited operations that generated airborne beryllium 
exposures of concern and issued separate standards for these sectors. 
Nonetheless, OSHA applied similar ancillary requirements across the 
general industry, construction, and shipyards beryllium standards. At 
the same time, the agency acknowledged that different approaches may be 
warranted for some provisions in construction and shipyards than for 
general industry due to the nature of the materials and work processes 
typically used in those industries (82 FR at 2690). Specifically, 
exposures to beryllium in construction and shipyards are limited to 
only a few operations, primarily abrasive blasting in construction and 
shipyards and some welding operations in shipyards (see Document ID 
2042, FEA Chapter III, pp. 103-11 and Table III-8e). While the high 
airborne exposures during the blasting operation can expose workers to 
beryllium in excess of the PEL, the blasting materials contain only 
trace amounts of beryllium (materials such as coal slag normally 
contain approximately 11 [micro]g/g or 0.0001 percent) (Document ID 
2042, Chapter IV, Technological Feasibility, Table IV.69). Furthermore, 
the rulemaking record contains evidence of beryllium exposure only 
during limited welding operations in shipyards (only 4 of 127 sample 
results showed detectable levels of airborne beryllium) (Document ID 
2042, Chapter IV, Technological Feasibility, p. IV-580).
    As the regulatory history suggests, OSHA intended to protect 
employees working with trace beryllium when those employees experience 
significant airborne exposures. OSHA did not intend for provisions 
aimed at protecting workers from the effects of dermal contact to apply 
in the case of materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium in 
the absence of significant airborne beryllium exposure. For this 
reason, OSHA clarified in the general industry DFR that provisions 
triggered by dermal contact with beryllium or beryllium contamination 
would apply only for dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing 
beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by 
weight (83 FR at 19939). In construction and shipyards, where beryllium 
exposure occurs almost exclusively from materials that contain 
beryllium in concentrations less than or equal to 0.1 percent by 
weight, OSHA proposed to remove provisions triggered by dermal contact 
or beryllium contamination entirely, except for certain provisions the 
agency deemed important to limit airborne exposure (through re-
entrainment of beryllium-containing dust from PPE or other surfaces) to 
those workers who have significant airborne exposures (see, e.g., 84 FR 
at 53913). Additionally, although limited welding operations in 
shipyards may include base materials or fume containing more than 0.1 
percent beryllium by weight, OSHA has reason to believe that skin or 
surface contamination is not an exposure source of concern in these 
operations (84 FR at 53906).
    Based on the foregoing, OSHA proposed and is now finalizing 
revisions to the following paragraphs of the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards: Paragraph (b), definitions; paragraph (f), 
methods of compliance; paragraph (g), respiratory protection; paragraph 
(h), personal protective clothing and equipment; paragraph (i), hygiene 
areas and


practices; paragraph (j), housekeeping; paragraph (k), medical 
surveillance; paragraph (m), communication of hazards; and paragraph 
(n), recordkeeping. OSHA is finalizing the standards as proposed, 
except for minor modifications to the following paragraphs: (1) 
Paragraph (b), specifically, by amending the definition of CBD 
diagnostic center and removing the definition of high efficiency 
particulate air (HEPA) filter; (2) paragraph (f)(1), the written 
exposure control plan; (3) paragraph (h), personal protective clothing 
and equipment; and (4) paragraph (k), medical surveillance.
    OSHA notes that in response to the October 8, 2019 NPRM, several 
industry commenters responded that OSHA's proposed changes to simplify 
and better tailor the construction and shipyards standards would not go 
far enough, and that none of the beryllium standards' ancillary 
provisions are necessary (see, e.g., Document ID 2203, p. 1-2, 11; 
2199, p. 3; 2205, p. 2; 2206, pp. 10-13; 2209, pp. 1-2; 2241, pp. 3-4). 
For example, the Abrasive Blasting Manufacturing Alliance (ABMA) 
claimed that ``[t]here is no evidence that the pre-existing standards 
governing abrasive blasting are insufficient to protect employees, and 
there is no evidence that exposure to the trace amounts of naturally 
occurring beryllium in abrasive blasting (or welding) has resulted in 
any material impairment of health to employees in all of the many years 
this work has been performed'' (Document ID 2206, p. 11).
    Comments suggesting that OSHA entirely eliminate the ancillary 
provisions of the construction and shipyards standards are beyond the 
scope of this rulemaking and were already addressed in the September 
30, 2019, final rule (84 FR 51377). OSHA did not propose in this 
rulemaking to remove the standards' ancillary provisions in their 
entirety, and in fact, explained in the NPRM that the September 2019 
final rule established that removing the ancillary provisions in their 
entirety would not sufficiently protect workers in these industries 
from airborne exposure to beryllium (84 FR at 51390-97).
    After reviewing the comments and evidence in the record, OSHA 
determined that beryllium construction and shipyards standards 
consisting only of the TWA PEL and STEL would not be sufficiently 
protective (84 FR at 51390-91). Other OSHA standards do contain some 
requirements that overlap with, or duplicate, the requirements of the 
beryllium standards for construction and shipyards. In particular, as 
explained below in the Summary and Explanation for the removal of 
paragraph (i), OSHA has determined that other OSHA standards overlap 
with the previous hygiene requirements of the construction and 
shipyards standards. However, for most ancillary provisions, there is 
only partial overlap, and for the remainder, there is no overlap at 
all. Thus, in the September 30, 2019 final rule, OSHA determined not to 
adopt its proposal to remove all ancillary provisions from the 
construction and beryllium standards (84 FR at 51390-91). In that final 
rule, OSHA also reaffirmed its finding that beryllium exposure presents 
a significant risk of material health impairment to workers in the 
construction and shipyards sectors (84 FR at 51388-90). Commenters to 
the October 8, 2019, proposal have provided no new information 
indicating that protections are unnecessary in these sectors, and OSHA 
finds that the ancillary provisions that it is retaining in this final 
rule are necessary and appropriate to protect workers in the 
construction and shipyards industries.
    The remainder of this summary and explanation provides detail on 
the changes OSHA is finalizing to the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards, including the agency's review of the 
evidence in the record and the reasoning for its determinations.

Paragraph (b) Definitions

    Paragraph (b) of the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards specifies the definitions of terms used in the beryllium 
regulatory text. This final rule modifies several definitions of the 
2017 standards: CBD diagnostic center, chronic beryllium disease (CBD), 
and confirmed positive; adds a definition of beryllium sensitization; 
and eliminates the definitions of emergency and high-efficiency 
particulate air (HEPA) filter. The revised definitions include several 
changes from previous paragraph (b) that OSHA proposed in the October 
2019 NPRM, and all of the changes apply to both the construction and 
shipyards standards. A discussion of each definition affected by OSHA's 
proposed changes to paragraph (b), comments and testimony received on 
the proposal, and the final version of each revised definition follows.
    OSHA proposed to modify the definitions of CBD diagnostic center, 
chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and confirmed positive and add a 
definition of beryllium sensitization to align these definitions in the 
construction and shipyards standards with changes the agency had 
already proposed to the beryllium standard for general industry. OSHA 
proposed these modifications for the general industry standard in 
December 2018 to clarify the meaning of the terms used in that standard 
(83 FR at 63747). OSHA provided a sixty-day comment period for the 
general industry proposal, which closed on February 11, 2019. OSHA's 
rationale for including these definitions applies equally in the 
construction and shipyards contexts. Therefore, as discussed in the 
NPRM, in addition to the comments received during this rulemaking OSHA 
has considered the comments that were submitted in response to the 
proposed changes to definitions in the general industry standard along 
with comments received during this rulemaking on the proposed 
definitions in determining whether to finalize the proposed definitions 
in the construction and shipyards standards. The comments to the 
general industry proposal can be found in Docket OSHA-2018-0003 at 
http://regulations.gov. In addition, OSHA proposed to remove references 
to the term emergency throughout the construction and shipyards 
standards, including the definition in paragraph (b).

Beryllium Sensitization

    This final rule defines the term beryllium sensitization as a 
response in the immune system of a specific individual who has been 
exposed to beryllium. The definition also states that there are no 
associated physical or clinical symptoms and no illnesses or disability 
with beryllium sensitization alone, but the response that occurs 
through beryllium sensitization can enable the immune system to 
recognize and react to beryllium. It further states that while not 
every beryllium-sensitized person will develop CBD, beryllium 
sensitization is essential for development of CBD. The agency is adding 
this definition to clarify other provisions in the standard, such as 
the definitions of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and confirmed 
positive, as well as the provisions for medical surveillance in 
paragraph (k) and hazard communication in paragraph (m).
    As also explained in the 2020 beryllium final rule for general 
industry (85 FR 42582), this definition of beryllium sensitization is 
identical to the definition proposed in the 2018 NPRM for general 
industry and the 2019 NPRM for construction and shipyards, and is 
consistent with information provided in the 2017 final beryllium rule 
(82 FR at 2470). In the preamble to the 2017 final rule, OSHA found 
that individuals sensitized through either the dermal or inhalation 
exposure pathways respond to beryllium through


the formation of a beryllium-protein complex, which then binds to T-
cells stimulating a beryllium-specific immune response (82 FR at 2494). 
The formation of the T-cell-beryllium-protein complex that results in 
beryllium sensitization rarely manifests in any outward symptoms (such 
as coughing or wheezing); most who are sensitized show no symptoms at 
all (see 82 FR at 2492, 2527). Once an individual has been sensitized, 
any subsequent beryllium exposures via inhalation can progress to 
serious lung disease through the formation of granulomas and fibrosis 
(see 82 FR at 2491-98). Since the pathogenesis of CBD involves a 
beryllium-specific, cell-mediated immune response, CBD cannot occur in 
the absence of sensitization (82 FR at 2492; Document ID 1355). 
Therefore, this definition's explanation that beryllium sensitization 
is essential for development of CBD is consistent with the agency's 
findings in the 2017 final rule (82 FR at 2470).
    Several commenters expressed support for the proposed inclusion of 
a definition of beryllium sensitization in OSHA's beryllium standards, 
including National Jewish Health (NJH) (Document ID 2211, p. 3; 2243 p. 
1; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 2), the United Steelworkers (USW) (Document 
ID 2222, Tr. 24-25; 2242, p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 1), and 
Materion Brush (Materion) (Document ID 2237, p. 4; OSHA-2018-0003-0038, 
p. 8). For example, USW stated that the proposed definition of 
sensitization is clear and accurate, and is necessary because the 
beryllium standard includes many provisions related to the recognition 
of and appropriate response to beryllium sensitization among beryllium-
exposed workers (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 1). The agency 
also received supportive comments in response to the beryllium general 
industry NPRM, which proposed an identical definition of beryllium 
sensitization, from the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (OSHA-2018-
0003-0029, p. 1), and Edison Electric Institute (Document ID OSHA-2018-
0003-0031, p. 2).
    Some commenters expressed concerns regarding OSHA's proposed 
definition of beryllium sensitization.\3\ First, NJH stated that OSHA's 
definition is ``at odds with'' the definition of sensitization included 
in the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), which, in 
2014, published a Statement on Beryllium (ATS Statement) that included 
the following definition: ``Beryllium sensitization is a response in 
the immune system of an individual who has been exposed to beryllium. A 
diagnosis of [beryllium sensitization] can be based on two abnormal 
blood BeLPTs, one abnormal and one borderline blood BeLPT, three 
borderline BeLPTs, or one abnormal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) BeLPT. 
Beryllium sensitization is essential for development of CBD'' (Document 
ID 2243, p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-0027 p. 1; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 2; 
OSHA-2018-0003-0364, pp. 1, 44).\4\ The American College of 
Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) similarly stated that 
the definition of beryllium sensitization ``has always been two 
abnormal, one abnormal and one borderline, or three borderline LPT 
results,'' which it characterized as consistent with the research 
literature and with how the term ``beryllium sensitization'' is used in 
clinical practice and medical surveillance. In contrast, it said, 
OSHA's less precise proposed definition for beryllium sensitization 
could-together with its use of the term ``confirmed positive'' (see 
discussion below)-create confusion in clinical practice (Document ID 
2213, p. 2). In response to OSHA's general industry NPRM, the National 
Supplemental Screening Program (NSSP) and NJH also recommended that 
OSHA's definition of beryllium sensitization should include text based 
on the ATS Statement on Beryllium (Document IDs OSHA-2018-0003-0027, p. 
1; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 2).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \3\ Comments from the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on 
Education and Labor (CEL) stated that decoupling the term beryllium 
sensitization from OSHA's definition of confirmed positive 
(discussed later in this Summary and Explanation) would have 
consequences for workers who leave employment already sensitized to 
beryllium because their medical records would only state ``confirmed 
positive,'' rather than ``beryllium sensitized'' (Document ID 2208, 
pp. 4-5). OSHA addresses CEL's comments in the Summary and 
Explanation of the definition of confirmed positive.
    \4\ NJH also stated that in order for a medical condition to be 
covered under Worker's Compensation, it needs to meet the statutory 
language requirements. NJH expressed concern that the statement that 
there is ``no illness or disability with beryllium sensitization 
alone'' in OSHA's proposed definition could preclude workers with 
beryllium sensitization from obtaining Workers' Compensation 
coverage and medical follow up in some states, including clinical 
evaluation for CBD once they leave employment (Document ID 2243, pp. 
2-3). At the hearing, NJH further explained that, in light of how 
diagnoses of pleural plaque have affected the individuals' ability 
to obtain benefits for lung cancer or mesothelioma, OSHA's 
definition could adversely affect workers' ability to obtain 
benefits for CBD in the future by prematurely triggering the statute 
of limitations for such claims. (Document ID 2222, Tr. 39-41).
    OSHA intends for the definition of confirmed positive to serve 
only as a trigger for certain provisions of the beryllium standard. 
How OSHA defines this phrase for purposes of the beryllium standard 
in no way limits healthcare professionals' ability or incentive to 
diagnose beryllium sensitization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    NJH proposed that OSHA should modify its definition of beryllium 
sensitization to the following: ``Beryllium sensitization is the result 
of a beryllium specific cell-mediated immune response of an individual 
who has been exposed to beryllium. A diagnosis of beryllium 
sensitization can be based on two abnormal blood BeLPTs, one abnormal 
and one borderline blood BeLPT, or one abnormal bronchoalveolar lavage 
(BAL) BeLPT. Three borderline BeLPTs may also indicate sensitization'' 
(Document ID 2211, p. 3; 2243, p.2). NJH believes that its proposed 
definition would be more consistent with ATS' definition and would not 
preclude follow-up examinations of sensitized workers for CBD under 
workers' compensation coverage.
    Materion disagreed with NJH's argument, stating that OSHA's 
definition of beryllium sensitization and its complementary definition 
of confirmed positive (discussed later) ``align well with the ATS 
definitions,'' and also stated that the definitions in the beryllium 
standards ``should exist to best serve the understanding of employers 
and employees, not the medical community'' (Document ID 2237, p. 3).
    OSHA has considered the comments submitted by NJH, ACOEM, Materion, 
and NSSP, and has concluded that the proposed definition of beryllium 
sensitization, when properly read in the context of the standards and 
in combination with the definition of confirmed positive, does not 
contradict the definitions used by ATS or other organizations, and is 
not likely to create confusion in clinical practice. The agency is 
providing a definition of beryllium sensitization to give stakeholders, 
such as employers and employees, a general understanding of what 
beryllium sensitization is and its relationship to CBD.
    The definition of confirmed positive explains how the results of 
BeLPT testing should be interpreted in the context of the standard's 
provisions that benefit beryllium-exposed workers, specifically, 
medical surveillance and medical removal protection. The confirmed 
positive definition establishes that these benefits should be extended 
to workers who have a pattern of BeLPT results, obtained in a three-
year period, consistent with the NJH's recommended definition of 
beryllium sensitization.
    In their comments on the general industry standard, NSSP objected 
to the statement in the definition that no physical or clinical 
symptoms, illness,


or disability are associated with beryllium sensitization alone, but 
did not explain the reason for their concern (Document ID OSHA-2018-
0003-0027, p. 1). Materion supported the agency's inclusion of this 
information in the definition, stating that ``employees deserve to 
understand that beryllium sensitization does not involve symptoms . . 
.'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0038, p. 5). USW also specifically 
supported the accuracy of this section of OSHA's proposed definition of 
beryllium sensitization (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 1).
    As explained in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (b) of 
the July 14, 2020, final rule revising the general industry standard 
(85 FR 42582), OSHA decided to retain the statement that there is no 
illness or disability with beryllium sensitization in the definition of 
beryllium sensitization because it is important that employers and 
employees understand the asymptomatic nature of beryllium sensitization 
and the need for specialized testing such as the BeLPT. The statement 
is consistent with OSHA's discussion of beryllium sensitization in the 
2017 final rule (82 FR at 2492-99). As OSHA discussed in the 2017 final 
rule, sensitization through dermal contact has sometimes been 
associated with skin granulomas, contact dermatitis, and skin 
irritation, but these reactions are rare and those sensitized through 
dermal exposure to beryllium typically do not exhibit any outward signs 
or symptoms (see 82 FR 2488, 2491-92, 2527). OSHA determined that while 
beryllium sensitization rarely leads to any outward signs or symptoms, 
beryllium sensitization is an adverse health effect because it is a 
change to the immune system that leads to risk of developing CBD (82 FR 
at 2498-99). The agency believes that the asymptomatic nature of 
beryllium sensitization, especially in the lung, should be conveyed to 
employers and employees to emphasize why specialized testing such as 
the BeLPT should be provided to workers who may have no symptoms of 
illness associated with beryllium exposure. For these reasons, OSHA is 
retaining the statement ``[t]here are no associated physical or 
clinical symptoms and no illness or disability with beryllium 
sensitization alone'' in the definition of beryllium sensitization.
    As discussed in greater detail in the beryllium final rule for 
general industry (85 FR 42582), the State of Washington Department of 
Labor and Industries, Division of Occupational Safety and Health 
(DOSH), commented that OSHA's proposed definition of beryllium 
sensitization places unnecessary emphasis on the role that beryllium 
sensitization plays in the development of CBD. According to DOSH, 
``[t]his language may cause confusion with proper diagnosis of CBD and 
application of the rule requirements for workers who have developed CBD 
without a confirmed beryllium sensitization'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-
0003-0023, p. 1). However, other commenters, including NJH, NSSP, and 
USW, supported including the statement that beryllium sensitization is 
necessary for the development of CBD in OSHA's definition of beryllium 
sensitization (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-
0027, p. 1; OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 1).
    Following consideration of DOSH's comment, OSHA has determined that 
this information should remain in the definition of beryllium 
sensitization (as well as the definition of chronic beryllium disease, 
discussed later). OSHA believes that an understanding of the 
relationship between beryllium sensitization and CBD is essential to 
workers' and employers' understanding of the beryllium standard. By 
including the role that sensitization plays in the development of CBD 
in the definition of beryllium sensitization, OSHA intends to make a 
number of things clear to workers and employers: That beryllium 
sensitization, although not itself a disease, is nevertheless an 
adverse health effect that presents a risk for developing CBD and thus 
should be prevented; the need to identify beryllium sensitization 
through regular medical screening; and why workers who are confirmed 
positive should be offered specialized medical evaluation and medical 
removal protection. OSHA notes that DOSH does not dispute the factual 
accuracy of OSHA's statement regarding the role beryllium sensitization 
plays in the development of CBD, which the agency established in the 
Health Effects section of the 2017 final standard (82 FR at 2495-96).
    OSHA believes that emphasizing the role that beryllium 
sensitization plays in the development of CBD provides employers and 
employees with important context for understanding the beryllium 
standard. At the same time, the agency acknowledges that employees may 
be diagnosed with CBD in the absence of a confirmed positive BeLPT, and 
the beryllium standard allows for such a diagnosis. In the preamble to 
the general industry final rule, OSHA provides additional discussion of 
the provisions that allow for referral to a CBD diagnostic center and 
diagnosis with CBD in the absence of a confirmed positive blood BeLPT 
result (85 FR 42598).
    Thus, following consideration of the record of comments on OSHA's 
proposed definition of beryllium sensitization (which includes the 
comments and response detailed in the beryllium general industry final 
rule, 85 FR 42596), OSHA is finalizing the definition as proposed in 
the 2019 NPRM. The addition of this definition for beryllium 
sensitization does not change employer obligations under paragraphs (k) 
and (m) and therefore maintains employee protections under the 
construction and shipyards standards for beryllium.

CBD Diagnostic Center

    This final rule defines a CBD diagnostic center to mean a medical 
diagnostic center that has a pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist on 
staff and on-site facilities to perform a clinical evaluation for the 
presence of CBD. The revised definition also states that a CBD 
diagnostic center must have the capacity to perform pulmonary function 
testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society), bronchoalveolar 
lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. In the revised definition, a 
CBD diagnostic center must have the capacity to transfer the BAL 
samples to a laboratory for appropriate diagnostic testing within 24 
hours and the pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist must be able to 
interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL diagnostic test results. 
This definition is identical to the definition of CBD diagnostic center 
that OSHA proposed in the 2019 NPRM.
    The revised definition of CBD diagnostic center differs from the 
former definition in a number of ways. First, whereas the 2017 final 
rule's definition specified only that a CBD diagnostic center must have 
a pulmonary specialist, OSHA is adding the term ``pulmonologist'' to 
clarify that either type of specialist is qualified to perform a 
clinical evaluation for the presence of CBD. Additionally, the 2017 
definition required that a CBD diagnostic center have an on-site 
pulmonary specialist. The revised definition states that the CBD 
diagnostic center must simply have a pulmonologist or pulmonary 
specialist on staff. This clarifies OSHA's intent that a pulmonary 
specialist must be available to the CBD diagnostic center, but need not 
necessarily be on site at all times.
    In their comments on the proposed changes to the definition of CBD 
diagnostic center, NJH and ATS recommended that a pulmonologist,


occupational medicine specialist, or physician with expertise in 
beryllium disease conduct the clinical evaluation for CBD, and that a 
pulmonologist should be on staff or available to perform the 
bronchoscopy (Document ID 2211, pp. 3-4; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 2; 
OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 2). According to NJH, clinics that regularly 
evaluate patients for CBD have physicians with experience in 
occupational medicine conduct the clinical evaluation for CBD, in 
conjunction with a pulmonologist who performs a bronchoscopy (Document 
ID 2211, pp. 3-4; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, pp. 2-3).
    OSHA notes that, although the agency is requiring facilities to 
have a pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist on staff who is able to 
interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL diagnostic test results, 
OSHA does not intend that all aspects of clinical evaluation for CBD 
must be performed by a pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist. In the 
preamble to the 2017 final rule, OSHA explained that the agency was 
defining a CBD diagnostic center as a facility with a pulmonary 
specialist ``on-site'' specifically to indicate that the specialist 
need not personally perform the BeLPT testing (82 FR at 2645). 
Moreover, paragraph (k)(7), which sets out the substantive requirements 
for the evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center, refers to 
recommendations of the ``examining physician,'' not necessarily the 
pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist.
    Paragraph (b), in turn, defines physician or other licensed health 
care professional (PLHCP) as an individual licensed to provide some or 
all of the services required by paragraph (k). As such, some parts of 
the evaluation, such as lung function tests, might be performed by a 
certified medical professional other than a pulmonologist or pulmonary 
specialist. The arrangement that NJH describes as typical for clinics 
treating CBD patients, in that physicians with experience in 
occupational health conduct the clinical evaluation for CBD in 
conjunction with a pulmonologist who performs a bronchoscopy, is 
consistent with OSHA's intent for the definition of CBD diagnostic 
center and other provisions of the standard related to CBD diagnosis. 
Therefore, OSHA has determined that it is not necessary to revise the 
definition of CBD diagnostic center to require that the clinical 
evaluation for CBD be conducted by a pulmonologist, occupational 
medicine specialist, or physician with expertise in beryllium disease.
    An additional change to the definition of CBD diagnostic center 
clarifies that the diagnostic center must have the capacity to perform 
pulmonary function testing (according to ATS criteria), bronchoalveolar 
lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. OSHA has determined that the 
former definition--which stated that the evaluation at the diagnostic 
center ``must include'' these tests--could have been misinterpreted to 
mean that the examining physician was required to perform each of these 
tests during every clinical evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center. The 
agency is not dictating which tests an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic 
center should include, but ensuring that CBD diagnostic centers have 
the capacity to perform these tests, which are commonly needed to 
diagnose CBD. Therefore, the agency is revising the definition to 
clarify that the CBD diagnostic center must simply have the ability to 
perform each of these tests when deemed appropriate. These changes 
clarify the definition of CBD diagnostic center, and OSHA expects they 
will maintain safety and health protections for workers.
    NJH expressed concern that the proposed definition does not specify 
the tests to be performed at the CBD diagnostic center, but only that 
the CBD diagnostic center have the capacity to conduct the tests 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 70-72). NJH commented that by specifying the 
required capacities of a CBD diagnostic center, rather than the 
contents of a CBD evaluation, OSHA's change to the definition may 
indicate that the clinical evaluation for CBD need not include certain 
aspects of a CBD evaluation. NJH, the Association of Occupational and 
Environmental Clinics (AOEC), and ATS recommended that, at minimum, 
examinations should include full pulmonary function testing (including 
lung volumes, spirometry and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide), 
chest imaging, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and may also 
include bronchoscopy in some cases (Document ID 2211, p. 4; OSHA-2018-
0003-0022, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-0021, pp. 1-
2). NJH recommended that OSHA require ATS recommendations for 
diagnostic evaluation, which the NJH stated include the BeLPT, 
pulmonary function testing and chest imaging; and in some cases 
bronchoscopy (Document ID 2211, p. 4; OSHA-2018-0003 0022, p. 3). In 
their comments on the general industry NPRM, Materion supported OSHA's 
intent to specify the required capacities of a CBD diagnostic center, 
rather than the contents of a CBD evaluation, in the definition of CBD 
diagnostic center (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0038, pp. 16-17).
    OSHA believes that the concerns expressed by NJH are already 
covered by the standard, as discussed more thoroughly in the Summary 
and Explanation for paragraph (k), Medical Surveillance, in this final 
rule. First, paragraph (k)(3) sets the requirements for contents of an 
examination. For the initial and periodic medical examinations, OSHA 
already requires under (k)(3) that employees be offered: A physical 
exam with emphasis on the respiratory system and skin rashes; pulmonary 
function tests, performed in accordance with established guidelines by 
ATS, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 
in one second (FEV1); a BeLPT or equivalent test; a low dose 
computed tomography (LDCT) scan, if recommended by the PLHCP; and any 
other test deemed appropriate by the PLHCP. OSHA believes this 
information should be available to the CBD diagnostic center upon 
request.
    Second, paragraph (k)(7)--which establishes the substantive 
requirements for the evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center--also 
provides the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center 
flexibility to determine which additional tests are appropriate. As 
explained below in the Summary and Explanation of paragraph (k)(7), 
OSHA is adding a provision (paragraph (k)(7)(ii)) to make clear that 
the employer must offer any tests that the examining physician at the 
CBD diagnostic center deems appropriate. The definition of CBD 
diagnostic center in paragraph (b) does not alter this requirement. In 
light of paragraph (k), the revised definition of CBD diagnostic center 
cannot reasonably be read to limit the types of tests available to the 
employee (see the summary and explanation for paragraph (k)(7) for a 
full discussion of this topic). Thus, after considering these comments, 
OSHA has decided to retain the proposed change to the definition of CBD 
diagnostic center.

Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD)

    OSHA is also amending the definition of chronic beryllium disease 
(CBD). For the purposes of this standard, the agency is using the term 
chronic beryllium disease or CBD to mean a chronic granulomatous lung 
disease caused by inhalation of beryllium by an individual who is 
beryllium sensitized.
    OSHA is finalizing the definition as proposed. It includes several 
changes to the 2017 final rule's definition of


chronic beryllium disease, which was ``a chronic lung disease 
associated with exposure to airborne beryllium'' (82 FR at 2645-46). 
The revisions serve to differentiate CBD from other respiratory 
diseases associated with beryllium exposure (e.g., lung cancer) and to 
make clear that beryllium sensitization and the presence of beryllium 
in the lung are essential in the development of CBD (see 82 FR at 
2492).
    First, OSHA is adding the term ``granulomatous'' to the definition. 
``Granulomatous'' is meant to indicate an infiltration of inflammatory 
cells (e.g., T-cells) leading to the focal collection of cells, and 
eventual creation of nodules in the lung (Ohshimo et al., 2017, 
Document ID 2171, p. 2; Williams and Williams, Document ID 2228, pp. 
727-30; ATS, Document ID 0364). The formation of the type of lung 
granuloma specific to a beryllium immune response can only occur in 
those with CBD (82 FR at 2492-502). Next, OSHA is removing the phrase 
``associated with airborne exposure to beryllium'' and replacing it 
with ``caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium.'' This change is 
more consistent with the findings in the 2017 final rule that beryllium 
is the causative agent for CBD and that CBD only occurs after 
inhalation of beryllium (82 FR at 2513). Finally, OSHA is clarifying 
that CBD is caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium ``by an 
individual who is beryllium sensitized.'' Along with the revised 
definition of beryllium sensitization discussed above, this revision 
emphasizes to employers and employees the role that beryllium 
sensitization plays in the development of CBD.
    NJH, USW, and Materion agreed that OSHA's definition of CBD should 
be clarified (Document ID 2211, p. 4; 2222, Tr. 50-51; Document ID 
OSHA-2018-0003-0038, p. 17; Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 5). 
Materion supported the changes that OSHA proposed, which it 
characterized as a necessary clarification to ensure the definition 
provided is specific to chronic beryllium disease (Document ID 2237, 
pp. 4-5; OSHA-2018-0003-0038, p. 17). USW similarly supported the 
proposed definition, stating that it clarifies the previous definition 
which ``could be read to apply to any chronic lung disease caused by 
beryllium, including lung cancer'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-00003-0033, 
p. 5). These comments reinforce OSHA's determination that adding the 
term ``granulomatous'' to the definition will better distinguish CBD 
from other occupationally associated chronic pulmonary diseases. As 
OSHA explained in the preamble to the 2017 final rule, the formation of 
the type of lung granuloma specific to a beryllium immune response can 
only occur in those with CBD (82 FR at 2492-502).
    Several commenters expressed concern that the proposed definition 
of chronic beryllium disease does not provide sufficient information to 
guide the diagnosis of CBD, or that aspects of OSHA's proposed 
definition of CBD could complicate the diagnosis of CBD. Comments 
expressing such concern from NJH, ACOEM, ATS, DOSH, and NSSP are 
discussed in detail below. OSHA notes that the standard's definition of 
chronic beryllium disease is not intended to provide criteria for the 
diagnosis of CBD. The agency's intent is to provide readers who may 
have little or no familiarity with CBD with a general understanding of 
the term, not to provide diagnostic criteria for healthcare 
professionals. This is evident from the broadly written 2017 final rule 
definition of chronic beryllium disease: ``a chronic lung disease 
associated with exposure to airborne beryllium'' (82 FR at 2645-46).
    Due to differences in individual cases and circumstances, medical 
specialists may need to apply somewhat different testing regimens and/
or diagnostic criteria to different individuals they evaluate for CBD. 
Furthermore, the diagnostic tools and criteria available to medical 
specialists may change over time. As discussed in the summary and 
explanation for paragraph (k)(7), OSHA believes that the physician at 
the CBD diagnostic center should have the latitude to use any tests he 
or she deems appropriate for the purpose of diagnosing or otherwise 
evaluating CBD in a patient, and has revised paragraph (k)(7) to make 
this clear. Therefore, OSHA has determined that it is neither necessary 
nor appropriate to specify diagnostic criteria in the beryllium 
standard's definition of chronic beryllium disease. Instead, OSHA has 
decided to retain a definition that provides the reader with a general 
understanding of the term.
    NJH and ATS commented that OSHA should adopt a definition of 
chronic beryllium disease based on the previously-mentioned 2014 ATS 
document on diagnosis and management of beryllium sensitization and CBD 
(Document ID 2211, p. 4; 2222, Tr. 50; OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 5). NJH 
suggested the following definition: ``Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) 
is a granulomatous inflammatory response in the lungs of an individual 
who is beryllium sensitized'' (Document ID 2211, p. 4).\5\ In the 
beryllium informal hearing, they appeared to object to the term 
``granulomatous inflammation'' and to prefer the term ``granuloma 
inflammatory process'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 50). NJH stated that OSHA 
should adopt a definition based on the ATS beryllium statement ``that 
says, `Chronic beryllium disease is a granuloma inflammatory process,' 
and note that this is different than granulomatous inflammation or 
granulomas. . . chronic beryllium disease is a granulomatous 
inflammatory process in the lungs of an individual who is beryllium 
sensitized'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 50). NJH further stated that their 
proposed definition ``allows for some flexibility'' in diagnosing CBD 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 50). OSHA notes that the ATS statement primarily 
discusses CBD as a granulomatous inflammatory response in the lungs 
(Document ID 0364).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \5\ In their comments on the general industry NPRM, NJH 
previously suggested that the agency define chronic beryllium 
disease as a disease ``characterized by evidence of granulomatous 
lung inflammation in an individual who is sensitized to beryllium.'' 
According to NJH, this definition would allow for diagnosis based on 
different combinations of clinical evaluation results as detailed in 
the ATS Statement (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 3). OSHA's 
response to NJH's new suggested definition also pertains to this 
previously suggested definition.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    As discussed above, OSHA has determined that it is neither 
necessary nor appropriate to provide diagnostic criteria in the 
beryllium standard's definition of chronic beryllium disease. Instead, 
OSHA has decided to retain a definition that provides the reader with a 
general understanding of the term. OSHA believes that the definition 
the agency proposed--a chronic granulomatous lung disease caused by 
inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who is beryllium-
sensitized--adequately conveys that CBD is granulomatous in nature, and 
that it is not necessary for the agency's purposes to further specify 
that it is an inflammatory process. OSHA has therefore decided not to 
adopt the definition that NJH suggested.
    ACOEM objected to the inclusion of the term ``granulomatous'' in 
the definition of chronic beryllium disease (Document ID 2213, p. 3). 
ACOEM contended that CBD does not always include the presence of 
granulomas and the lung pathology is more consistent with ``mononuclear 
cell interstitial infiltrates.'' According to ACOEM, it is established 
in the medical literature that the lung pathology found in CBD does not 
always include granulomas; lung biopsies may not detect granulomas, 
either due to practical limitations of the


test or because the patient's stage of disease is too early (i.e., the 
cells of the immune system that form granulomas have accumulated in the 
lungs, but have not yet formed into clusters) (Document ID 2213, p.3). 
ACOEM expressed concern that, if OSHA's [a]ddition of the term 
``granulomatous'' to the definition excludes cases where granulomas are 
not present, it ``may result in some workers being unnecessarily 
excluded from appropriate medical care under the OSHA rule, and may 
affect their ability to receive workers' compensation, due to the 
overly narrow definition'' (Document ID 2213 p. 3). ACOEM further noted 
that the presence of beryllium sensitization ``lends specificity to the 
diagnosis''; therefore, it is not necessary to use the term 
``granulomatous'' for the sake of specificity in the definition.
    OSHA disagrees with ACOEM's contention that including the term 
``granulomatous'' in the agency's definition of chronic beryllium 
disease would be inaccurate or overly narrow, and could thereby prevent 
workers from obtaining appropriate medical care or benefits for CBD. To 
begin with, OSHA's definitions in paragraph (b) of the standard are 
intended only to clarify the meaning of terms that appear in the 
standard. The definition of chronic beryllium disease is written with 
the goal of providing readers of the standard, who may have little or 
no familiarity with CBD, with a general understanding of the term. The 
definition does not provide diagnostic criteria for healthcare 
professionals to follow when diagnosing and addressing CBD.
    Moreover, ACOEM's concerns are unfounded because including the term 
``granulomatous'' does not exclude cases of CBD where granulomas have 
not yet formed or are not detected by lung pathology. OSHA agrees with 
ACOEM that CBD includes mononuclear cell infiltrates and can be 
diagnosed in the absence of lung pathology findings of granulomas in 
the lung. As described in the Health Effects section of the 2017 final 
rule, CBD is a pathological continuum which results from lung exposure 
to beryllium. The continuum consists of an asymptomatic early response 
with the recruitment of inflammatory T-cells and other mononuclear 
cells through to the formation of granulomas and frank, chronic disease 
(82 FR at 2491-2502). However, the term ``granulomatous'' does not 
refer only to the presence of granulomas; the term ``granulomatous'' 
inflammation is described in the literature as beginning with chronic 
inflammation predominated by mononuclear phagocyte cells leading to the 
eventual aggregation of these cells into focal lesions called 
granulomas (ATS, Document ID 0364; Ohshimo et al., 2017, Document ID 
2171, p. 2; Williams and Williams, 1983, Document ID 2198). OSHA finds 
that adding the term ``granulomatous'' to the definition of CBD, 
contrary to the concerns raised by ACOEM, does not imply that CBD 
cannot be diagnosed where granulomas have not yet formed or are not 
detected by lung pathology.
    ACOEM also noted that ``the presence of beryllium sensitization (as 
measured in BeLPT using either blood or lung cells) lends specificity 
to the diagnosis,'' which makes including the term ``granulomatous'' 
unnecessary (Document ID 2213, p. 3). OSHA disagrees. First, including 
the term ``granulomatous'' is consistent with the ATS statement ``the 
diagnosis of CBD is based on the demonstration of both BeS and 
granulomatous inflammation on lung biopsy.'' (Document ID 0364, p. e35, 
e43-e45, e55). Based on the ATS statement, NJH also recommended a 
definition of chronic beryllium disease that included a reference to 
``granulomatous inflammation'' (Document ID 2211, p. 4).
    Second, as noted in the summary and explanation section for the 
2020 general industry beryllium final rule (85 FR 42598), OSHA 
acknowledges that it may not always be possible to identify a worker 
for beryllium sensitization using the BeLPT as part of a diagnosis of 
CBD because the BeLPT can yield false-negative results in some 
individuals (see Document ID 0399). This means some individuals may 
actually be sensitized to beryllium even though they have a negative 
BeLPT result; therefore, there is value to adding the term 
``granulomatous'' to lend further specificity. An examining physician 
should have the latitude to diagnose CBD even in the absence of a 
``confirmed positive'' pattern of BeLPT results 85 FR 42598), for 
example, in the presence of lung inflammation. The latitude and 
flexibility provided under these standards affords physicians the 
discretion to diagnose CBD in patients that may not have the classic 
hallmarks of sensitization or CBD (e.g. positive BeLPT or granuloma), 
but have a work history of exposure to beryllium and an undiagnosed 
health issue. However, OSHA emphasizes that the definition of chronic 
beryllium disease is to inform the general reader of this preamble and 
final rule, and is not intended to guide physician diagnosis of CBD.
    In their comments on the 2018 general industry NPRM, ATS 
recommended including diagnostic criteria in the definition, such as 
confirmation of an immune response to beryllium and granulomatous lung 
inflammation using lung biopsy, and that the definition emphasize the 
various approaches which may be used ``[d]epending on the clinical 
setting, feasibility of certain diagnostic tests, and degree of 
diagnostic certainty needed'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 5). 
ATS also expressed concern that OSHA's proposed changes to the 
definition of chronic beryllium disease could create confusion in the 
diagnosis of CBD because, ``[w]hile beryllium sensitization is 
essential to the development of CBD, demonstrating beryllium 
sensitization, as well as granulomatous lung disease on lung pathology, 
can be challenging in certain settings'' (Document ID 0021, p. 5). DOSH 
stated that the proposed definition ``emphasizes beryllium 
sensitization as a factor in chronic beryllium disease in a manner that 
may be misleading'' and emphasized that individuals may be diagnosed 
with CBD without a confirmed positive BeLPT result. DOSH advocated that 
the definition of chronic beryllium disease ``ensure employers and 
medical providers are given a clear expectation of how beryllium 
conditions are properly identified'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0023, 
p. 2).
    Although OSHA agrees with ATS and DOSH that diagnosing CBD does not 
always require confirmation of beryllium sensitization, the agency does 
not believe that references to sensitization should be excluded from 
the definition of chronic beryllium disease. OSHA first notes that 
neither DOSH nor ATS contend that OSHA's definition is inaccurate. 
Furthermore, as OSHA explained previously in its discussion of the 
beryllium sensitization definition, the agency believes that a correct 
understanding of the relationship between beryllium sensitization and 
CBD is key to workers' and employers' understanding of many provisions 
of the beryllium standard. By stating the role that sensitization plays 
in the development of CBD in the standard's definition of chronic 
beryllium disease, OSHA intends to convey clearly to the regulated 
community why protecting workers from becoming beryllium-sensitized is 
key to the prevention of CBD and why workers who are confirmed positive 
for beryllium sensitization should be offered both a clinical 
evaluation for CBD and medical removal protection.
    OSHA acknowledges that it is not always necessary to identify a 
worker as confirmed positive for beryllium sensitization using the 
BeLPT as part of


a diagnosis of CBD and that the BeLPT can yield false-negative results 
in some individuals. For this reason, an examining physician should 
have the latitude to diagnose CBD even in the absence of a ``confirmed 
positive'' pattern of BeLPT results. As explained in the summary and 
explanation of paragraph (k)(7) of the beryllium final rule (2017), 
that provision gives the examining physician this latitude (82 FR at 
2704, 2709). Because the substantive provisions of the standard leave 
the examining physician discretion in diagnosing CBD, OSHA does not 
agree that acknowledging the role of beryllium sensitization in the 
development of CBD will result in diagnostic confusion. As stated 
above, the agency does not intend for the definition to be used for 
diagnostic criteria, but rather to add clarity to the standard and 
provide readers who may have little or no familiarity with CBD with a 
general understanding of the term.
    NSSP recommended the following addition to OSHA's proposed 
definition of chronic beryllium disease: ``The presence of interstitial 
mononuclear cell (T cell) infiltrates (lymphocytosis) is characteristic 
of chronic beryllium disease'' (Document ID 0027, pp. 3-4). NSSP argued 
that the presence of these infiltrates on lung biopsy indicates the 
presence of chronic beryllium disease, and should therefore be included 
in the standard's definition (Document ID 0027, p. 4). OSHA disagrees. 
The agency believes that the term ``granulomatous'' sufficiently 
addresses the presence of T-cell infiltrates, which occur at an early 
stage in the development of granulomas (82 FR at 2492-2502). As 
discussed previously, OSHA's intent in defining chronic beryllium 
disease is to provide the reader a general understanding of what CBD 
is, rather than provide a technical definition for diagnostic use. The 
suggested addition is not necessary to describe the nature of CBD in 
general terms. With the addition of the term ``granulomatous,'' the 
definition is sufficiently specific for OSHA's purposes in the context 
of paragraph (b).
    In summary, for the purposes of this standard OSHA is defining 
chronic beryllium disease as a chronic granulomatous lung disease 
caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who is 
beryllium sensitized. This definition is identical to the definition of 
chronic beryllium disease OSHA proposed in 2019 and includes only minor 
changes from the definition included in the 2017 final standard. OSHA 
is providing this definition to enhance stakeholders' general 
understanding of the beryllium standard; it is neither intended nor 
suitable to provide guidance to medical professionals on the diagnosis 
of CBD. OSHA expects these changes to the 2017 definition of chronic 
beryllium disease will clarify the standard, and will therefore 
maintain safety and health protections for workers. After considering 
these comments and after reviewing the record as a whole (which 
includes the comments and responses detailed in the July 14, 2020, 
general industry final rule (82 FR 42602)), OSHA has decided to amend 
the definition of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) as proposed.

Confirmed Positive

    This final rule defines confirmed positive to mean (1) the person 
tested has had two abnormal BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a 
borderline test result, or three borderline test results, obtained 
within a three-year period; or (2) the result of a more reliable and 
accurate test indicating a person has been identified as having 
beryllium sensitization. The revised definition includes several 
changes to the 2017 definition of confirmed positive and one change 
from the definition of confirmed positive that OSHA proposed in the 
2019 NPRM.
    First, the agency is removing the phrase ``beryllium 
sensitization'' from the first sentence of the definition, which 
previously stated that a person is confirmed positive if that person 
has beryllium sensitization, as indicated by two abnormal BeLPT test 
results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, or three borderline 
test results. OSHA intends that the term confirmed positive act only as 
a trigger for requirements in the standards, such as continued medical 
monitoring and surveillance for the purposes of these standards, and 
not as a general-purpose definition of beryllium sensitization. By 
removing the phrase ``beryllium sensitization'' from the first sentence 
of the definition, the agency hopes to avoid confusion resulting from 
scientific disagreements over whether certain test results, such as 
three borderlines, necessarily prove that sensitization has occurred. 
For purposes of the beryllium standards, any worker with the BeLPT test 
results specified in the definition of confirmed positive should be 
offered an evaluation for CBD with continued medical surveillance as 
well as the option of medical removal protection, even though some 
small percentage of workers who are confirmed positive by this 
definition may not in fact be sensitized to beryllium, as is the case 
for any diagnostic test (Middleton, et. al., 2008, Document ID 0480, p. 
4).\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \6\ In the preamble to the 2017 final rule, OSHA found that 
three borderline BeLPT results recognize a change in a person's 
immune system with respect to beryllium exposure based on Middleton 
et al.'s 2011 finding that three borderline BeLPT results have a 
positive predictive value (PPV) of over 90 percent (82 FR at 2501), 
and therefore the agency included three borderline results in the 
criteria for confirmed positive (82 FR at 2646). While Materion 
contests the findings of the Middleton et al study (2011) regarding 
three borderline BeLPTs, Materion was generally supportive of 
removing sensitization from the definition, stating that the agency 
``wisely splits[s] the definition of beryllium sensitization, which 
is a medical determinant, from confirmed positive, which is a 
testing regimen outcome'' (Document ID 2237, pp. 3-4).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Both USW and Materion supported this proposed revision. USW 
supported removing the phrase beryllium sensitization because, 
``[w]hile it is true that a confirmed positive result of BeLPT testing 
currently leads to a diagnosis of sensitization, linking the two in the 
same definition could lead to unintended hardships for beryllium 
workers'' (Document ID 2242, p. 3). At the December 3, 2019 public 
hearing, USW also explained that a finding of beryllium sensitization 
could, in some states, trigger a statute of limitations under laws 
governing claims for compensation for other adverse health effects 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 24-25). According to USW, ``the word 
`sensitized' is more likely to trigger a statute-of-repose deadline for 
filing a tort suit than the words `confirmed positive,''' and should 
that happen, ``the worker would not be able to receive adequate 
compensation if they later developed chronic beryllium disease'' 
(Document ID 2242, p. 3). Materion commented that ``OSHA's separation 
of beryllium sensitization from confirmed positive can increase the 
number of employees eligible to accept further medical testing by 
institutions such as NJH or to seek OSHA's medical removal option,'' as 
well as the number of employees ``who may choose to be medically 
monitored on a more routine basis at institutions such as NJH'' 
(Document ID 2237, p. 4).
    In its comments on the general industry NPRM, USW also commented 
that the former definition of confirmed positive had acted ``as a de 
facto definition of sensitization'' and that removing the phrase 
``beryllium sensitization'' from this portion of the definition ensures 
that a finding of confirmed positive will trigger medical surveillance 
and medical removal protection, ``without an intermediate stop at a 
finding of sensitization'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 5). 
Similarly, Materion commented in their response to the general industry


NPRM that the revised definition allows individuals with three 
borderline BeLPT results to obtain the protections of the standard, 
including evaluation for CBD and medical removal protection, without 
necessarily being ``declared sensitized'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-
0038, p. 18). Materion further asserted that the change enhances 
employee protection by increasing the number of persons eligible to go 
on to further testing (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0038, p. 19).
    Several commenters disagreed with OSHA's proposal to remove the 
phrase ``beryllium sensitization'' from the definition of confirmed 
positive. NSSP generally expressed disagreement with OSHA's proposal to 
remove ``beryllium sensitization'' from the first part of the confirmed 
positive definition, but did not state the reasons for its concern 
(Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0027, p. 3).
    Several commenters expressed concern that OSHA's proposed revision 
would create confusion. NJH stated that removal of ``beryllium 
sensitization'' would cause confusion as to what the term ``confirmed 
positive'' refers, and stated that workers need to understand that, if 
they are confirmed positive, they have a specific T-cell mediated 
response to beryllium that can result in development of CBD (Document 
ID 2222, Tr. 64; 2211, p. 5). ACOEM commented that ``[s]eparating the 
definition of `confirmed positive' from the definition of beryllium 
sensitization is confusing, unnecessary, and contradicts the accepted 
terminology and definitions employed in the fields of immunology, 
beryllium medical research, and clinical practice . . .'' ACOEM further 
stated that, ``[i]n clinical practice, [the change] will add 
significant confusion, to the detriment of workers and patients,'' 
because ``[t]he medical community is not accustomed to diagnosing a 
patient's medical condition as `confirmed positive,' '' and instead 
refers to patients as being ``beryllium sensitized'' based on ``the 
presence of confirmed positive BeLPTs.'' \7\ (Document ID 2213, p. 2).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \7\ ACOEM also stated that the proposed change would create 
confusion by creating ``misalignment with existing legislation, 
including the Energy Employee Occupational Illness Compensation 
Program Act (1999) and the U.S. Department of Energy's beryllium 
rule (Document ID 2213, p. 2). To the extent that ACOEM suggests 
that OSHA is obliged to adopt definitions that match those used in 
other statutes of federal regulations for the same or similar terms, 
ACOEM is mistaken. OSHA has discretion to adopt appropriate 
definitions for the terms in its beryllium standards, including the 
definition of confirmed positive, which serves as a trigger for 
certain provisions of the beryllium standards. As explained further 
below, OSHA does not agree that the definition of confirmed positive 
that it is adopting in this rule will result in confusion.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ATS and AOEC also expressed concern that, because the medically-
accepted interpretation of BeLPT testing results is that they indicate 
beryllium sensitization, removing the phrase ``beryllium 
sensitization'' from the definition of confirmed positive may cause 
confusion about the condition to which confirmed positive refers 
(Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2). CEL 
cited to, and expressed support for, ATS' and AOEC's comments regarding 
this change, and also expressed concern that, after a worker leaves 
employment, their medical record might only state that they were 
``confirmed positive,'' rather than ``beryllium sensitized,'' which 
could create confusion for medical personnel who may later evaluate or 
treat the worker (Document ID 2208, p. 5).
    Commenters also expressed concern that removing ``beryllium 
sensitization'' from the definition could negatively affect workers' 
ability to obtain workplace protections and other benefits. NJH stated 
that removing ``beryllium sensitized'' from the definition of confirmed 
positive, in conjunction with OSHA's proposal to place a time 
constraint on confirmation testing results in the definition (discussed 
below), might reduce workers' ability to obtain medical testing and 
workplace protections that are required by the rule (Document ID 2243, 
p. 3). NJH also opposed the revised definition in their comments on the 
2018 general industry NPRM, asserting that the removal of the phrase 
``beryllium sensitized'' could prevent individuals who meet the 
definition of being confirmed positive from being identified as 
sensitized (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 4). ATS also stated 
(without explanation) that removing the term ``beryllium 
sensitization'' from the definition of confirmed positive would reduce 
worker protections (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 3).
    Additionally, NJH, ATS, and CEL expressed concern that removing 
``beryllium sensitization'' from the definition of confirmed positive 
would adversely affect workers' ability to obtain workers compensation 
benefits. NJH commented that the proposed change, in conjunction with 
OSHA's proposal to place a time constraint on confirmation testing 
results (discussed below), would prevent individuals from being 
diagnosed with beryllium sensitization, which is medically compensable 
under workers' compensation programs in many states (Document ID 2243, 
p. 3). CEL cited to ATS's stated concern that removing the phrase 
``beryllium sensitization'' would reduce workers' right to file for 
worker's compensation (Document ID 2208, p. 5 (citing 0021, p. 3)).
    Commenters also expressed concern that the proposed revision of the 
confirmed positive definition was inconsistent with other parts of the 
standard. CEL and ACOEM claimed that the change would create an 
inconsistency with the definition of Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD), 
which defines CBD as ``a chronic granulomatous lung disease caused by 
inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who is beryllium-
sensitized'' (emphasis added) (Document ID 2208, p. 5; 2213, p. 2). CEL 
also expressed concern that ``the definition of beryllium sensitized no 
longer refers to the definition of `confirmed positive,' which defines 
the criteria for being determined beryllium sensitized.'' Additionally, 
CEL noted that, paragraph (k)(5)(i)(A) of the rule, which articulates 
the necessary contents of the written medical report given to the 
employee under the standard's medical surveillance requirements, 
``equates `beryllium sensitization' with an employee's status as 
`confirmed positive' which is consistent with the original 2017 
standards, but not consistent with the decoupling of these terms in the 
current proposal'' (Document ID 2208, p. 5).
    Following consideration of the concerns raised by these 
organizations, OSHA disagrees that removing the phrase ``beryllium 
sensitization'' from the first sentence of the definition of confirmed 
positive will create confusion, reduce worker protections, or conflict 
with other aspects of the regulatory text. The provisions of the 
standards intended to benefit workers who may be sensitized 
(specifically, evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center and medical 
removal protection) are available to all workers who meet the 
definition of confirmed positive. Therefore, removing the term 
``beryllium sensitized'' from the first sentence of the definition will 
not change the access to these benefits for any workers. By removing 
the term ``beryllium sensitized'' from the first sentence of the 
definition, OSHA seeks to ensure that workers with three borderline 
BeLPT results (or other patterns of test results that some PLHCPs may 
consider ambiguous) will receive the benefits of the standard 
regardless of whether their PLHCP views their results as firm evidence 
of


sensitization.\8\ Furthermore, OSHA disagrees that removing the 
reference to ``beryllium sensitized'' will lead to confusion about what 
the BeLPT results are supposed to indicate because the second sentence 
of the definition of confirmed positive makes clear that a worker who 
has been diagnosed with beryllium sensitization would also meet the 
definition of confirmed positive: ``It [i.e., confirmed positive] also 
means the result of a more reliable and accurate test indicating a 
person has been identified as having beryllium sensitization.''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \8\ OSHA is also unpersuaded by the comments expressing concern 
that OSHA's revision of the definition of confirmed positive in the 
beryllium standards would affect workers' ability to obtain workers 
compensation benefits. ATS's comment did not explain how the 
definition of confirmed positive in the beryllium standard could 
affect worker's compensation claims, but at least one other 
commenter questioned the ATS's assertion (see Document ID 0038, p. 
19). NJH expressed concern that the change would prevent individuals 
from being diagnosed with beryllium sensitization, which would 
trigger their eligibility for benefits under some states' workers 
compensation programs (Document ID 2243, p. 3). OSHA intends for the 
definition of confirmed positive in paragraph (b) to serve only as a 
trigger for certain provisions of the beryllium standards. How OSHA 
defines this phrase for purposes of the beryllium standards in no 
way limits healthcare professionals' ability or incentive to 
diagnose beryllium sensitization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OSHA also disagrees with the commenters' concern that the proposed 
definition will create inconsistencies within the standard. CEL's 
concern that removing the term ``beryllium sensitized'' from the first 
sentence of confirmed positive will create an inconsistency with 
paragraph (k)(5)(i)(A) because that provision ``equates `beryllium 
sensitization' with an employee's status as `confirmed positive' is 
misplaced. Paragraph (k)(5)(i)(A), which is not being changed in this 
final rule, requires that the licensed physician's written medical 
report for the employee include any detected medical condition, such as 
CBD or beryllium sensitization (i.e., the employee is confirmed 
positive, as defined in paragraph (b) of the standard), that may place 
the employee at increased risk from further airborne exposure. As 
explained above, the purpose of the agency's definition of confirmed 
positive is to establish the test results that trigger the benefits in 
the standards aimed at protecting potentially beryllium-sensitized 
individuals (specifically, an evaluation for CBD with continued medical 
surveillance, and the option of medical removal protection). The 
phrasing of the confirmed positive definition does not affect the 
relevant detectable medical conditions that physicians are instructed 
to include in their written reports under paragraph (k)(5)(i)(A). The 
reference to confirmed positive in paragraph (k)(5)(i)(A) is intended 
to signal that, where a physician has identified a worker as having 
beryllium sensitization, that individual also satisfies the definition 
of confirmed positive.
    Nor does removing the reference to ``beryllium sensitized'' from 
the definition of confirmed positive create an inconsistency with the 
standards' definitions of chronic beryllium disease or beryllium 
sensitization. As discussed above, the definition of confirmed positive 
explains the test results that, in the context of these beryllium 
standards, triggers the benefits intended to protect individuals who 
may be beryllium-sensitized. Such results include both employees who 
are identified as having beryllium sensitization, and employees who 
have three borderline BeLPT results (or other patterns of test results 
that some PLHCPs may consider ambiguous) but may not be affirmatively 
identified by the physician as beryllium-sensitized. The definitions of 
beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are 
informational definitions that do not trigger any specific protections 
in the standards, and are solely included to help readers generally 
understand those terms. The definition of chronic beryllium disease 
(CBD) clarifies that individuals that have CBD have beryllium 
sensitization, and the definition of beryllium sensitization explains 
that ``[w]hile not every beryllium-sensitized person will develop CBD, 
beryllium sensitization is essential for development of CBD.'' OSHA 
finds no conflict between these definitions and the definition of 
confirmed positive.
    An additional change to the definition of confirmed positive 
provides that the findings of two abnormal, one abnormal and one 
borderline, or three borderline results need to occur from BeLPTs 
conducted within a three-year period. This change in the definition of 
confirmed positive differs from the proposal and is based on comments 
submitted to the record following publication of the 2018 NPRM for 
general industry and the 2019 NPRM for construction and shipyards.
    The 2017 final rule did not specify a time limit within which the 
BeLPT tests that contribute toward a finding of ``confirmed positive'' 
must occur. After publication of the 2017 final rule, stakeholders 
suggested to OSHA that the definition of confirmed positive could be 
interpreted as meaning that findings of two abnormal, one abnormal and 
one borderline, or three borderline results over any time period, even 
as long as 10 years, would result in the employee being confirmed 
positive and automatically referred to a CBD diagnostic center for 
evaluation. As discussed in the preamble to the 2017 standard, clinical 
evaluation for CBD involves bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy (82 FR at 
2497) which, like all invasive medical procedures, carry risks of 
infection and other complications.\9\ Given such risks, and the 
possibility that some repeat abnormal or borderline results obtained 
over a long period of time could be false positives, it was not the 
agency's intent that workers with rarely recurring abnormal or 
borderline BeLPT results should necessarily proceed to evaluation at a 
CBD diagnostic center unless recommended to do so by their examining 
physician. At the same time, OSHA notes that under paragraph 
(k)(5)(iii), the licensed physician performing the BeLPT testing 
retains the discretion to refer an employee to a CBD diagnostic center 
if the licensed physician deems it appropriate, regardless of the BeLPT 
result.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \9\ Bronchoalveolar lavage is a method of ``washing'' the lungs 
with fluid inserted via a flexible fiberoptic instrument known as a 
bronchoscope, removing the fluid and analyzing the content for the 
inclusion of immune cells reactive to beryllium exposure (82 FR at 
2497).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed that any combination of test 
results specified in the definition of confirmed positive must result 
from the tests conducted in one cycle of testing, including the initial 
BeLPT and the follow-up retesting offered within 30 days of an abnormal 
or borderline result (paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E)). As outlined in proposed 
paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E), an employee would be offered a follow-up BeLPT 
within 30 days if the initial test result is anything other than 
normal, unless the employee had been confirmed positive (e.g., if the 
initial BeLPT was performed on a split sample and showed two abnormal 
results). Thus, for example, if an employee's initial test result was 
abnormal, and the result of the follow-up testing offered to confirm 
the initial test result was abnormal or borderline, the employee would 
be confirmed positive. Alternatively, if the result of the follow-up 
testing offered to confirm the initial abnormal test result was normal, 
the employee would not be confirmed positive. Any additional abnormal 
or borderline results obtained from the next required BeLPT for that 
employee (typically, two years later) would not identify that employee 
as confirmed positive under the proposed modification to confirmed 
positive.


OSHA requested comments on the appropriateness of this proposed time 
period.
    Several stakeholders, including Materion, NJH, ACOEM, AFL-CIO, CEL, 
and USW, submitted comments regarding OSHA's proposal to require that 
the test results specified in the agency's definition of confirmed 
positive must occur within a single testing cycle. OSHA also received 
comments from Materion, NJH, ATS, DOSH, NSSP, USW, and AOEC on this 
proposed revision in the 2018 NPRM for general industry.
    Commenters focused on several aspects of the proposed timing. 
First, many of the comments focused on the logistics of OSHA's proposed 
change. NJH, ACOEM, AFL-CIO, USW, ATS, DOSH, AOEC, and NSSP all 
indicated that requiring results with a 30-day testing cycle could 
create logistical challenges, for example due to repeat testing 
requirements or for businesses in remote areas with access to limited 
healthcare facilities (Document ID 2211, pp. 5-7; 2213, pp. 2-3; 2244, 
pp. 17-18; OSHA-2018-0003-0033, p. 5; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 4; OSHA-
2018-0003-0021, p. 4; OSHA-2018-0003-0024, p. 1; OSHA-2018-0003-0027, 
p. 3). Materion agreed with these commenters that ``the 30 day initial 
testing period may not allow enough time to complete retesting of 
workers due to issues beyond the control of the employer or employee'' 
(Document ID 2237, p. 5).\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \10\ In their comments on the 2018 general industry NPRM, 
Materion supported the proposed definition of confirmed positive, 
stating that a 30-day allowance for follow-up testing after a first 
abnormal or borderline BeLPT result is appropriate to ensure that 
testing is completed in a timely manner (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-
0038, p. 17).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In this final rule and preamble, OSHA clarifies that it did not 
intend that the initial and follow-up tests had to be completed and 
interpreted within 30 days. OSHA intended that the test results used to 
determine if a worker is confirmed positive be obtained during one 
cycle of testing (i.e., an initial or periodic examination), including 
follow-up testing conducted within 30 days of an abnormal or borderline 
result.
    Secondly, stakeholders commented on the appropriateness of limiting 
the use of the BeLPT from one test cycle in determining if a worker is 
confirmed positive. Commenters from public health organizations raised 
concerns that limiting test results to one test cycle would affect the 
ability to identify workers who should be referred for a CBD evaluation 
and receive other protections under the standard. NJH stated that 
OSHA's proposal to place a time constraint on confirmation testing 
results would reduce workers' ability to obtain medical testing and 
workplace protections that are required by the rule.\11\ NJH proposed 
the following definition be used: ``Confirmed positive means the person 
tested has beryllium sensitization as demonstrated by two abnormal 
BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, three 
borderline test results or the result of a more reliable and accurate 
test for sensitization'' (Document ID 2243, p. 3).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \11\ As discussed above, NJH expressed concern that OSHA's 
proposed definition of confirmed positive could prevent individuals 
from being diagnosed with beryllium sensitization, and thereby 
prevent them from receiving workers' compensation benefits (Document 
ID 2243, p. 3). OSHA intends the definition of confirmed positive to 
serve only as a trigger for certain provisions of the beryllium 
standards. How OSHA defines this phrase for purposes of the 
beryllium standards in no way limits healthcare professionals' 
ability or incentive to diagnose beryllium sensitization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Other public health organizations, including ACOEM, DOSH, ATS, 
NSSP, AOEC, and CEL, agreed with NJH that workers who are sensitized to 
beryllium may show varying test results over time, and restricting the 
time period for determining ``confirmed positive'' status to 30 days 
would cause sensitized individuals to go undetected (Document ID 2213, 
pp. 2-3; 2208, pp. 3-4; OSHA-2018-0003-0023, p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-0021, 
p. 2; OSHA-2018-0003-0027, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2). ACOEM 
commented that the 30-day cycle would exclude workers who might have 
confirmatory tests several years after the initial first positive 
result, and stated that there is potential for confirmatory results 
could take up to 10 years to occur. ACOEM also stated that ``[t]here is 
no justification or need for a restrictive time limit for the 
occurrence of confirmatory tests,'' but if OSHA determined that a time 
limit was needed as a practical matter, ACOEM stated that at least 
three years should be permitted for repeat testing to identify 
confirmed positive results (Document ID 2213, p. 2).
    ATS and AOEC recommended that results from tests performed up to at 
least three years after the initial abnormal or borderline test result 
should be used to determine whether the person is confirmed positive 
for beryllium sensitization (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 2; 
OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2). ATS stated that a timeframe of at least 
three years, which encompasses two rounds of regularly scheduled 
testing required biennially by the beryllium standard, would adequately 
address its concerns regarding logistical feasibility, would improve 
diagnostic accuracy, and would help ensure that sensitized workers are 
identified (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 4). The ATS Statement 
on beryllium sensitization recommends a three-year testing cycle to 
confirm beryllium sensitization (Document ID 0364, p. e35). AOEC agreed 
that consideration of BeLPT test results obtained during a time period 
of at least three years ``will increase the potential that workers are 
accurately diagnosed with beryllium sensitization [and] will receive 
the necessary care'' (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0028 p. 2). NABTU 
noted that the Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Trades Screening 
Program also uses a three year testing cycle to confirm workers 
positive for sensitization (Document ID 2236, p. 2). CEL also commented 
that ``OSHA should significantly lengthen the period allowed between 
initial and confirmatory testing and develop a testing protocol that is 
both practicable and based on science'' (Document ID 2208, p. 4).
    The approaches recommended by the ATS and the AOEC are similar to 
the approach used by NJH in providing medical surveillance consultation 
to workforces that use beryllium. NJH stated that, if an individual's 
BeLPT results are abnormal and normal on their initial round of BeLPT 
testing, they will usually request another BeLPT within a month. If the 
result of that test is normal, they do not request further testing 
until the next regularly scheduled BeLPT. If the result of the next 
regularly scheduled BeLPT comes back abnormal, they refer the worker 
for clinical evaluation even though the tests are separated by the two-
year testing cycle (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 5).
    NJH submitted new, unpublished evidence to the record supporting 
the appropriateness of extending the test period to at least three 
years (Document ID 2243, p. 5). NJH's unpublished data was collected 
from patients that were ultimately diagnosed with CBD by either NJH or 
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The data (as reported in 
Tables 1 and 2 below) shows the timeframe from the initial abnormal 
BeLPT to the second abnormal BeLPT that is required to trigger a 
clinical evaluation for CBD (Document ID 2243, p. 5).




                 Table 1--NJH Days To Confirmed Positive
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Number          Percent
             Number of days                  confirmed       confirmed
------------------------------------------------------------------------
30......................................              44              23
60......................................              93              48
90......................................             122              63
120.....................................             136              70
150.....................................             144              74
180.....................................             155              80
1 year..................................             169              87
2 years.................................             181              93
3 years.................................             186              96
> 3 years...............................             194             100
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Table 2--ORAU Days To Confirmed Positive
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Number          Percent
             Number of days                  confirmed       confirmed
------------------------------------------------------------------------
30......................................              42              17
60......................................             107              44
90......................................             126              52
120.....................................             139              58
150.....................................             147              61
180.....................................             148              61
1 year..................................             182              76
2 years.................................             201              83
3 years.................................             206              85
> 3 years...............................             241             100
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tables 1 & 2 adapted from Document ID 2243, p. 5.

    As indicated by the evidence in Tables 1 and 2, many workers who 
develop CBD have abnormal or borderline results that do not immediately 
repeat upon retesting. To the contrary, many CBD patients have a series 
of tests which alternate between normal and abnormal. BeLPT data from 
Table 1, based on NJH's extensive experience, show that the BeLPT does 
not yield consistently abnormal results among CBD patients. Of 194 
patients diagnosed with CBD at NJH, the length of time between abnormal 
results ranged from 14 days to 5.8 years, with a 95th percentile of 2.9 
years. In this group, 150 patients (or 77 percent) would not have been 
evaluated for CBD if two abnormal BeLPT results were required to occur 
within a 30-day testing cycle (Document ID 2243, p. 5; OSHA-2018-0003-
0022, p. 5). Similar findings are shown in Table 2 (BeLPT data from 
ORAU, also submitted by NJH (Document ID 2238, p. 5)). Data from Table 
2 indicates that 83 percent (199 patients) of individuals who went on 
to develop CBD would not have been evaluated for CBD if two abnormal 
BeLPT results were required to occur within a 30-day testing cycle 
(Document ID 2243, p. 5).
    Although the information NJH submitted to the record is 
unpublished, their findings are consistent with published studies. 
Kreiss et al. (1997) reported that nine individuals had initial 
abnormal BeLPT results followed by two normal tests; six of those 
individuals were re-tested approximately one year later and four were 
confirmed positive for beryllium sensitization based on abnormal BeLPT 
results (Document ID 1360, pp. 610-12). These findings suggest a high 
rate of false-negative results and are consistent with results reported 
in a study by Stange et al. (2004). That study found an average false-
positive rate of 1.09 percent, and a false-negative rate of 27.7 
percent for the BeLPT (Document ID 1402, p. 459).
    Stakeholders provided similar comments, in response to OSHA's 
proposed definition of confirmed positive in the 2018 general industry 
NPRM, which was identical to the revised definition of confirmed 
positive proposed in the 2019 NPRM for construction and shipyards. For 
example, NSSP cited ORAU data (the same data submitted by NJH and shown 
in Table 2) from healthcare providers to demonstrate that a 30-day 
testing cycle is insufficient to properly identify sensitized workers. 
NSSP noted that, in over 20 years of conducting BeLPTs in worker 
populations, ORAU observed approximate median times of 45 days (range 
of 3 days to 16 years) between first and second abnormal tests, 1.5 
years (range of 30 days to 11 years) for the abnormal/borderline test 
combination and 1 year (range of 30 days to 11 years) for three 
borderlines (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0027, p. 3). Under the proposed 
30-day requirement, the NSSP stated that the majority of workers who 
have been identified as sensitized in the past would not meet the 
proposed definition of confirmed positive (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-
0027, p. 3).
    Following consideration of the comments and of the new evidence 
submitted to the record following the proposal, OSHA is convinced that 
some workers who are ultimately found to be sensitized to beryllium or 
diagnosed with CBD may have alternating abnormal and normal BeLPT 
results, and that the time period for abnormal or borderline results to 
repeat can be months or years. OSHA is also convinced that requiring 
two abnormal, an abnormal and borderline, or three borderline results 
to occur in one cycle of an initial or periodic exam before an employee 
can be confirmed positive could result in beryllium sensitization or 
CBD going undetected in many employees. This is demonstrated by the 
unpublished data submitted by NJH showing that a substantial percentage 
of individuals with CBD (77 percent) may not have been referred for 
further testing based on results obtained within a 30-day cycle of 
testing and is confirmed by the data from ORAU that NSSP presented in 
response to the 2018 general industry NPRM (85 FR42605). Therefore, 
OSHA finds that its proposed change would have the unintended and 
unacceptable consequence of reducing employee protections because some 
employees who are sensitized or have CBD would be deprived of the 
benefits available through the standard, such as a timely evaluation at 
a CBD diagnostic center. In addition, requiring that results be 
obtained in one test cycle is not consistent with the approaches 
currently applied or supported by the medical community.
    For these reasons, OSHA is revising the definition of confirmed 
positive to specify that the findings of two abnormal, one abnormal and 
one borderline, or three borderline results must be obtained from 
BeLPTs conducted within a three-year period. OSHA agrees with the ATS 
and the AOEC that a three-year period will facilitate the 
identification of sensitized workers enrolled in medical surveillance 
(see Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0022, p. 5; OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2; 
Document ID 0364, p. e35). In addition, this approach is consistent 
with the practices and recommendations from the public health 
community, including NJH and DOE, which provides beryllium-related 
medical surveillance consultation. OSHA believes that allowing a worker 
to be confirmed positive based on BeLPT results obtained over a three-
year time period strikes a reasonable balance that would allow a timely 
evaluation for CBD, while at the same time, maintaining OSHA's original 
intent that a confirmed positive finding not be based on results 
obtained over an indefinite time period.
    OSHA emphasizes that this revision does not modify the requirements 
of paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(E). Under that paragraph, if the results of the 
BeLPT are other than normal, a follow-up BeLPT must be offered within 
30 days of receiving the results, unless the employee has been 
confirmed positive. Only other than normal BeLPT results must be 
followed up within 30 days of the same test cycle (i.e., an initial or 
periodic medical examination).
    As an example, an employee who receives a borderline result during 
one periodic examination conducted in 2020 would be retested within 30 
days, and if the follow-up test is normal, testing would stop. That 
employee would be offered another BeLPT at the next


periodic examination conducted in 2022. However, if the result of the 
2022 test is borderline, the employee would be retested within 30 days 
of that test result receipt, and if the follow-up test is borderline, 
the employee would be confirmed positive because of receiving three 
borderline tests within three years. A three-year period for the 
employee to be confirmed positive would ensure sufficient time for such 
follow-up tests that may need to be conducted over two cycles of 
medical examinations.
    In their comments on the 2018 NPRM for general industry, the U.S. 
Department of Defense (DOD) recommended changing the term ``confirmed 
positive'' to another term such as ``confirmed non-negative,'' 
``confirmed finding of concern,'' or ``pattern of concern.'' According 
to the DOD, the term ``confirmed positive'' typically ``implies an 
initial positive test that was repeated with another test or another, 
more sensitive test, which confirms the initial positive test result'' 
(Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0029, p. 2). As OSHA explained in the 
general industry final rule Summary and Explanation (85 FR 42606), 
however, the CBD literature, commonly treats individuals as confirmed 
positive for sensitization through sequentially conducted BeLPTs (see, 
for example, the ATS Statement on Diagnosis and Management of Beryllium 
Sensitivity and Chronic Beryllium Disease, ATS 2014, Document ID 0364, 
p. e41; see also Document ID 1543, 0603, 0398, 1403, 1449). 
Additionally, OSHA again emphasizes that terms defined in the beryllium 
standards are defined only for purposes of the standard and are not 
intended as diagnostic, scientific, or all-purpose definitions. OSHA 
believes that its definition of confirmed positive clearly indicates 
what that term means for purposes of the beryllium standards and 
therefore disagrees with DOD's concern that the term may cause 
confusion. Accordingly, OSHA is retaining the term ``confirmed 
positive'' in this final standard.

Emergency

    Finally, OSHA proposed to remove references to the term emergency 
throughout the construction and shipyards standards, including the 
definition in paragraph (b). The agency explained that, unlike in 
general industry, the construction and shipyards industries--where 
exposure to beryllium is almost exclusively limited to trace quantities 
from abrasive blasting and welding operations--do not have emergencies 
in which exposures to beryllium will differ from the normal conditions 
of work. Specifically, OSHA reasoned that an uncontrolled release of 
airborne beryllium in these industries (such as a release resulting 
from a failure of the blasting control equipment, a spill of the 
abrasive blasting media, or failure of the ventilation system for 
welding operations) would occur only during the performance of routine 
tasks already associated with the airborne release of beryllium; that 
is, during abrasive blasting or welding processes. The agency explained 
that it anticipates employees working in the immediate vicinity of an 
uncontrolled release of airborne beryllium in these contexts would 
already be protected from exposure by the standards' existing 
requirements for respiratory protection (paragraph (g)), medical 
surveillance (paragraph (k)), and hazard communication (paragraph (m)) 
due to their existing exposure to airborne beryllium (84 FR at 53909; 
see also id. at 53912, 53918-20).
    Accordingly, OSHA preliminarily determined that no requirements 
should be triggered for emergencies in construction and shipyards and 
proposed to remove references to emergencies in provisions related to 
respiratory protection (paragraph (g)), medical surveillance (paragraph 
(k)), and hazard communication (paragraph (m)). The agency also 
preliminarily determined that without these provisions it would be 
unnecessary to define the term emergency in paragraph (b) (84 FR 
53909).
    Some commenters objected to the proposed removal of provisions 
relating to emergencies. Specifically, these commenters took issue with 
OSHA's determination that an uncontrolled release of beryllium in the 
construction and shipyards industries would not create exposures that 
differ from normal operations. For a full discussion of these comments 
and the agency's response, see the summary and explanation for 
paragraph (g). In short, the agency is not persuaded that the types of 
uncontrolled releases that necessitated emergency provisions in the 
general industry standard are present in the construction and shipyards 
industries. Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to remove all 
references to ``emergency'' or ``emergencies'' throughout the 
construction and shipyards standards. Because those terms no longer 
appear in the standards' requirements, OSHA is also finalizing its 
proposal to remove the definition of the term ``emergency'' from 
paragraph (b).
    This final rule makes one additional revision to paragraph (b) in 
both standards. As explained in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (j), OSHA is removing the reference to HEPA-filtered 
vacuuming in the housekeeping requirements of revised paragraphs (j)(1) 
and (2). In the NPRM, OSHA neglected to remove the definition for high-
efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in paragraph (b), despite the 
fact that there are no longer any provisions in either standard that 
reference HEPA-filters. OSHA has removed this definition in this final 
rule. This change has no substantive effect on any requirements in the 
standards and OSHA considers this a technical correction.

Paragraph (f) Methods of Compliance

    Paragraph (f) of the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards requires employers to implement methods for reducing employee 
exposure to beryllium through a detailed written exposure control plan, 
engineering and work practice controls, and a prohibition on rotating 
employees to achieve compliance with the PEL. In the 2017 final rule, 
OSHA determined that written plans would ``be instrumental in ensuring 
that employers comprehensively and consistently protect their 
employees'' (82 FR at 2668). OSHA also concluded that requiring 
reliance on engineering and work practice controls, rather than on 
respirator use, is consistent with good industrial hygiene practice and 
with OSHA's traditional approach to health standards (82 FR at 2672).
    While extending these provisions to the construction and shipyards 
industry in the 2017 final rule, OSHA acknowledged that exposures to 
beryllium in these industries are limited primarily to a few 
operations, abrasive blasting in construction and shipyards and some 
welding operations in shipyards (82 FR at 2637-38). With respect to 
abrasive blasting, while the extremely high exposures to airborne 
particulate during the blasting operation can expose workers to 
beryllium in excess of the PEL, the blasting materials contain only 
trace amounts of beryllium (materials such as coal slag normally 
contain approximately 0.11 [micro]g/g or 0.00001%) (see 2017 FEA, 
Document ID 2042, p. IV-632, Table IV.69; 82 FR at 2638). Moreover, 
OSHA had evidence of beryllium exposure during only limited welding 
operations in shipyards (only 4 of 127 sample results showed detectable 
levels of airborne beryllium) (see 2017 FEA, Document ID 2042, p. IV-
580). Nonetheless, OSHA applied the same requirements to these 
industries as to general industry, where the operations with beryllium 
exposure are significantly more varied and employees


are exposed to materials with significantly higher beryllium content.
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed to revise the requirements in 
paragraph (f) in light of the very narrow set of affected operations 
and the limited extent of beryllium exposure in the construction and 
shipyards industries. OSHA explained that some provisions in paragraph 
(f)--although appropriate in the general industry context--may be 
unnecessary to protect employees in the construction and shipyards 
industries (84 FR at 53909-10). Likewise, OSHA preliminarily determined 
that provisions relating solely to dermal contact with beryllium should 
not apply in the construction and shipyards industries, where exposures 
primarily involve materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium 
(84 FR at 53909) or, in the case of welding, where OSHA believes the 
process and materials do not present a dermal contact risk (see 84 FR 
at 53906). Accordingly, OSHA proposed several revisions to both 
paragraph (f)(1) (Written exposure control plan) and (2) (Engineering 
and work practice controls) in the construction and shipyards 
standards.
    For both the construction and shipyards beryllium standards, 
paragraph (f)(1) in this final rule requires the employer to establish, 
implement, and maintain a written exposure control plan that includes: 
a list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to involve 
exposure to beryllium; a list of engineering controls, work practices, 
and respiratory protection required by paragraph (f)(2); and a list of 
personal protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (h) 
(see paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(A), (B) and (C), respectively). For the 
construction standard, the written plan must also include procedures to 
restrict access to work areas where exposures to beryllium could 
reasonably be expected to exceed the TWA PEL or STEL (paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(D)). Both the construction (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E)) and 
shipyards (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D)) standards require the employer to 
include procedures to ensure the integrity of each containment used to 
minimize exposures to employees outside of containments (such as tarps 
or structures used to keep sandblasting debris within an enclosed area 
during abrasive blasting operations). Paragraphs (f)(1)(ii) and (iii) 
further provide requirements for maintaining, reviewing, and evaluating 
the written exposure control plan and providing access to the plan to 
each employee who is, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to 
airborne beryllium. In the construction standard, the written exposure 
control plan must be implemented by a competent person, as defined by 
paragraph (b) (paragraph (e)(2)).
    Paragraph (f)(1) in this final rule contains several changes from 
the prior standards, as proposed in the December 2019 NPRM. First, OSHA 
proposed to revise paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A) by removing the words 
``airborne'' and ``or dermal contact with'' as qualifiers for exposure 
to beryllium, so as to require simply a list of operations and job 
titles reasonably expected to involve exposure to beryllium. Second, 
OSHA proposed to revoke paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B) and (C), which required 
additional lists of operations and job titles involving exposure at or 
above the action level and above the TWA PEL or STEL, respectively. 
OSHA reasoned that, given the small number of operations with beryllium 
exposure in construction and shipyards, the list of operations and job 
titles in these categories would be the same as those required by 
paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A). As such, any additional lists would be 
unnecessary and redundant (84 FR at 53910-11).
    OSHA also proposed to revoke the requirements that the employer 
include in the written exposure control plan procedures for minimizing 
cross-contamination (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D)) and procedures for 
minimizing the migration of beryllium within or to locations outside 
the workplace (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E)) (84 FR at 53910). OSHA explained 
that the original intent of these requirements was to ensure that 
workers not involved in beryllium-related operations would not be 
unintentionally exposed to beryllium in excess of the PEL. With respect 
to the construction standard, OSHA reasoned that the requirement to 
include procedures in the written exposure control plan to restrict 
access to work areas where exposures to beryllium could reasonably be 
expected to exceed the TWA PEL or STEL (formerly paragraph (f)(i)(E), 
renumbered as (f)(i)(D)), along with the requirement that these 
procedures be implemented by a competent person (paragraph (e)(2)), 
would be sufficient to control cross-contamination and migration of 
beryllium from abrasive blasting operations. For the shipyard standard, 
OSHA retained requirements for regulated areas (paragraph (e)), which 
require that employers designate areas where exposures to beryllium 
could exceed the PELs and limit access to authorized employees. To 
further limit cross-contamination and migration, OSHA proposed to add a 
new paragraph in both the construction ((f)(1)(i)(E)) and shipyards 
((f)(1)(i)(D)) standards to require that the written exposure control 
plan include procedures to ensure the integrity of each containment 
used to minimize exposures to employees outside the containment (such 
as tarps or structures used to keep sandblasting debris within an 
enclosed area during abrasive blasting operations).
    OSHA next proposed to remove the requirement that the employer 
include in the written exposure control plan procedures for removing, 
laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and disposing of beryllium-
contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment, including 
respirators (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(H)), because the agency had also 
proposed to remove several requirements pertaining to such procedures 
(84 FR at 53911). Specifically, OSHA proposed to remove the 
requirements that the employer ensure that: Beryllium-contaminated PPE 
is stored and kept separate from street clothes and that storage 
facilities prevent cross-contamination as specified in the written 
exposure control plan (paragraph (h)(2)(iii)); beryllium-contaminated 
PPE is only removed from the workplace by employees who are authorized 
to do so for the purpose of laundering, cleaning, maintaining, or 
disposing of such PPE (paragraph (h)(2)(iv)); PPE removed from the 
workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal be placed 
in closed, impermeable bags or containers and labeled appropriately 
(paragraph (h)(2)(v)); and any person or business entity who launders, 
cleans or repairs PPE required by the standards be informed, in 
writing, of the potentially harmful effects of beryllium and of the 
need to handle the PPE in accordance with OSHA's beryllium standards 
(paragraph (h)(3)(iii)). With the proposed removal of those paragraphs, 
the remaining requirements that would relate to paragraph (f)(1)(i)(H) 
include paragraphs (h)(2)(i) and (ii), pertaining to removal of PPE; 
paragraph (h)(3)(i), pertaining to cleaning and maintenance of PPE; and 
paragraph (h)(3)(ii), pertaining to methods of removing beryllium from 
PPE. In light of the proposed removal of several of the requirements 
for removing, laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and disposing 
of beryllium-contaminated PPE, OSHA stated that it believed it 
unnecessary to include such procedures in the written plan (84 FR at 
53911).
    Finally, as with paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A), OSHA proposed to revise 
paragraph (f)(1)(ii)(B) to refer simply to ``exposure to'' rather than 
``airborne exposure to or dermal contact with'' beryllium (84 FR


at 53911).\12\ OSHA's proposal to revise this paragraph, which 
previously required the employer to review, evaluate, and update the 
written exposure control plan, as necessary, when notified that an 
employee shows signs or symptoms associated with airborne exposure to 
or dermal contact with beryllium, is consistent with other paragraphs 
where the agency is simplifying the language in a similar manner (e.g., 
paragraphs (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i), Medical surveillance) and is 
not intended to alter the meaning of the provision. OSHA received a 
number of comments on its proposed revisions to paragraph (f). These 
comments and OSHA's final determinations are discussed below.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \12\ In the Amendments to Standards section of the NPRM (84 FR 
at 53951-54), which identifies precisely how the proposal would 
amend the Code of Federal Regulations, OSHA inadvertently failed to 
remove the word ``airborne'' as a qualifier for ``exposure'' in 
paragraph (f)(1)(ii)(B) of both standards. However, the summary and 
explanation of paragraph (f) clearly identified OSHA's intent to 
remove both ``airborne'' and ``dermal contact with'' from the 
provision and leave simply ``exposure to beryllium'' (see 84 FR at 
53911). The only commenter to address the change referred to the 
correct language (NJH, Document ID 2211, p. 9). Accordingly, OSHA 
considers this a harmless error and has corrected the appropriate 
language in the Amendments to Standards section of this final rule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comments on the Nature and Extent of Beryllium Exposure in the 
Construction and Shipyards Industries

    A primary issue raised by several commenters, both with respect to 
the proposed changes to paragraph (f) and to the rest of the proposal, 
involved whether OSHA has appropriately characterized the jobs and 
operations in the construction and shipyards industries that present 
beryllium exposures of concern. On the one hand, the National 
Electrical Contractors Association (NECA), the National Demolition 
Association (NDA), and the Construction Industry Safety Coalition 
(CISC) argued that a written exposure control plan is unnecessary in 
the construction industry in light of the limited operations that 
create exposures of concern. Specifically, NECA contended that 
beryllium exposure in construction is limited to abrasive blasting, and 
therefore ``promulgating a rule that would require all employers to 
document and implement a written exposure control plan for beryllium 
creates additional and undue burdens on employers and employees in the 
construction industry'' (Document ID 2209, p. 1). CISC and NDA both 
stated that, in order to create a written exposure control plan, 
construction employers ``will be required to assess all workplace 
exposures, jobs, tasks, and work to be performed to determine whether 
beryllium is present in trace amounts'' (Document ID 2203, p. 16; 2205, 
p. 2). According to CISC, this is a particular problem in the 
construction industry because of the ``range of exposures that could 
exist as a result of naturally occurring beryllium or airborne 
exposures of beryllium from aggregate or other components of 
construction material containing trace amounts of beryllium'' (Document 
ID 2203, p. 2). Like NECA, CISC argued that it would be inappropriate 
to require employers to engage in the ``daunting task'' of analyzing 
beryllium exposures on their worksites, given that OSHA has not 
identified exposures of concern in construction outside of abrasive 
blasting with certain media (Document ID 2203, p. 16). NDA echoed CISC, 
asserting that this would be an ``unnecessary burden'' and 
``inappropriate'' in the construction industry (Document ID 2203, p. 
2).
    CISC suggested that, instead of including a written exposure 
control plan provision in the beryllium standard for construction, OSHA 
should consider adding new requirements to paragraph (f) of the 
ventilation standard for construction (29 CFR 1926.57) that set forth 
additional protective measures to be used when abrasive blasting with 
media containing <0.1 percent by weight of beryllium. These new 
provisions, CISC stated, could include the requirements of written 
exposure control plans, regulated areas, specified PPE, and other 
provisions to protect workers in and around such abrasive blasting 
(Document ID 2203, p. 16). While industry representatives NECA, NDA, 
and CISC argued that OSHA's approach to the written exposure control 
plan is too broad, other commenters representing unions and public 
health organizations argued that the proposal is too narrow. 
Specifically, these commenters took issue with OSHA's focus on abrasive 
blasters and welders. Several commenters suggested potential exposure 
sources apart from abrasive blasting and welding operations and argued 
that some of these exposures could involve beryllium in greater than 
trace amounts. For example, NJH contended that there are ``other 
operations, jobs and tasks that can generate beryllium exposure in the 
construction and shipyard sectors, not limited to abrasive blasting and 
welding'' (Document ID 2211, p. 7). NJH cited studies involving 
demolition operations at an Army site in Ohio (https://www.lrb.usace.army.mil/Missions/HTRW/FUSRAP/Luckey-Site); construction 
trades workers exposed to beryllium in DOE facilities (Welch et al., 
2004 & 2013); workers performing clean-up of beryllium-using sites 
(Sackett et al., 2004); workers grinding beryllium-composite tools 
(Kreiss et al., 1993); and workers resurfacing copper-beryllium tools 
(Mikulski et al, 2011) (Document ID 2211, p. 7) (see detailed 
discussion of studies later in this section). NJH also noted, 
anecdotally, that it has diagnosed CBD in contract construction workers 
who worked in primary beryllium and beryllium manufacturing facilities 
(Document ID 2211, p. 7).
    AFL-CIO similarly indicated that construction workers such as 
laborers, welders, carpenters, surveyors, and electricians involved in 
demolition, renovation, maintenance, repair, and construction projects 
performed in general industry sites where beryllium was previously 
used, as well as those who may use non-sparking tools, could be exposed 
to beryllium (Document ID 2210, p. 5; 2239, p. 1). ACOEM likewise 
argued that workers in the construction industry can be exposed from 
decommissioning and demolition work (Document ID 2213, p. 3). Some 
members of Congress also identified the maintenance of non-sparking 
tools and working with unspecified beryllium alloys in high-tech naval 
vessels as activities that expose workers to materials containing 
beryllium above trace levels (Document ID 2208, p. 6).
    Relying largely on studies performed at Department of Energy 
nuclear weapon sites (some of the same studies cited by NJH), NABTU 
commented that workers performing maintenance, renovation, repair, and 
demolition in beryllium processing facilities may be exposed to 
residual beryllium in ventilation systems, floors, insulation 
materials, and in floor crevices (Document ID 2202, p. 2; 2240, p. 3). 
Referencing OSHA's decision in the 2017 final rule to apply the 
construction standard to all occupational exposures to beryllium, 
rather than limiting the requirements to abrasive blasting operations, 
NABTU contended that OSHA's proposal departs from the agency's prior 
conclusions without explaining this supposed departure. According to 
NABTU, OSHA has abandoned its position that the construction standard 
should ``cover all occupational exposures to beryllium'' and instead 
``decided only to address the `primary' means of exposure'' (Document 
ID 2240, pp. 2-5).
    In addition to potential exposures from existing operations, USW 
contended that the proposed revisions to the construction and shipyard 
standards fail to account for ``all future operations'' that might use 
beryllium. By tailoring the standards to the specific exposures in 
abrasive blasting and


welding operations, USW contends that OSHA is making a ``dangerous 
assumption'' that it makes ``in no other health standard'' (Document ID 
2212, p. 2). According to USW: ``If a new chemical product is 
synthesized from 1,3-butadiene, the 1,3-butadiene standard will apply 
in its entirety. If arsenic finds a new use in semiconductors, the 
employer will be expected to comply with the entire arsenic standard. . 
. . However, under the OSHA proposal, if metallic beryllium, a 
beryllium alloy, ceramic or other compound is someday used on a 
construction site or in a shipyard, exposed workers will lack important 
protections enjoyed by their counterparts in general industry'' 
(Document ID 2212, p. 2). USW echoed NABTU's assertion that OSHA's 
proposal neglects workers beyond abrasive blasters and welders and 
concluded that ``[o]nly by including all the general industry 
protections in the shipyard and construction standards can OSHA fulfill 
[its] mandate'' to protect all workers (Document ID 2212, p. 4).
    Those commenters who participated in the public hearing also raised 
these concerns in their testimony. Specifically, both NJH and USW again 
identified potential exposures from beryllium-containing non-sparking 
tools (Document ID 2222, Tr. 17-19, 48) and NJH discussed their 
organization's past diagnoses of CBD in contract construction workers 
in the primary beryllium and manufacturing industries (Document ID 
2222, Tr. 48). USW again expressed concern about possible future 
applications of beryllium-containing materials in construction and 
shipyard work (Document ID 2222, Tr. 17-19). NABTU and AFL-CIO both 
reiterated their position that construction workers are exposed through 
activities other than abrasive blasting, particularly demolition, 
renovation, cleanup, and similar work in facilities that make and use 
beryllium-containing alloys (Document ID 2222, Tr. 84, 114-15). NABTU 
concluded that construction workers operating in facilities that use 
beryllium ``are not only potentially exposed to beryllium, but also, 
they will have dermal exposure to dust and debris that can contain 
beryllium at greater than trace amounts'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 84-
85).
    On the whole, these commenters contend that, because there are work 
processes other than abrasive blasting and welding that could expose 
construction and shipyard workers to beryllium, OSHA should not remove 
or modify provisions of the beryllium standards--such as the written 
exposure control plan requirements--to tailor the standards to abrasive 
blasting and welding operations.
    After reviewing all of these comments and the record as a whole, 
OSHA has determined that the record continues to lack sufficient data 
for the agency to characterize the nature, locations, or extent of 
beryllium exposure in application groups in current-day construction 
and shipyards sectors other than abrasive blasting and certain welding 
operations. Further, although OSHA continues to recognize the 
possibility of exposures beyond abrasive blasting and welding, the 
agency has reason to believe concerns regarding construction workers' 
dermal exposure to more than trace beryllium at general industry sites, 
although potentially justified in the past, likely do not reflect 
current exposures in these contexts.
    As a result, OSHA finds that it is appropriate to follow through 
with its proposal to tailor certain provisions of the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards--including the written 
exposure control plan requirements--to those operations for which the 
agency has data. At the same time, OSHA disagrees with NECA, NDA, and 
CISC that the agency should strictly limit application of the beryllium 
standards to abrasive blasting and welding operations. Accordingly, 
both standards will continue to cover all occupational exposures to 
beryllium in these industries that meet the requirements of paragraph 
(a). OSHA's reasoning and the agency's response to each of the comments 
received on these topics is explained below.

OSHA's Analysis of the Record With Respect to Beryllium Exposures in 
the Construction and Shipyards Sectors

    In the 2017 final rule, OSHA based its assessment of applications 
involving beryllium exposure, including its determination that abrasive 
blasting and welding are the only known sources of beryllium exposure 
in construction and shipyards, on the best evidence available in the 
record. This included a comprehensive review of the industrial hygiene 
literature; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
(NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluations and case studies of beryllium 
exposure; site visits conducted by an OSHA contractor (Eastern Research 
Group (ERG)); inspection data from OSHA's Integrated Management 
Information System (IMIS) and OSHA's Information System (OIS); and 
information submitted to the rulemaking docket in response to the 
notice of proposed rulemaking and informal public hearings, such as a 
comprehensive data set submitted by the Navy of beryllium sampling in a 
wide variety of operations (see 82 FR at 2583; 2017 FEA, Document ID 
2042, pp. IV-17 to IV-22; Document ID 0144, 0145).
    This review also included comments and testimony on potential 
exposure from sources other than abrasive blasting and welding (82 FR 
2636-40). At the time, several commenters identified many of the same 
jobs and operations as those identified in this rulemaking. NIOSH 
commented that construction workers may be exposed to beryllium when 
demolishing buildings or building equipment, based on a study of 
workers demolishing oil-fired boilers (Document ID 1671, Attachment 1, 
pp. 5, 15; 1671, Attachment 21). At the initial public hearing in 2016, 
NJH testified that numerous studies had documented beryllium exposure, 
sensitization, and CBD in construction workers performing demolition 
and decommissioning and among workers who use non-sparking tools 
(Document ID 1756, Tr. 98). USW also testified that workers in the 
maritime industry use and may sharpen or grind beryllium-containing 
non-sparking tools and that shipyards might use beryllium for other 
tasks in the future. USW further stated that beryllium is a high-tech 
material and that exposure from beryllium containing alloys cannot be 
ruled out in high-tech operations such as aircraft carrier or submarine 
production (Document ID 1756, Tr. 270).
    After reviewing the record, OSHA determined in the 2017 final rule 
that it did not have sufficient data on beryllium exposures in the 
construction and shipyard industries to characterize exposures in 
application groups other than abrasive blasting with beryllium-
containing slags and certain welding operations in shipyards, and that 
it could not develop exposure profiles for construction and shipyard 
workers engaged in activities involving non-sparking tools, demolition 
of beryllium-contaminated buildings or equipment, or work with 
beryllium-containing alloys (82 FR at 2639). Even so, OSHA acknowledged 
USW's concerns about future beryllium use and found ``that there is 
potential for exposure to beryllium in construction and shipyards 
operations other than abrasive blasting.'' OSHA concluded that workers 
engaged in any such operations are exposed to the same hazard of 
developing CBD and other beryllium related disease (82 FR at 2639). 
Thus, OSHA chose to cover all occupational exposures to beryllium in 
those industries in order to ensure that the standards are broadly 
effective and address all potentially harmful beryllium exposures (82 
FR at 2639).


    While extending comprehensive beryllium standards to construction 
and shipyards and broadly aligning the ancillary provisions across the 
three sectors, OSHA also identified evidence in the record 
demonstrating meaningful distinctions between the sectors, and 
therefore promulgated different requirements for some ancillary 
provisions. For example, OSHA included requirements pertaining to 
beryllium work areas (BWAs) \13\ in the standard for general industry 
but did not include such requirements in the standards for construction 
and shipyards. OSHA explained that commenters such as Newport News 
Shipbuilding (NNS) (Document ID 1657) and NIOSH (Document ID 1725, p. 
30; 1755, Tr. 21) had brought to its attention difficulties in 
establishing and maintaining BWAs in an operation such as abrasive 
blasting (82 FR at 2660-61). NNS specifically highlighted the 
difficulty of such a requirement where beryllium is encountered in 
trace concentrations (82 FR at 2661; Document ID 1657, pp. 1-2).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ As originally promulgated, the beryllium standard for 
general industry required employers to establish a beryllium work 
area in any area that (1) contains a process or operation that can 
release beryllium, and (2) where employees are, or can reasonably be 
expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at any level or where 
there is the potential for dermal contact with beryllium (82 FR at 
2736). BWAs must be demarcated by signs or other methods that 
establish and inform each employee of the boundaries of the area (29 
CFR 1910.1024(e)(2)). Through the May 7, 2018 DFR, OSHA later 
revised the definition of a BWA so that the requirements apply only 
where the process or operation involves material containing at least 
0.1 percent beryllium by weight (83 FR at 19938).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Recognizing that the known exposures in construction and shipyards 
are to trace beryllium, and further recognizing the difficulties 
involved in establishing and maintaining BWA requirements in that 
context, OSHA decided not to require employers in construction and 
shipyards to establish and maintain BWAs (82 FR 2660-61). In this way, 
OSHA differentiated the construction and shipyards standards from the 
general industry standard and tailored portions of the former to the 
particular exposures in abrasive blasting operations. OSHA thereby made 
the standards more workable to implement in those sectors while 
maintaining an overall framework of protections broadly similar to 
those in general industry.
    After publication of the 2017 final rule, on May 7, 2018, OSHA 
published a direct final rule (DFR) to clarify certain provisions of 
the beryllium standard for general industry as they related to 
materials containing trace amounts of beryllium (84 FR 19936). 
Specifically, the DFR clarified that provisions triggered by dermal 
contact with beryllium or beryllium contamination would apply only for 
dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium in concentrations 
greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight (83 FR at 19939). OSHA 
made clear that the agency only intended to regulate contact with trace 
beryllium to the extent that it caused airborne exposures of concern 
(83 FR at 19938).
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA sought to more fully tailor the construction 
and shipyards standards to the known exposures in these sectors; that 
is, to abrasive blasting and welding operations. OSHA recognized that, 
in applying some provisions developed for general industry into the 
construction and shipyards standards in the 2017 final rule, the agency 
may have not fully accounted for the trace levels of beryllium in these 
operations. At the same time, the agency remained open to considering 
additional sources of exposure. In the NPRM and multiple times at the 
public hearing, OSHA requested information and data on any additional 
application groups (industries, occupations, processes, etc.) with 
potential exposure to beryllium in the construction and shipyards 
sectors beyond abrasive blasters and welders (84 FR at 53922; Document 
ID 2222, Tr. 33-35; 44-45; 75-76; 95-96; 125-26).
    Although a number of commenters responded to OSHA's request, as 
outlined above, their comments in many cases relied on anecdotal or 
unverifiable assertions about additional exposure sources. For example, 
NABTU and AFL-CIO listed several jobs that they contend could involve 
exposure to beryllium, but provided nothing documenting current 
exposures in these operations. Likewise, NJH indicated anecdotally that 
they had diagnosed beryllium sensitization and CBD in contractors who 
had performed work at a primary beryllium facility, but due to the 
restrictions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability 
Act (HIPAA), they did not disclose any further information about these 
cases (Document ID 2238, p. 1; 2222, Tr. 65). Such information provides 
little on which the agency can rely to evaluate these suggested 
exposure sources.
    While commenters did provide some evidence in the form of studies, 
OSHA believes the studies referenced have limited value in analyzing 
current exposures to workers in these industries. NABTU (Document ID 
2240), AFL-CIO (Document ID 2239, 2244), and NJH (Document ID 2211, 
2238) cited a number of studies that they contend demonstrate workers 
in the construction trades are at risk of exposure to beryllium in 
greater than trace quantities through work at general industry sites 
that process or previously processed beryllium. Several of these 
studies examined beryllium sensitization and CBD among construction 
trades workers and others who had worked at DOE nuclear weapons 
facilities. Two studies involved exposures at private facilities. Of 
the studies submitted, OSHA had previously reviewed Kreiss et al. 
(1993) and Stange et al. (2001) in the Health Effects section of the 
preamble to the 2017 final rule (82 FR 2506; 2510).
    Kreiss et al. (1993) conducted a screening of current and former 
workers at a plant that manufactured beryllium ceramics between 1958 
and 1975, and then transitioned to metalizing circuitry onto beryllium 
ceramics produced elsewhere (Kreiss et al. (1993), ``Beryllium Disease 
Screening in the Ceramics Industry'' (Document ID 1478)). Five hundred 
and five of the plant's then-current and retired workers who had not 
previously been diagnosed with CBD or sarcoidosis participated, 
including 377 current and 128 former workers. Workers' airborne 
beryllium exposure was not estimated in this survey, and potential for 
skin contact with beryllium was not explicitly discussed. Surveillance 
for CBD was conducted on this population in 1989-1990 (Document ID 
1478, p. 270).
    Kreiss et al. (1993) reported nine newly identified cases of CBD 
(Document ID 1478, p. 257). The individuals diagnosed with CBD had 
begun work at the facility between September 1946 and June 1983, with 
most (7 of 9) hired between 1956 and 1973 (Document ID 1478, Table 2, 
p. 270). Two cases (11.1 percent) of newly diagnosed CBD occurred among 
18 workers who performed ventilation maintenance (Document ID 1478, 
Table 7, p. 273).\14\ However, the authors noted that all workers with 
CBD who reported work in ventilation maintenance had also reported work 
in dry pressing and/or process development, job categories which also 
had particularly high prevalence of CBD (15.8 percent and 13.6 percent, 
respectively) (Document ID 1478, p. 272; Table 7, p. 273). Moreover, 
the authors stated that ``persons who had worked at dusty tasks in 
which [beryllium] exposures were harder to control or unlikely to be 
monitored, such as dry pressing and


beryllia process development/engineering, had beryllium disease rates 
between 11 percent and 16 percent,'' rates that ``are higher than those 
described historically in other beryllium industries'' (Document ID 
1478, p. 273). The authors also noted one case of CBD in an employee 
who had begun employment eight years after beryllium production ended 
(a ``dust disturber'' case) who recalled regularly dry-sweeping for a 
period of 6 months in 1983 in an area that was later shown to be 
contaminated by beryllium dust and had no other known source of 
beryllium exposure (Document ID 1478, p. 271). NJH cited Kreiss et al. 
(1993) as evidence that cleanup workers and tool grinders at general 
industry sites can face risk from beryllium exposures (Document ID 
2211, p. 7).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \14\ The authors did not provide detail on this ventilation 
maintenance activity and it is unclear whether such work represents 
a typical construction activity or a routine general industry 
maintenance activity.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Virji et al. (2019) published a study of short-term workers 
employed at a primary beryllium manufacturing facility that processed 
beryllium salts, beryllium metal and alloys, and beryllium oxide (Virji 
et al. (2019), ``Associations of Metrics of Peak Inhalation Exposure 
and Skin Exposure Indices with Beryllium Sensitization at a Beryllium 
Manufacturing Facility'' (Document ID 2239)). This study examined a 
group of 264 short-term workers who were hired after January 1, 1994, 
and who participated in testing for beryllium sensitization in 1999. 
The authors used exposure data such as personal full-shift exposure 
sampling, task and area exposure measurements, and glove measurements 
to create qualitative and quantitative peak inhalation metrics and skin 
exposure indices (Document ID 2239, pp. 858-9). The authors reported 
that their data represent ``historical workplace conditions, before the 
implementation of a redesigned comprehensive prevention program'' which 
included measures to reduce both inhalation and skin exposure through 
improvements in engineering controls and use of personal protective 
equipment and clothing; improved housekeeping; measures to minimize 
migration of beryllium from work areas; and improved health and safety 
and work practice training, beginning in 2000 (Document ID 2239, pp. 
863, 866).
    Twenty-six of the study participants (9.8 percent) were beryllium-
sensitized, of whom six were also diagnosed with CBD. The authors noted 
that maintenance work was associated with the highest rate of beryllium 
sensitization (0.154 per person-year of work in the maintenance 
category, which had 52.1 person-years of work in total) (Document ID 
2239, Table 4, p. 865). The authors found that peak inhalation metrics, 
indices, and other evidence of skin exposure, and use of material 
containing beryllium salts were significantly associated with beryllium 
sensitization (Document ID 2239, p. 865). It was not possible to 
distinguish the effects of skin exposure from inhalation exposure 
because these exposures tended to occur together (Document ID 2239, p. 
867). The authors concluded that multiple beryllium exposure pathways 
and types were associated with sensitization and that efforts to 
prevent beryllium sensitization should focus on controlling airborne 
beryllium exposures with particular attention to exposure peaks; 
process characteristics (the likelihood of upset conditions, which can 
lead to high short-term exposures); and minimizing skin exposure to 
beryllium particles, in particular, eliminating skin contact with 
beryllium salts (Document ID 2239, p. 867).
    NABTU and AFL-CIO referenced Virji et al. (2019) in support of 
their objection to OSHA's proposed removal of dermal protections in the 
construction and shipyard standards (Document ID 2239, p. 2; 2240, pp. 
5-6). NABTU noted that some workers at the beryllium producing facility 
who were not directly involved in beryllium-related operations 
nevertheless became sensitized to beryllium; that maintenance work 
(including shutdown maintenance, as is performed by contract 
construction workers) was associated with the highest rates of 
beryllium sensitization; and that the study authors found a strong 
association between dermal exposure and beryllium sensitization 
(Document ID 2240, pp. 5-6). NABTU concluded that Virji et al.'s study 
``lends further support to the need to ensure workers handle their 
clothing and other personal protective equipment in ways that minimize 
the potential that either they, their family members or others who may 
handle the PPE are incidentally exposed.'' Furthermore, ``despite the 
importance of the required procedures to restrict access to work areas 
where exposures may exceed the PEL and the presence of a competent 
person--provisions NABTU fully supports--those protections do not 
adequately compensate for the potential that beryllium will migrate 
into other work areas'' (Document ID 2240, pp. 5-6). AFL-CIO also 
commented that Virji et al. showed the importance of controlling skin 
exposure to beryllium in order to prevent beryllium sensitization 
(Document ID 2239, p. 2).
    Several of the studies cited by NABTU, AFL-CIO, and NJH examined 
beryllium sensitization and CBD among construction trades workers and 
others who had worked at DOE nuclear weapons facilities, including 
Stange et al. (2001), Sackett et al. (2004), Welch et al. (2004), and 
Welch et al. (2013). The commenters cited these studies as evidence 
that construction trades people can be exposed to greater than trace 
amounts of beryllium while conducting cleanup, demolition, and 
deconstruction activities in buildings where beryllium was previously 
released and accumulated in settled dust.
    Stange et al. (2001) examined the prevalence of beryllium 
sensitization and CBD by job category among 5,713 individuals tested in 
the Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program, which offered 
surveillance for any current or former employee who believed they may 
have been exposed to beryllium at the Rocky Flats Environmental 
Technology Site (Stange, et al. (2001), ``Beryllium sensitization and 
chronic beryllium disease at a former nuclear weapons facility'' 
(Document ID 1403)).\15\ Eighty-one cases of CBD and an additional 154 
cases of beryllium sensitization were identified among workers for whom 
job and location (building) histories could be verified (Document ID 
1403, p. 408). The prevalence of beryllium sensitization was found to 
be highest among beryllium machinists (11.4 percent) and health physics 
technicians (11.9 percent) (Document ID 1403, Table III, p. 410). Cases 
were also identified among custodial employees (5.64 percent) and other 
job titles that were thought to have only minimal potential for 
exposure to beryllium (Document ID 1403, pp. 405, 410). AFL-CIO and NJH 
have referenced Stange et al.'s (2001) findings as evidence that 
construction work at beryllium-using facilities can involve risk from 
beryllium exposures (Document ID 2244, p. 3; 0155, p. 3).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \15\ In 1991, the Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) 
was established at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility to offer 
BeLPT screening to current and former employees who may have been 
exposed to beryllium (Stange et al. (1996), Document ID 0206).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Sackett et al. (2004) examined BeLPT results and medical 
evaluations of 2,221 workers employed at a nuclear weapons facility 
during decontamination and decommissioning (Sackett et al. (2004), 
``Beryllium medical surveillance at a former nuclear weapons facility 
during cleanup operations'' (Document ID 1811, Att. 13)). Workers' 
airborne beryllium exposure was not estimated in the study, and 
potential for skin contact with beryllium was not explicitly discussed. 
The authors found


19 cases of beryllium sensitization. Of eight sensitized individuals 
who underwent full clinical evaluation for CBD, two were diagnosed with 
CBD. Seven beryllium-sensitized workers were hired after the start of 
decontamination and decommissioning (Document ID 1811, Att. 13, p. 
953). AFL-CIO, quoting a previously submitted comment from the Colorado 
School of Public Health (Document ID 2136), stated that Sackett et 
al.'s study showed ``that beryllium can cause harm to workers during 
this process [of decontamination and decommissioning], even when 
workers have been provided, certified, and trained in the appropriate 
use of PPE'' (Document ID 2244, p. 9). NJH similarly commented that 
this study demonstrates the potential for exposure during cleanup of 
beryllium-using sites (Document ID 2211, p. 7).
    Welch et al. (2004) presented BeLPT surveillance results among 
construction trades workers who had formerly been employed at three DOE 
sites where beryllium was present (Hanford Nuclear Reservation in 
Richland, Washington; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, 
Tennessee; and the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina) (Welch 
et al. (2004), ``Screening for Beryllium Disease Among Construction 
Trade Workers at Department of Energy Nuclear Sites'' (Document ID 
1815, Attachment 58, p. 207)). Beryllium at these sites had been 
present in fuel fabrication and R&D (Hanford); from nuclear waste 
disposal, an antimony-beryllium source rod reactor failure, copper-
beryllium tools, chipping of beryllium in glove-box operations, and 
possible beryllium machining (Savannah River Site); and from assembly 
and disassembly of nuclear weapons and machining, grinding, and forming 
of beryllium compounds and alloys (Oak Ridge) (Document ID 1815, 
Attachment 58, p. 208). The authors examined sensitization among 3842 
former workers who completed at least one BeLPT from the screening 
program's beginning (1996) through September 30, 2002 (Document ID 
1815, Attachment 58, pp. 208, 212; Welch et al (2013), Document ID 
2238, Attachment 8, p. 1). Workers' airborne beryllium exposure was not 
estimated in the study, nor were surface concentrations of beryllium 
reported. Welch et al. noted that their study population was ``quite 
different'' from previous studies involving concurrently exposed 
workers in production facilities, ``in that the participants are 
construction workers, and had to have left construction employment at 
the site to be eligible. Many had left employment years before the 
examination took place'' (Document ID 1815, Attachment 58, p. 214). 
Moreover, approximately 70 percent of the study population (2,759/
3,842) had been hired more than 20 years prior to BeLPT testing 
(Document ID 1815, Attachment 58, Table VI, p. 214), placing the hire 
date for the majority of the study population prior to September 30, 
1982.
    The authors found 54 cases of beryllium sensitization (defined as 
two abnormal BeLPT results) among the 3,842 tested workers (1.4 
percent), and further reported finding a 2.2 percent prevalence of 
possible sensitization (85 former workers with one or more abnormal 
BeLPT results). Possible cases occurred among machinists (5.6 percent; 
6/107), plumbers/steam fitters (4.1 percent; 5/123), millwrights (3.2 
percent; 7/214), sheetmetal workers (2.5 percent; 5/199), carpenters 
(2.0 percent; 7/250), pipefitters (2.0 percent; 14/690), electricians 
(1.8 percent; 13/707), and laborers (1.2 percent; 7/603) (Document ID 
1815, Attachment 58, Table IV, p. 213). Five workers were diagnosed 
with CBD (Document ID 1815, Attachment 58, p. 215).
    Welch et al. (2013) published another study of former construction 
trades workers who had worked at DOE sites, using BeLPT results from 
DOE's updated screening program, which had been expanded to 27 sites 
after the publication of Welch et al (2004) (Welch et al. (2013), 
``Beryllium Disease Among Construction Trade Workers at Department of 
Energy Nuclear Sites'' (Document ID 2238, Attachment 8)). Workers' 
airborne beryllium exposure was not estimated in the study, nor were 
surface concentrations of beryllium reported. Welch et al. (2013) did 
not present information on all study participants' dates of hire or 
employment, but did report that the mean year of first employment at a 
DOE site was 1,973 for workers diagnosed with CBD and 1,976 for 
sensitized workers who were not diagnosed with CBD (Document ID 2238, 
Attachment 8, Table II, p. 7).
    Among 13,810 former construction workers tested as part of the 
screening program between 1998 and 2010, Welch et al. (2013) identified 
189 cases of beryllium sensitization and reported that 28 (0.2 percent) 
were diagnosed with CBD (of 86 who were medically evaluated) (p. 5). 
They noted that prevalence of sensitization greater than 2 percent 
occurred among sheet metal workers (2.4 percent; 19/786), roofers (2.8 
percent; 3/108) and boilermakers (2.9 percent: 8/274) (Document ID 
2238, Attachment 8, Table IV, p. 8; p. 10).
    The authors reported that the 2013 results showed patterns similar 
to those of the 2004 study in that both the overall rate of beryllium 
sensitization (1.4 percent) and the prevalence of CBD found among 
beryllium-sensitized workers were ``lower than those reported in a 
number of other populations, such as currently exposed workers in 
production facilities.'' They attributed these findings to the 
participants' indirect exposure to beryllium via skin contact with 
beryllium-contaminated surfaces and with inhalation of re-entrained 
beryllium dust, rather than from working directly with beryllium in 
operations such as machining (Document ID 2238, Attachment 8, p. 6). 
The authors emphasized that their surveillance of construction workers 
had helped DOE personnel to identity and mitigate those exposures which 
still exist at the facility and helped focus attention on the risk for 
beryllium exposure among current demolition workers at these facilities 
(Document ID 2238, Attachment 8, p. 10). NJH and AFL-CIO pointed to the 
Welch et al.'s findings in both the 2004 and 2013 studies as evidence 
that construction trades workers doing contract work in beryllium-using 
industries face a risk from beryllium exposure (Document ID 2211, p. 7; 
2244, p. 9).
    OSHA has reviewed each of the studies submitted by the commenters. 
Each of the studies support OSHA's determination that beryllium 
exposure presents a serious risk of material health impairment to 
workers. However, OSHA finds that the studies are of limited value in 
determining current exposures faced by those construction and shipyards 
workers covered by the beryllium standards for two reasons. First, as 
acknowledged by NJH (Document ID 2238, p. 1), the studies do not 
contain relevant exposure data. Such data would be needed to 
characterize the airborne and/or dermal exposures of workers in those 
studies, to evaluate with reasonable accuracy the processes and 
operations where significant beryllium exposures may have led to cases 
of beryllium sensitization and CBD, and to determine whether those same 
processes and operations would be likely to contribute to workers' risk 
in current-day facilities. This was the same reason that OSHA 
determined in the 2017 final rule that it could not develop exposure 
profiles for some of these same operations (see 82 FR at 2639).
    Perhaps more importantly, OSHA doubts that these studies reflect 
current conditions in general industry facilities. The studies appear 
to primarily involve


populations with many members exposed before the 1990s, when the use of 
the BeLPT in screening for CBD led both DOE and some private firms to 
adopt and increasingly strengthen beryllium exposure control 
strategies.\16\ The studies evaluating former construction trades 
workers largely involve populations who were first exposed before DOE 
and private industry sites--such as those studied by Kreiss et al 
(1993) and Virji et al. (2019)--began to strengthen exposure controls 
in the mid-1990s, and long before OSHA issued comprehensive beryllium 
standards in 2017. As noted above, approximately 70 percent of the 
study population (2,759/3,842) had been hired more than 20 years prior 
to BeLPT testing (Document ID 2238, Attachment 8, Table VI, p. 214), 
placing the hire date for the majority of the study population prior to 
September 30, 1982.
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    \16\ In DOE and in private industry, general awareness of 
beryllium-related risks at airborne levels lower than the previous 
OSHA PEL of 2 ug/m\3\ was low until the early 1990s, when use of the 
BeLPT by researchers such as Kreiss et al. brought greater 
understanding of the need to better control beryllium exposures. By 
1993, beryllium had been identified as a significant source of 
occupational disease risk within the DOE complex, and by 1996, DOE 
had established an interim Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention 
Program rule, which was finalized in 1999 (Document ID 2238, 
Attachment 8, pp. 1-2).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Importantly, these studies do not account for the effect of OSHA's 
beryllium standard for general industry (29 CFR 1910.1024), which 
addresses the primary sources of exposure in these studies--
insufficiently controlled beryllium-releasing processes and settled or 
re-entrained dust containing beryllium--and is designed to drastically 
reduce beryllium exposures in general industry facilities. To comply 
with its obligations under the general industry standard, the host 
employer at a general industry site today will have implemented 
beryllium work areas or regulated areas around processes that create 
beryllium exposures of concern (29 CFR 1910.1024(e)), will have 
instituted engineering controls and work practices to control exposures 
(29 CFR 1910.1024(f)), and will have implemented housekeeping measures 
that will prevent the accumulation or re-entrainment of settled dust 
containing beryllium (29 CFR 1910.1024(j)). These measures, combined 
with the general industry employer's duty under the hazard 
communication standard to inform any construction employer entering the 
area of the potential for hazardous beryllium exposure and the 
precautionary measures needed to protect employees (29 CFR 
1910.1024(m); 29 CFR 1910.1200(e)(2)), are designed to ensure that 
construction employees entering the general industry site are not 
exposed to active beryllium-releasing processes or accumulated 
beryllium in the work area and are able to avoid any remaining risk of 
beryllium exposure.
    In sum, the most that these studies can tell us is that in the 
past, construction employees at general industry sites with beryllium 
exposure from poorly controlled processes became sensitized to 
beryllium and, in some cases, developed CBD. This information supports 
OSHA's determination that beryllium exposure presents a serious health 
risk. It does not, however, demonstrate that construction employees who 
enter a general industry site today--with the engineering and work 
practice controls, housekeeping, and other requirements of the 
beryllium general industry standard--will be exposed to and require 
protection from dermal contact with beryllium in more than trace 
amounts.
    With respect to potential exposure from the dressing or sharpening 
of beryllium-containing non-sparking tools, NJH (Document ID 2211, p. 
7; 2238, p. 2) referred OSHA to two studies by Mikulski et al. that 
found exposure to beryllium through machining and grinding of copper-
beryllium (Cu-Be) 2 percent alloy tools, even when done only 
occasionally, was associated with increased risks of beryllium 
sensitization (``Risk of Beryllium Sensitization in a Low-Exposed 
Former Nuclear Weapons Cohort from the Cold War Era'' (2011a) (Document 
ID 2238, Attachment 4); ``Prevalence of Beryllium Sensitization Among 
Department of Defense Conventional Munitions Workers at Low Risk for 
Exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine'' (2011b) 
(Document ID 2238, Attachment 5)). These studies reported the results 
of a DOE program that screened former workers at a nuclear weapons 
assembly site for beryllium sensitization as part of that agency's 
Former Worker Program established in 1996. The site in question 
operated beginning in 1941 as a Load, Assembly and Pack (LAP) facility 
for the Department of Defense (DOD) conventional munitions operations; 
from 1949 to mid-1975 it was shared with DOE for production of nuclear 
weapons; and in 1975 DOE activities ceased at this site (Document ID 
2238, Attachment 4, p. 195).
    Although OSHA acknowledges the findings of the Mikulski studies, 
which involved exposures at a DOD facility prior to 1975, comments and 
hearing testimony received in response to the NPRM suggest that the 
dressing or sharpening of non-sparking tools is not an exposure source 
of concern for workers in the construction and shipyards sectors 
covered by the beryllium standards. At the public hearing, NABTU--which 
had earlier in the rulemaking process raised concerns about exposure 
from such tools (Document ID 2202, p. 19)--indicated that they had 
attempted but were not able to find specific examples of construction 
trades workers dressing or sharpening non-sparking tools (Document ID 
2222, Tr. 88). Likewise, when asked about the prevalence of these tools 
in construction, the representative from USW stated that he had 
personally used beryllium-containing non-sparking tools on a few 
occasions many years ago, but that he could only speculate as to how 
often they are used today. He further testified that he did not know 
why one would use these tools over other non-sparking tools that do not 
contain beryllium (Document ID 2222, Tr. 32-34).
    Other commenters raised doubts about the extent of exposure from 
non-sparking tools. The SCA identified the use of non-sparking tools in 
shipyards, but noted that these are ``infrequently used, and 
intermittent'' (Document ID 2204, p. 2). SCA did not identify how often 
or by whom these tools are dressed or sharpened, which, as the 
representative from USW recognized (Document ID 2222, Tr. 32), is the 
process during which beryllium exposure might occur. Materion, while 
noting that they do not serve the non-sparking tool market, stated that 
the dressing of non-sparking tools could result in exposure to 
beryllium above the action level but also noted that the other primary 
producer of copper beryllium--which does serve that market--has a 
program through which its customers can return their non-sparking tools 
for sharpening at no cost (Document ID 2237, p. 3). That exposure from 
this source is unlikely is supported by exposure data in the record, 
submitted by the Navy and private shipbuilding establishments, showing 
that the primary exposure source in shipyards is abrasive blasting with 
some additional exposures during welding operations (Document ID 0144, 
p. 3-4; 0145; 1166).\17\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ Some commenters also stated that potential sources of 
beryllium exposure in these sectors include work at landfills that 
receive beryllium-containing materials (Document ID 2202, Attachment 
1, p. 2); work on high-tech aircraft and submarines (Document ID 
2208, p. 6); and work as machinists and surveyors (Document ID 2210, 
p. 4). OSHA notes that many of these categories would appear to be 
jobs that are not covered by the construction or shipyards 
standards, either because they are likely covered by the general 
industry standard or because they relate to ``uniquely military 
equipment, systems, and operations'' (see Executive Order 12196; 29 
CFR 1960.2(i)). Regardless, as with the other operations identified, 
the record lacks data from which OSHA could evaluate exposures in 
these operations.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    OSHA continues to recognize the possibility that some construction 
and shipyard workers could be exposed to beryllium through activities 
other than abrasive blasting and welding. However, the record continues 
to lack key data about these potential exposures, including how often 
the exposures occur, who is exposed, the duration of the exposures, the 
type and extent of exposure, or any controls that may be in place to 
address them. Without this data, OSHA lacks sufficient information to 
characterize the nature, locations, or extent of beryllium exposure in 
application groups other than abrasive blasting with beryllium-
containing slags and certain welding operations. Importantly, with 
respect to commenters' assertion that these additional exposures 
include a risk solely from dermal contact with more than trace 
beryllium, either from construction work at general industry sites that 
handle beryllium or through the use of non-sparking tools, OSHA finds 
that the record does not demonstrate that this continues to be a 
concern, for the reasons already discussed.
    Therefore, the agency finds that it is appropriate at this time to 
tailor certain aspects of the final standards--such as the written 
exposure control plan requirements--to those operations for which the 
agency has sufficient data to demonstrate worker exposure to beryllium 
at levels of concern, to properly characterize and evaluate the 
exposures, and to develop appropriate measures to address them. By 
ensuring that these provisions of the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards are no more complex or onerous than is 
needed to protect workers, OSHA believes the final standards will 
improve compliance and thereby more effectively protect these workers.
    At the same time, OSHA disagrees with industry commenters who 
contend that the protections of the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards should only apply to abrasive blasters and 
welders. OSHA maintains that all beryllium-exposed workers in 
construction and shipyards should be afforded protections from 
beryllium exposure (see 84 FR at 51377) and, to the extent that 
exposures from sources other than abrasive blasting and welding do 
occur, the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards continue 
to provide these protections. Both standards continue to apply to all 
occupational exposure to beryllium that meets the requirements of 
paragraph (a). OSHA declines to adopt CISC's suggestion that the agency 
simply incorporate new requirements into paragraph (f) of the 
ventilation standard for construction (29 CFR 1926.57), so as to apply 
them only to abrasive blasters, as this would leave unprotected 
employees who might be exposed in operations OSHA has not identified or 
in the future. This is consistent with OSHA's typical approach to 
substance-specific standards, which generally apply broadly to all 
occupational exposure to a substance, rather than to particular 
operations (see, e.g., 29 CFR 1926.1126(a)(1) (Chromium (IV)); 29 CFR 
1926.1127(a) (Cadmium); 29 CFR 1910.1028(a)(1) (Benzene); 29 CFR 
1910.1053(a) (Respirable Crystalline Silica)). With respect to CISC's 
assertion that construction employers will have to evaluate every task 
and material on their worksite to determine whether beryllium is 
present in trace amounts (Document ID 2203, p. 16), the agency 
emphasizes that this is not the case. Although the beryllium standard 
applies to occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, 
and mixtures in the construction industry, paragraph (a)(3) exempts 
from coverage materials containing less than 0.1 percent beryllium by 
weight where the employer has objective data demonstrating that 
employee exposure to beryllium will remain below the action level of 
0.1 [micro]g/m\3\, as an 8-hour time weighted average, under any 
foreseeable conditions. As explained below, apart from certain abrasive 
blasting media, those materials at the typical construction site that 
the agency has identified as containing beryllium in trace amounts 
(i.e. rock, soil, concrete, and brick) are not likely to release 
airborne beryllium above the action level under foreseeable conditions 
and therefore do not typically trigger the requirements of the 
standard. Further, for any additional materials containing comparably 
low levels of beryllium, an employer may rely on objective data that 
employees will not be exposed above the PEL for total airborne dust to 
qualify for the exemption under paragraph (a)(3).
    OSHA's analysis of its own sampling data demonstrates that 
exposures from rock, soil, and concrete are highly unlikely to exceed 
the action level in typical circumstances (see Beryllium Air Samples at 
Construction Sites: An Analysis of OSHA OIS Sample Results 2012-2018, 
Document ID 2235). This data shows that, given the low levels of 
beryllium in rock, soil, and concrete, airborne dust concentrations 
would have to be extremely high for exposures to even approach the 
beryllium action level. The same is true for brick, which may contain 
beryllium in trace amounts comparable to these materials.\18\ These 
dust concentrations would typically exceed the PEL for total airborne 
dust, or particulates not otherwise classified (PNOC), long before the 
beryllium action level is reached. In the case of concrete, the level 
of airborne dust required to reach the beryllium action level would 
also surpass the PEL for crystalline silica many times over. Thus, the 
action level would only be reached under extremely dusty conditions--
such as those produced during abrasive blasting operations--that would 
also exceed the PELs for PNOC and crystalline silica.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ The beryllium content of soil and rock averages less than 2 
ppm while the beryllium content of concrete is typically less than 1 
ppm (Document ID 2235, pp. 2, 6). Some bricks may contain up to 50 
percent fly ash, which in turn may contain beryllium in trace 
amounts (see 2017 FEA, Document ID 2014, pp. IV-651 to IV-652).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OSHA considers this data sufficient to demonstrate that exposure to 
rock, soil, concrete, and brick at the typical construction site will 
not result in beryllium exposure above the action level under 
foreseeable conditions. As such, when performing tasks at the typical 
construction site, exposure to these materials will not trigger the 
requirements of the beryllium standard. Outside of these materials and 
certain abrasive blasting media, OSHA is not aware of any other 
building materials at the typical construction site that contain 
beryllium. However, for any material containing comparable levels of 
beryllium, an employer may rely on objective data that exposures in its 
operations are consistently below the PEL for PNOC to demonstrate that 
exposure from these materials would not exceed the beryllium action 
level under foreseeable conditions.
    The agency notes that if a construction employer has reason to 
believe that the materials at its particular worksite contain beryllium 
at levels significantly above average or that a particular process 
produces abnormally high levels of dust such that beryllium exposure 
might foreseeably reach the action level (e.g., where total dust is 
likely to exceed the PEL for PNOC), that employer would be required to 
comply with the applicable provisions of the beryllium standard. These 
circumstances, however, will not


be typical of the average construction site.
    OSHA also disagrees with commenters such as NABTU (Document ID 
2240, p. 2) who suggest that the agency has abandoned its prior 
position regarding the coverage of the construction and shipyards 
standards. While OSHA acknowledged in the 2017 final rule the 
``potential for exposure'' outside of abrasive blasting and welding and 
determined that any such exposure should be covered by the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards (a position the agency 
maintains), OSHA made no finding in the 2017 final rule that workers in 
the construction industry are currently at risk from dermal contact at 
general industry sites or from the dressing or sharpening of non-
sparking tools. On the contrary, the agency was clear that it lacked 
data to characterize or quantify exposures from additional sources (82 
FR at 2639). The agency's finding in this rulemaking that these 
particular sources of exposure are likely not a concern in the 
construction and shipyards sector is not a change from its previous 
position, as the agency took no position on the issue in the 2017 final 
rule. Where OSHA did originally include provisions aimed solely at 
dermal contact in the construction and shipyards standards that it now 
intends to remove, this was due to the agency borrowing provisions from 
the general industry standard without appropriately accounting for the 
trace exposures in abrasive blasting and welding as they pertain to 
dermal contact.\19\ Inclusion of these provisions was not based on a 
finding by OSHA that the provisions were necessary to address exposures 
beyond abrasive blasting and welding.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \19\ As has been noted, the agency did specifically tailor some 
provisions to abrasive blasting; for example, deciding not to extend 
the beryllium work area requirements of the general industry 
standard to construction and shipyards. In that case, commenters 
specifically identified the requirement as unworkable when dealing 
with materials containing beryllium in trace amounts (see 82 FR at 
2661).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    At the same time, some commenters misconstrue the agency's focus on 
the ``primary'' sources of exposure as the agency ignoring the 
possibility of different exposures. This is not the case. Rather, OSHA 
finds that the standards as revised will maintain protections in all 
likely exposure scenarios while more appropriately addressing the 
operations from which exposures regularly occur. This approach is 
consistent with the agency's position in the 2017 final rule, as 
evidenced by the agency's decision at that time to tailor several 
provisions of the standards to abrasive blasting operations, as 
discussed above.
    With respect to the USW's assertion that OSHA must consider 
potential future uses of beryllium that do not currently exist 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 18-19), the agency agrees and again emphasizes 
that the beryllium standards for both construction and shipyards 
continue to apply to all beryllium exposures, present or future, that 
meet the requirements of paragraph (a). At the same time, OSHA declines 
to fashion the standards around hypothetical exposures which the agency 
cannot quantify or evaluate, rather than around those operations for 
which it has data. The agency remains free to further revise the 
standard in the future if new processes or uses of beryllium warrant 
such a change.
    The agency also notes that the inability of stakeholders to provide 
relevant data on exposures outside of abrasive blasting and welding, 
suggests that such exposures, if they occur, are rare. As such, 
acknowledging the possibility of these exposures does not alter OSHA's 
previous analysis with respect to the economic and technological 
feasibility of the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards. 
OSHA has no reason to believe that these rare exposures, if they occur, 
would mean that compliance with the PEL can no longer be met in most 
operations most of the time or that the beryllium standards will now 
imperil the existence of the construction and shipyards industries (see 
82 FR at 2583).
    In summary, after considering the comments received and the record 
as a whole, the agency has determined that it is appropriate to tailor 
certain ancillary provisions of the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards to abrasive blasting and welding operations, 
the two operations for which it has relevant data. At the same time, 
the agency maintains its position that the construction and shipyards 
standards should continue to apply to all occupational exposure to 
beryllium in these sectors. Based on the record, OSHA has determined 
that the standards, as revised, continue to address the known exposures 
of concern in the construction and shipyards sectors, as well as 
potential exposures outside of abrasive blasting and welding 
operations, and will not result in reduced protections for workers in 
these industries. This is true with respect to the proposed revisions 
to paragraph (f)(1), as well as to other revisions proposed on the 
basis that the primary beryllium exposures in construction and 
shipyards take place during abrasive blasting and welding operations. 
OSHA remains open to revisiting these issues in the future and 
continues to welcome data and information on additional operations with 
potential exposure to beryllium in the construction and shipyards 
sectors.
    In addition to the comments regarding exposure to beryllium in 
contexts other than abrasive blasting and welding, one commenter 
further challenged the agency's preliminary determination that welding 
in shipyards is not likely to produce skin exposures of concern. 
Specifically, USW stated, ``OSHA acknowledges that welding with 
beryllium-copper rods and wire can expose workers to beryllium, but 
dismisses the hazards of dermal contact on the grounds that such 
contact with materials exceeding 0.1 percent is unlikely. However 
beryllium-copper rods typically contain 2 percent beryllium'' (Document 
ID 2212, p. 3).
    With respect to the limited welding operations in shipyards, OSHA 
explained in the NPRM that, although these operations may involve base 
materials or fume containing more than 0.1 percent beryllium by weight, 
OSHA has reason to believe that skin or surface contamination is not an 
exposure source of concern. Specifically, a 2007 study by Cole 
indicated that the beryllium content of beryllium aluminum alloy 
welding fume samples was lower than expected given the beryllium 
content of the base metal (84 FR at 53906). One commenter, USW 
(Document ID 2212), took issue with OSHA's preliminary determination 
with respect to welding. However, they did not discuss the Cole study, 
nor provide additional evidence to contradict OSHA's position with 
respect to skin and surface contamination in this operation.
    USW pointed to an information sheet on beryllium copper welding 
wire and rods published by U.S. Alloy Company that, it claimed, ``warns 
users against grinding, cutting, or polishing [a] weld without proper 
protection'' (Document ID 2212, p. 3; Attachment A). According to USW, 
``welds are often subjected to the operations the manufacturer warned 
against, sometimes by workers other than welders, and there is no 
indication that OSHA considered them'' (Document ID 2212, p. 3). 
However, the information sheet USW provided nowhere mentions a dermal 
contact risk from these welding rods. Rather, it states that ``care 
should be taken to avoid inhaling the welding fumes,'' including 
``purging the area by drawing off any of the fumes with smoke eaters 
and having the operators wear a mask'' (Document 2212, Attachment A). 
Importantly, the portion to which USW


refers reads ``[d]ust or fumes generated by machining, grinding, 
sawing, blasting, polishing, buffing, brazing, soldering, welding or 
thermal cutting of the casting can produce airborne contaminants that 
are hazardous'' (Document 2212, Attachment A) (emphasis in the 
original). Rather than demonstrating a dermal contact risk from 
beryllium copper welding wire and rod, OSHA finds that the lack of any 
mention of such a risk in the manufacturer's information sheet supports 
OSHA's finding that such exposures are not a concern in this 
context.\20\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \20\ NJH also commented that coal slag may contain more than 
trace amounts, citing a study by the Center to Protect Workers' 
Rights (CPWR) that ``found that beryllium was present at a 
concentration of 4 parts per million (ppm) in coal slag samples 
analyzed prior to blasting, and measured airborne beryllium 
concentrations of up to 9.5 [mu]g/m\3\ during abrasive blasting 
tasks, far above trace amounts'' (Document ID 2211, p. 7). OSHA 
notes that 4 ppm, or 0.0004 percent by weight, is well under the 0.1 
percent beryllium by weight that OSHA treats as ``trace'' for the 
purposes of these standards (82 FR at 2610).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comments Specific to Paragraph (f)(1)

    In addition to these broader comments about the appropriate 
application group in the construction and shipyards sectors, OSHA 
received a number of additional comments specifically addressing the 
written exposure control plan requirements of paragraph (f)(1). Two 
stakeholders commented broadly on the importance of written exposure 
control plans. The AFL-CIO and NABTU stated that written exposure 
control plans are essential to providing employers with a clear plan 
for exposure identification and control (Document ID 2210, p. 6; 
Document ID 2202, p. 5). NABTU emphasized the importance of the written 
plan's description of engineering controls, work practices, and 
substitute materials for each task and a description of how employers 
will protect workers not engaged directly in beryllium-exposed tasks, 
by limiting access to work areas where beryllium-exposed tasks such as 
abrasive blasting occur (Document ID 2202, p. 6). Without a written 
plan, both groups asserted, employers are unlikely to adequately 
control beryllium exposure (Document ID 2210, p. 6; Document ID 2202, 
p. 6). NABTU further emphasized that when planning for worker 
protection during tasks involving beryllium, employers must account for 
the unique toxicity of beryllium by creating a written exposure control 
plan specifically addressing beryllium exposures (Document ID 2202, p. 
5).
    The remainder of this section details the comments received with 
respect to each proposed revision in paragraph (f)(1) and provides 
OSHA's final determination.
    OSHA's proposed revisions to paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A) received no 
comment apart from the general concerns discussed above regarding 
OSHA's assessment of beryllium exposures outside of abrasive blasting 
and welding. Therefore, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to modify 
paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A) to refer simply to ``exposure'' rather than 
``airborne exposure to or dermal contact with'' by removing the words 
``airborne'' and ``or dermal contact with'' as qualifiers for exposure 
to beryllium. OSHA notes that these changes are consistent with other 
paragraphs where the agency is simplifying the language in a similar 
manner (e.g., paragraphs (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i), Medical 
surveillance), and is not intended to alter the meaning of the 
provision.
    OSHA is also finalizing its proposal to revoke paragraphs 
(f)(1)(i)(B) and (C) of both the construction and shipyards standards, 
which previously required lists of operations and job titles involving 
exposure above the action level and above the TWA PEL or STEL, 
respectively. OSHA's proposals to revoke these paragraphs received 
little comment apart from the general concerns discussed above 
regarding the potential for exposures in contexts other than abrasive 
blasting and welding. As discussed there, OSHA has concluded that it is 
appropriate to tailor certain aspects of the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards to the limited number of operations known to 
involve beryllium exposure in construction and shipyards. Given the 
small number of operations with known beryllium exposure in these 
industries, OSHA maintains that the operations and job titles in these 
categories would be largely the same as those for which exposure to 
beryllium is reasonably expected. OSHA therefore believes it sufficient 
to require that an employer identify those operations and job titles 
that result in exposure to beryllium in any form and that fall within 
the scope of the standards, and that any additional lists would be 
unnecessary and redundant.
    With respect to OSHA's proposal to add a new paragraph in both the 
construction ((f)(1)(i)(E)) and shipyards ((f)(1)(i)(D)) standards to 
require that the written exposure control plan include procedures used 
to ensure the integrity of each containment used to minimize exposures 
to employees outside the containment, no commenter objected to the 
addition of this requirement, while NJH supported it (Document ID 2211, 
p. 8). As OSHA explained in the NPRM, this requirement will ensure that 
any containment used is not compromised such that employees outside of 
the containment are potentially exposed to beryllium at levels above 
the TWA PEL or STEL. The need for this requirement is reinforced by 
comments from USW identifying issues with gaps and leaks from ``make 
shift containment'' (Document ID 2124, page 10) and noting that 
beryllium can escape from abrasive blasting containments (Document ID 
2222, Tr. 27-28). After considering the comments and the record as a 
whole, OSHA is finalizing this provision as proposed.
    AFL-CIO disagreed with OSHA's proposal to remove paragraphs 
(f)(1)(i)(D) and (E) of the standards, which required the employer to 
include in the written exposure control plan procedures for minimizing 
cross-contamination and migration of beryllium within or to locations 
outside the workplace. AFL-CIO characterized these provisions as 
``essential to reduce cumulative exposure to beryllium for workers in 
high exposure operations and to protect other workers who do not 
perform beryllium tasks but would be exposed to beryllium due to the 
lack of cross contamination and migration minimization procedures'' 
(Document ID 2210, p. 6).
    AFL-CIO also argued that OSHA's proposed requirement for written 
exposure control plans to include procedures used to ensure the 
integrity of each containment used to minimize exposures to employees 
outside of containments would be insufficient to control the migration 
of beryllium (Document ID 2210, p. 6). AFL-CIO stated that ``OSHA is 
requiring containments that would create a higher concentration of 
beryllium dust inside the enclosure [and] relying on the protection of 
PPE,'' while revising paragraph (f) and paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) to no 
longer require employers to use specific procedures to ensure that PPE 
is safely doffed. According to AFL-CIO, this will increase the 
cumulative exposure risk for abrasive blasters and increase the risk of 
cross-contamination and migration of beryllium, thereby exposing 
workers with no respiratory or dermal protection (Document ID 2210, p. 
7).
    OSHA disagrees, firstly, with AFL-CIO's contention that the 
proposed requirement for written exposure control plans to include 
procedures used to ensure the integrity of each containment would lead 
to increased beryllium exposures to workers inside


the enclosure. This final rule does not require the use of 
containments, but rather requires that when an employer chooses to use 
a containment, it is used in such a way that employees outside of the 
containment are not exposed to beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or 
STEL. In other words, this requirement merely ensures that 
containments, when used, accomplish their intended function. Workers 
inside the containment continue to receive the protections of the 
requirements for use of PPE (paragraph (h)(1)) and respiratory 
protection (paragraph (g)(1)(ii)-(iii)), as well as the requirements 
that PPE not be removed or cleaned in a manner that releases beryllium 
into the air (paragraph (h)(2)(ii), (h)(3)(ii)). For this reason, OSHA 
finds that adding a requirement that the written control plan include 
such procedures will not lead to increased beryllium exposures to 
workers inside such containments.
    Furthermore, OSHA disagrees with AFL-CIO's position that the 
previous requirements to document procedures for minimizing cross-
contamination and migration in the written exposure control plan are 
necessary to protect workers in the context of the specific exposures 
in construction and shipyards sectors. In the general industry context, 
requirements relating to cross-contamination and migration serve to 
address concerns about both airborne and dermal exposures (see 82 FR at 
2668-69). At the same time, OSHA has explained that it does not intend 
provisions aimed at protecting workers from the effects of dermal 
contact to apply in the case of materials containing only trace amounts 
of beryllium absent significant airborne exposures (84 FR at 53906). 
OSHA maintains that the primary exposures in construction and shipyards 
are from abrasive blasting with material containing trace amounts of 
beryllium and limited welding operations. Moreover, as explained above, 
while the agency recognizes the potential for other exposure sources in 
these sectors, the record does not demonstrate that potential exposures 
involve a risk of dermal contact to beryllium in more than trace 
amounts.
    In the 2017 final rule, OSHA tailored portions of the written 
exposure control plan requirements in construction and shipyards to the 
particular exposures in abrasive blasting operations. Specifically, the 
agency chose not to include in the construction and shipyards standards 
a requirement that employers keep surfaces as free as practicable of 
beryllium, as it had done in the general industry standard, finding 
that such a requirement would be impracticable in abrasive blasting 
operations (82 FR at 2669). At the same time, the agency applied other 
provisions, developed for the general industry context, without 
appropriately accounting for the trace amounts of beryllium in the 
construction and shipyards sectors. In these sectors, where the record 
evidence on dermal exposure in modern-day worksites is limited to trace 
amounts of beryllium and where the agency otherwise has reason to 
believe dermal contact is not an exposure source of concern, OSHA now 
finds that it is appropriate to further tailor these provisions to 
focus on ensuring that workers not involved in beryllium-related 
operations are not exposed to airborne beryllium in excess of the PELs.
    Several provisions of both standards work together to protect 
workers near abrasive blasting and welding operations from exposures 
above the PELs. In the construction standard, the written exposure 
control plan must include procedures to restrict access to work areas 
where exposures to beryllium could reasonably be expected to exceed the 
TWA PEL or STEL (renumbered in this final rule as paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(D)), and the requirement that these procedures are to be 
implemented by a competent person (paragraph (e)(2)). In the shipyard 
standard, requirements for regulated areas (paragraph (e)) require that 
employers designate areas where exposures to beryllium could exceed the 
PELs and limit access to authorized employees. OSHA has retained these 
requirements in this final rule. Further, the housekeeping requirements 
of both standards (paragraph (j)) require cleaning methods that 
minimize the likelihood of re-entrainment of beryllium-containing dust 
when cleaning up dust produced by abrasive blasting operations.
    In addition, as discussed above, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to 
add a new paragraph in both the construction ((f)(1)(i)(E)) and 
shipyards ((f)(1)(i)(D)) standards to require that the written exposure 
control plan include procedures used to ensure the integrity of each 
containment (such as tarps or structures used to keep sandblasting 
debris within an enclosed area) used to minimize exposures to employees 
outside the containment. This requirement will further limit airborne 
exposures for employees outside of the containment where an employer 
uses a containment. Finally, both standards require the employer to 
ensure that personal protective clothing and equipment required by the 
standard is not removed in a manner that disperses beryllium into the 
air (paragraph (h)(2)(ii)), which will serve to limit migration of 
beryllium and reduce airborne exposure from re-entrainment.
    With respect to the AFL-CIO's assertion that procedures regarding 
the integrity of containments are insufficient to protect workers, OSHA 
makes two points. First, comments in the record indicate that 
containments can be effective in containing dust during abrasive 
blasting, if appropriate procedures are used to ensure their integrity. 
As noted by the USW and AFL-CIO, there are times that the abrasive 
blasting media can compromise the integrity of the containment 
(Document ID 2124, pp. 10-11, 13; 1756, Tr. 246-49; 2210, p. 6). 
However, under these circumstances OSHA expects that operations would 
be suspended to repair the containment. According to the testimony from 
USW during the public hearing for the 2017 final rule, this practice 
already takes place in some shipyard operations (Document ID 1756, Tr. 
262-63). USW further identified the use of negative pressure with 
containments as a feasible and effective way to ensure their integrity; 
a method that is already used in the context of bridge repair (Document 
ID 1756, Tr. 264).
    Second, OSHA reiterates that it does not intend for the added 
provision on containments alone to protect workers from exposures 
exceeding the PEL. Rather, the agency intends this added provision to 
complement the written plan's procedures to restrict access to work 
areas where exposures to beryllium could reasonably be expected to 
exceed the TWA PEL or STEL (renumbered as paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D) of the 
construction standard), the requirement that these procedures are to be 
implemented by a competent person (paragraph (e)(2) of the construction 
standard) and requirements for regulated areas (paragraph (e) of the 
shipyard standard), to ensure that workers not directly involved in 
beryllium-related operations would not be exposed to beryllium above 
the PELs.
    OSHA has determined that these requirements will adequately ensure 
that workers in shipyards and construction not directly involved in 
beryllium-related work will not be exposed to beryllium in excess of 
the TWA PEL or STEL, and is therefore finalizing its proposal to revoke 
the requirements that the employer include in the written exposure 
control plan procedures for minimizing cross-contamination (former 
paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D)) and procedures for minimizing the migration of 
beryllium within or to locations outside the


workplace (former paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E)).
    The AFL-CIO also disagreed with OSHA's proposal to remove paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(H), which in the 2017 rule required employers to document 
procedures for removing, laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and 
disposing of beryllium-contaminated PPE, from the written exposure 
control plan. The AFL-CIO argued that these procedures protect workers 
from further exposing themselves to beryllium when putting on and 
removing PPE and prevent cross-contamination and migration of beryllium 
to other areas of the worksite (Document ID 2210, p. 6). NJH similarly 
argued that procedures should be in the written exposure control plan 
to identify and minimize beryllium exposures to workers involved in 
cleaning and maintaining PPE, as well as containments. If exposures are 
generated in a process, they stated, then PPE to protect the worker is 
contaminated and should be handled as required in the 2017 final rule 
(Document ID 2211, p. 9).
    OSHA disagrees with the AFL-CIO and NJH that all of the 2017 final 
rule's requirements for removing, laundering, storing, cleaning, 
repairing, and disposing of beryllium-contaminated PPE are necessary in 
the construction and shipyards context. As OSHA explains in the summary 
and explanation for paragraph (h), Personal Protective Clothing and 
Equipment, OSHA has determined that it is appropriate to remove certain 
requirements pertaining to laundering, storing, and disposal of PPE 
from the construction and shipyard standards. Specifically, OSHA is 
removing three provisions from paragraphs (h)(2) and (3): The 
requirement to ensure that each employee stores and keeps beryllium-
contaminated PPE separate from street clothing and that storage 
facilities prevent cross-contamination as specified in the written 
exposure control plan (paragraph (h)(2)(iii)); to ensure that PPE 
removed from the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or 
disposal be placed in closed, impermeable bags or containers labeled in 
accordance with the standards' employee information and training 
requirements and the Hazard Communication standard (paragraph 
(h)(2)(v)); and to inform, in writing, any person or business entity 
who launders, cleans, or repairs PPE required by the standards of the 
potentially harmful effects of exposure to airborne beryllium and 
dermal contact with beryllium, and of the need to handle the PPE in 
accordance with the standards (paragraph (h)(3)(iii)). OSHA is removing 
paragraph (h)(2)(iii) because it applies only to ``beryllium 
contaminated'' PPE (i.e., contaminated with beryllium in concentrations 
greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight), and thus would never 
be triggered by the operations to which OSHA is tailoring these 
standards and because the sanitation standards applicable to 
construction and shipyards provide the necessary protections for the 
storage of PPE (see further discussion below in the summary and 
explanation for paragraph (i)). OSHA is removing paragraphs (h)(2)(v) 
and (h)(3)(iii) because they protect downstream handlers of PPE who (to 
OSHA's knowledge) are not engaged in any tasks that could generate 
airborne exposures at levels of concern. Accordingly, OSHA has 
determined these provisions are unnecessary and should be removed.
    In light of OSHA's decision to eliminate several of the 
requirements in paragraph (h), OSHA believes that it is unnecessary to 
require the employer to document all of the procedures that were 
previously included in paragraph (f)(1)(i)(H). However, OSHA finds that 
it is appropriate to retain those requirements of paragraph (f)(1) that 
pertain to provisions that OSHA has not eliminated. Specifically, the 
construction and shipyards standards still require the employer to 
ensure that PPE required by the standard is not removed in a manner 
that disperses beryllium into the air (paragraph (h)(2)(ii)). Both 
standards still require the employer to ensure that all reusable 
personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard is 
cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed to maintain its 
effectiveness (paragraph (h)(3)(i)). And, both standards still require 
the employer to ensure that beryllium is not removed from PPE required 
by the standard by blowing, shaking or any other means that disperses 
beryllium into the air (paragraph (h)(3)(ii)). In addition, OSHA has 
decided to revise former paragraph (h)(2)(iv) (renumbered as 
(h)(2)(iii)) to require that the employer ensure that no employee with 
reasonably expected exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL removes personal 
protective clothing or equipment from the worksite unless it is first 
cleaned in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) (see the Summary and 
Explanation for paragraph (h)).
    OSHA's 2017 final rule would have required employers in 
construction and shipyards to include information pertaining to these 
provisions in their written exposure control plans. For these 
provisions, OSHA agrees with the aforementioned commenters that 
paragraph (f)(1) should retain the documentation requirements that were 
promulgated in the 2017 final rule. Therefore, OSHA is adding a 
requirement for employers to include, in their written exposure control 
plans, procedures for removing, cleaning, and maintaining personal 
protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h) of 
this standard. Specifically, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to remove 
paragraph (f)(1)(i)(H), and is adding a new paragraph (f)(i)(F) to each 
standard, instructing employers that their written exposure control 
plans must include such procedures.
    NABTU also expressed its belief that OSHA must retain the 
standards' procedures for minimizing cross-contamination and migration 
of beryllium, and urged OSHA to retain paragraph (f)(1)(i)(H) (Document 
ID 2240, pp. 5-6). In support, NABTU noted that some workers at a 
beryllium producing facility studied by Virji et al. (2019) who were 
not directly involved in beryllium-related operations nevertheless 
became sensitized to beryllium, including some involved in shutdown 
maintenance, and that the study authors found a strong association 
between dermal exposure and beryllium sensitization (Document ID 2240, 
pp. 5-6). As discussed above in this Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f)(1), OSHA does not agree that the Virji study indicates 
that employees in the construction and shipyards industries are 
currently exposed to dermal contact with beryllium in greater-than-
trace concentrations. OSHA has determined that it is appropriate to 
tailor these standards to abrasive blasting and welding operations, and 
preventing cross-contamination and migration of beryllium-containing 
dust in such operations, where the dust contains only trace amounts of 
beryllium, is only necessary to prevent beryllium-containing dust from 
being re-entrained and creating an additional inhalation risk to 
workers who already have airborne exposure to beryllium at levels of 
concern (e.g., workers in and around beryllium-releasing operations, 
rather than workers in distant areas of the worksite or downstream from 
beryllium-releasing operations).
    OSHA received one comment on its proposal to revise paragraph 
(f)(1)(ii)(B) to refer simply to ``exposure to'' rather than ``airborne 
exposure to or dermal contact with'' beryllium (84 FR at 53911), 
consistent with other paragraphs in which OSHA proposed to simplify the 
language in a similar manner (e.g., paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A), Written 
exposure control plan;


paragraphs (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i), Medical surveillance). As 
revised, the paragraph requires the employer to review and evaluate the 
effectiveness of each written exposure control plan and update it, as 
necessary, when notified an employee shows signs or symptoms associated 
with exposure to beryllium. NJH agreed that the proposed change would 
simplify the reading of the standard (Document ID 2211, p. 9). Having 
received no comments opposing this change, OSHA is finalizing this 
provision as proposed.
    NJH also suggested that if OSHA makes this change, the agency 
should also provide a definition of the term ``exposure'' (Document ID 
2211, p. 9). OSHA disagrees. The term ``exposure'' and closely related 
terms such as ``exposed'' appear in nearly every paragraph of the 
standard, referring variously to airborne exposure, dermal exposure, or 
both. OSHA has carefully written the regulatory text and the 
accompanying summary and explanation to clearly indicate which meaning 
of exposure is intended in each instance, typically by including a 
qualifier such as ``airborne'' or ``dermal'' when a specific type of 
exposure is involved. Because the intended meaning of the term varies 
somewhat from instance to instance, the agency finds that adding a 
definition of ``exposure'' to the standard may lead to confusion and 
misunderstanding regarding many provisions of the standard, and 
maintains that explaining the agency's meaning in each instance of the 
term is appropriate. With respect to paragraph (f)(1)(ii)(B), by 
including no qualifier for the term exposure, OSHA ensures that the 
provision will be triggered whenever an employee shows signs or 
symptoms associated with any type of exposure to beryllium.

Paragraph (f)(2) Engineering and Work Practice Controls

    Paragraph (f)(2) of this final rule requires employers to use 
engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee 
airborne exposure to beryllium to or below the TWA PEL and STEL, unless 
they can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. If an 
employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to reduce airborne 
exposure to or below the PELs through engineering and work practice 
controls, the employer must implement and maintain engineering and work 
practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest levels 
feasible and supplement these controls by using respiratory protection 
in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard.
    Paragraph (f)(2) of the 2017 construction and shipyards standards 
also required the implementation of engineering and work practice 
controls to limit employee airborne exposure to beryllium. However, in 
addition to the requirement to implement controls where exposures 
exceed the TWA PEL or STEL, the 2017 standards required employers to 
implement at least one engineering or work practice control whenever 
exposures exceeded the action level. Specifically, paragraph (f)(2)(i) 
of the 2017 standards required that where exposures are, or can 
reasonably be expected to be, at or above the action level, employers 
were to implement at least one of the following control measures to 
reduce airborne exposure: (1) Material and/or process substitution 
(paragraph (f)(2)(i)(A)); (2) isolation, such as ventilated partial or 
full enclosures (paragraph (f)(2)(i)(B)); (3) local exhaust 
ventilation, such as at the points of operation, material handling, and 
transfer (paragraph (f)(2)(i)(C)); or (4) process control, such as wet 
methods and automation (paragraph (f)(2)(i)(D)). Paragraph (f)(2)(ii) 
exempted an employer from this requirement if the employer can 
establish that the controls are infeasible, or that airborne exposure 
is below the action level, using no fewer than two representative 
personal breathing zone samples taken at least seven days apart, for 
each affected operation. Additionally, if after implementing at least 
one of the controls required by paragraph (f)(2)(i), airborne exposures 
still exceeded the PEL or STEL, paragraph (f)(2)(iii) required the 
employer to implement additional engineering and work practice controls 
to reduce exposure below these limits. If the employer demonstrated 
that it is not feasible to reduce exposures below the TWA PEL and STEL 
through engineering and work practice controls, paragraph (f)(2)(iv) 
required the employer to implement controls to reduce exposure to the 
lowest feasible level and supplement the controls through the use of 
respirator protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of the standard.
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed two changes to paragraph (f)(2) of 
the construction and shipyards standards. First, OSHA proposed to 
remove the requirement that employers implement engineering and work 
practice controls at the action level and instead to require such 
controls only for operations where exposures exceed, or can reasonably 
be expected to exceed, the PEL or STEL. Second, OSHA proposed to 
combine the remaining provisions of paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (iv) 
into a single paragraph (f)(2).
    The requirement to implement controls at or above the action level 
in the 2017 construction and shipyard standards was derived from the 
general industry standard, which requires that employers implement at 
least one type of engineering control for each operation in a beryllium 
work area that releases airborne beryllium, unless the employer can 
demonstrate that airborne exposure is below the action level or that 
the controls are infeasible. In the 2017 final rule, OSHA found that 
the action level was a ``reasonable and administratively convenient 
benchmark'' when attempting to address significant risk below the PELs 
while not unnecessarily burdening employers where controls would 
provide little or no benefit (82 FR at 2674). At the same time, the 
agency recognized that OSHA health standards usually require 
engineering controls only where exposures exceed the PELs (82 FR at 
2673).
    In this rulemaking, OSHA has reconsidered this approach to 
engineering and work practice controls in the construction and 
shipyards contexts. Because exposure to beryllium in construction and 
shipyards is almost exclusively limited to abrasive blasting and 
welding, OSHA preliminarily determined in the 2019 NPRM that requiring 
engineering controls where exposures are between the action level and 
the PEL is not reasonably appropriate for these industries. OSHA 
reasoned that the technological feasibility analysis for the 2017 final 
rule showed abrasive blasting with mineral grit typically generates 
airborne beryllium exceeding the PEL even after implementing 
engineering controls, thus triggering requirements for respirator use 
for employees where exposures remain above the PEL (82 FR at 2584). 
Furthermore, welders in shipyards are already required to use local 
exhaust ventilation as well as air-line respirators (84 FR at 53910-
11). Thus, in the context of abrasive blasting and welding, the 
previous requirement to implement one engineering control where 
exposure are between the action level and the PEL will not result in 
any additional protection to workers. Accordingly, OSHA proposed to 
require engineering and work practice controls in construction and 
shipyards only where exposures exceed the TWA PEL or STEL. As 
acknowledged in the 2017 final rule, this approach is consistent with 
OSHA's typical approach to health standards (84 FR at 53910).
    OSHA received several comments on this proposed change. NABTU 
stated


generally that OSHA should retain the 2017 standards' protections 
against airborne exposures in paragraph (f)(2) (Document ID 2240, p. 6) 
and NJH commented that they ``agree with OSHA that it is important to 
retain the requirement to implement engineering and work practice 
controls to achieve compliance with the PEL and STEL'' (Document ID 
2211, p. 9). AFL-CIO specifically urged OSHA to retain the requirement 
to require engineering and work practice controls at the action level, 
arguing that the construction standard should require the same level of 
protection as the general industry standard to avoid creating a ``two-
tiered protection system'' (Document ID 2210, p. 7). They argued that 
not requiring engineering controls at the action level ``places any 
potentially exposed workers between the action level and the PEL at 
risk . . . by not requiring the hierarchy of controls for these 
workers'' \21\ (Document ID 2210, p. 7). In post-hearing comments, they 
further argued that ``[t]he hierarchy of controls is the most effective 
way to reduce exposures by controlling releases at the source, rather 
than near the worker,'' as the 2017 final rule required wherever 
beryllium exposures meet or exceed the action level (Document ID 2244, 
p. 15).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \21\ The ``hierarchy of controls'' refers to the policy of 
requiring employers to install and implement all feasible 
engineering and work practice controls before relying on respirator 
use to protect employees (see 82 FR at 2476).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    AFL-CIO additionally cited USW's comments on the 2015 beryllium 
NPRM for the proposition that engineering and work practice controls 
should be required ``at the earliest, yet feasible time'' (Document ID 
2244, p. 15). In the cited comments, USW had argued for requiring 
engineering or work practice controls for any operation generating 
airborne beryllium particulate, as USW and Materion had jointly 
recommended for general industry, noting that such a requirement ``is 
entirely feasible, and would reduce a risk OSHA has shown to be 
significant'' (Document ID 1681, p. 11).
    OSHA disagrees with AFL-CIO's assertion that triggering controls on 
the PELs will reduce protection for workers in the construction and 
shipyards industries. As explained in the 2019 NPRM, OSHA's 
technological feasibility analysis concluded that workers performing 
abrasive blasting with mineral grit would typically experience 
exposures in excess of the TWA PEL even after implementing engineering 
controls (84 FR at 53910; 82 FR at 2584). Therefore, in the case of 
abrasive blasting, the requirement to implement at least one 
engineering or work practice control where exposure meets or exceeds 
the action level would achieve no further protections than the proposed 
requirement to implement engineering and work practice controls only 
when exposure exceeds the PEL. Similarly, in the case of welding, the 
welding standard for shipyards already requires the use of local 
exhaust ventilation and air line respirators when welding with 
beryllium-containing base or filler metals (29 CFR 1915.51(d)(2)(iv)). 
Therefore, the previous requirement would likewise not provide any 
further protections for employees exposed to beryllium through welding; 
work practice controls are already being used regardless of level of 
exposure.
    As explained above in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph 
(f)(1), OSHA has determined, based on the record, that beryllium 
exposures in construction and shipyards are limited almost exclusively 
to abrasive blasting and a limited number of welding operations in 
shipyards, and that it is appropriate to tailor certain provisions of 
the beryllium standards to these operations. Because in these 
operations the requirement to implement engineering and work practice 
controls where exposures are between the action level and PEL would 
provide no additional protection to workers, OSHA has determined it is 
appropriate to remove this requirement from the construction and 
shipyards standards.
    At the same time, OSHA agrees with AFL-CIO and NJH that reliance on 
the hierarchy of controls remains important for protecting employees in 
the construction and shipyards sector. That is why the agency has 
retained a specific requirement in paragraph (f)(2) for construction 
and shipyard employers to implement engineering and work practice 
controls where feasible to achieve compliance with the PEL and STEL, as 
OSHA has required in other health standards. Where it is not feasible 
to reduce exposures to or below the PELs, paragraph (f)(2) continues to 
require employers to implement and maintain engineering and work 
practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest levels 
feasible and supplement these controls by using respiratory protection 
in accordance with paragraph (g) of the standard. This approach is 
consistent with OSHA's application of the hierarchy of controls to all 
other standards applicable to construction and shipyards that require 
the use of engineering controls to minimize toxic dust. For example, 
the ventilation standard in construction, 29 CFR 1926.57(f)(2)(ii), 
requires the concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing 
zone of the abrasive blasting operator or any other worker to remain 
below the levels specified in 29 CFR 1926.55.
    After reviewing the comments received and the record as a whole, 
OSHA is finalizing its proposal to revise paragraph (f)(2) to remove 
the requirement that employers implement engineering and work practice 
controls wherever exposures are between the action level and PEL. OSHA 
received no comments on its additional proposal to combine the 
remaining provisions of paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (iv) into a single 
paragraph (f)(2) and is therefore finalizing paragraph (f)(2) as 
proposed.

Paragraph (g) Respiratory Protection

    Paragraph (g) of this final rule requires the provision and use of 
respiratory protection under several conditions to protect against 
exposure to beryllium. Paragraph (g)(1) requires employers to provide 
respiratory protection at no cost to employees and to ensure that 
employees utilize such protection in the following circumstances: (i) 
During periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering 
and work practice controls where airborne exposure exceeds, or can 
reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL (paragraph 
(g)(1)(i)); (ii) during operations, including maintenance and repair 
activities and non-routine tasks, when engineering and work practice 
controls are not feasible and airborne exposure exceeds, or can 
reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL (paragraph 
(g)(1)(ii)); (iii) during operations for which an employer has 
implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls when 
such controls are not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or 
below the TWA PEL or STEL (paragraph (g)(1)(iii)); and (iv) when an 
employee who is eligible for medical removal under the standard chooses 
to remain in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level 
(paragraph (g)(1)(iv)).
    This final rule includes one change from paragraph (g)(1) as 
promulgated in the 2017 final rule. In the NPRM, OSHA proposed removing 
previous paragraph (g)(1)(iv), which required the use of respiratory 
protection during emergencies, from both the construction and shipyards 
standards.\22\ As explained previously in this preamble in the summary 
and explanation for paragraph (b), OSHA also proposed removing the 
definition of ``emergency''--defined as ``any uncontrolled release of 
airborne


beryllium''--from both standards. OSHA reasoned that any uncontrolled 
release of airborne beryllium in these industries, such as from the 
failure of blasting control equipment or a spill of abrasive blasting 
media, would only occur during the performance of routine tasks--i.e., 
abrasive blasting and welding--that are already associated with the 
airborne release of beryllium (84 FR at 53911). During these processes, 
OSHA anticipates that employees working in the immediate vicinity of an 
uncontrolled release of airborne beryllium would already be using 
respiratory protection pursuant to the other provisions in paragraph 
(g)(1).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \22\ As a result, OSHA also proposed to renumber paragraph 
(g)(1)(v) as (g)(1)(iv) in both standards.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Three commenters addressed OSHA's proposal to strike paragraph 
(g)(1)(iv). In both their pre-hearing comments and at the public 
hearing, the AFL-CIO argued that OSHA ``makes the faulty assumption'' 
that all types of worksites and emergencies--i.e., fires, floods, 
chemical releases--will create the same conditions and warrant the same 
type of response to beryllium exposure (Document ID 2210, Comments, p. 
5; Tr., Document ID 2222, p. 119). They further commented that although 
workers with the highest beryllium exposures (i.e., abrasive blasters) 
may use full protective equipment, other workers that do not typically 
wear such equipment might be exposed in the case of an emergency or 
even during normal working conditions (Document ID 2210, Comments, p. 
5). Finally, they argued that it is important to tailor emergency 
procedures to the specific type of work environment (Document ID 2210, 
Comments, p. 5).
    North America's Building Trade Unions (NABTU) likewise commented 
that breaches in abrasive blasting containments could expose workers to 
beryllium who are not otherwise typically exposed (Tr., Document ID 
2222, pp. 86, 91-92; Document ID 2240, pp. 7-8). NABTU conceded that, 
with respect to abrasive blasters and welders, the only type of 
emergency it could envision was a breach in the abrasive blasting 
containment (Tr., Document ID 2222, pp. 102-03). However, in their 
post-hearing brief, NABTU argued that OSHA's proposal ignores workers 
who perform shut-down maintenance, decontamination, and clean-up work 
in beryllium processing facilities (Document ID 2240, pp. 7-8). The 
union cited records from a primary beryllium facility indicating that 
the facility had experienced leaks, spills, and evacuations due to 
events such as fires, which could result in the unexpected release of 
beryllium. NABTU argued that the removal of emergency provisions in the 
construction standard would result in different protective measures 
being applied for general industry and construction employees in these 
facilities. Finally, NABTU urged the importance of including exposures 
from emergencies in medical and work histories ``to ensure that 
pertinent information about potential exposures is not overlooked.''
    NJH agreed with OSHA that abrasive blasting and welding operations 
may not result in emergencies (Document ID 2211, p. 6). However, NJH 
further stated that, because the uncontrolled release of beryllium can 
occur at any time during operations such as abrasive blasting, ``all 
workers should be put in respirators and they should be cleaned and 
maintained as detailed in the beryllium standard for general industry'' 
(Document ID 2211, p. 9). NJH also commented that, although they agree 
the term ``emergency'' can be struck from the standards, any exposure 
above the PEL should trigger medical surveillance that was previously 
provided after an emergency--that is, without regard to the requirement 
in paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) that employees be exposed above the action 
level for more than 30 days per year (Document ID 2211, p. 6-7; Tr., 
Document ID 2222, pp. 56-7).
    After considering these comments and the record as a whole, OSHA is 
finalizing its proposal to eliminate the emergency provision from 
paragraph (g). With respect to some commenters' concerns that OSHA is 
overlooking workers or operations outside of abrasive blasters and 
welders, the agency makes several observations. First, paragraph 
(g)(1)(ii) requires employees engaged in maintenance, repair 
activities, and non-routine tasks to wear respiratory protection when 
engineering and work practice controls are not feasible and airborne 
exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL 
or STEL. This provision would apply in scenarios such as breached 
containments or spills that create a risk of airborne exposure. 
Moreover, paragraph (g)(1)(iii) requires respirator use during 
operations where feasible engineering and work practice controls are 
not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or below the TWA PEL or 
STEL. As OSHA has previously noted, any employees who are not abrasive 
blasters or welders but who are in the vicinity of such operations--
such as pot tenders or cleanup workers--are already required to wear 
respiratory protection because of their proximity to operations known 
to create airborne beryllium exposures above the TWA PEL or STEL (see 
84 FR at 53920).\23\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \23\ In the 2017 Final Rule, OSHA found that pot tender and 
cleanup work are usually remote from the abrasive blasting operation 
or occur prior to or after the operation is complete (82 FR at 2686-
87). As such, OSHA notes that only a subset of these workers (those 
performing their tasks during and adjacent to the abrasive blasting 
operation) would potentially be exposed during an event such as a 
containment rupture.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Second, as with other areas of the proposal, the commenters suggest 
that OSHA is ignoring construction and shipyards workers in operations 
outside of abrasive blasting and welding who may be exposed to 
beryllium. The commenters primarily point to workers who perform 
construction work at general industry sites that process beryllium and 
workers who dress non-sparking tools (see, e.g., Document ID 2210, 
Comments, pp. 4-5; 2240, pp. 7-8). As explained previously in this 
preamble, OSHA repeatedly requested information and data on application 
groups outside of abrasive blasting and welding, but no commenters have 
provided data sufficient for OSHA to draw any conclusions about 
exposures in these contexts. For the same reason, OSHA lacks any 
information on potential exposures from ``unexpected releases of a 
chemical, fires, [or] floods'' in these contexts (see AFL-CIO, Document 
ID 2210, Comments, p. 5). For the reasons already stated, OSHA had 
determined that, given this lack of data, it is appropriate to tailor 
the construction and shipyards beryllium standards to those operations 
for which the agency has sufficient data to demonstrate worker exposure 
to beryllium at levels of concern, to properly characterize and 
evaluate the exposures, and to develop appropriate measures to address 
them. Moreover, as discussed previously, OSHA expects that beryllium 
exposures during processes outside of abrasive blasting and welding, if 
they occur, are rare. Given the rarity of these exposures during normal 
processes, the agency expects that emergency exposures in these 
contexts would be exceedingly rare, to the point of not being 
reasonably foreseeable. For a full discussion of OSHA's reasoning on 
these points, see the summary and explanation of paragraph (f)(1).
    In the operations for which OSHA does have sufficient data (i.e., 
abrasive blasting and welding operations), the agency has determined 
that it is unnecessary to trigger respiratory protection requirements 
on the occurrence of an emergency. As OSHA noted in the NPRM, and as at 
least one commenter agreed (Document ID 2211,


p. 6), any uncontrolled release of beryllium in these operations will 
not create exposures that differ from the normal conditions of work and 
workers should already be protected by the other provisions of 
paragraph (g). Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to remove 
paragraph (g)(1)(iv) from the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards.\24\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \24\ As to NJH's suggestion that, in light of the removal of 
emergency triggers in the standards, OSHA should amend paragraph (k) 
to require medical surveillance for any exposure above the action 
level or PEL, rather than for those exposed over the action level 
for 30 days, OSHA addresses this in the summary and explanation of 
paragraph (k). Likewise, with respect to NABTU's comment that 
exposures during emergencies should be included in employees' 
medical and work histories, OSHA addresses this comment in the 
summary and explanation for paragraph (k)(4). Finally, NJH's comment 
that all respirators should be cleaned as required in general 
industry is addressed in the summary and explanation of paragraphs 
(h).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Paragraph (h) Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment

    Paragraph (h) of the beryllium standards for the construction and 
shipyards industries (29 CFR 1926.1124(h) and 1915.1024(h), 
respectively) provides requirements relating to personal protective 
clothing and equipment (PPE). Paragraph (h)(1) requires employers to 
provide and ensure the use of PPE in accordance with the written 
exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard 
and OSHA's Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment standards for 
construction (29 CFR part 1926, subpart E) where airborne exposure 
exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL. 
Employers are expected to choose the appropriate type of PPE for their 
employees based on the results of the employer's hazard assessment (82 
FR at 2682), and the employer must list in the written exposure control 
plan the PPE that is required under paragraph (h)(1) (see paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(C)). Paragraph (h)(2) governs the removal of PPE,\25\ and 
requires employers to ensure that each employee removes PPE required by 
this standard at the end of the work shift or at the completion of all 
tasks involving beryllium, whichever comes first, and that PPE is not 
removed in a manner that disperses beryllium into the air. 
Additionally, under the PPE cleaning and replacement provisions in 
paragraph (h)(3), employers must ensure that all reusable PPE required 
by the standard is cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed 
to maintain its effectiveness, and that beryllium is not removed from 
PPE by blowing, shaking or any other means that disperses beryllium 
into the air.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \25\ Paragraph (h)(2) of the construction and shipyards 
beryllium standards was titled ``Removal and storage.'' As explained 
below, OSHA is removing the provisions in paragraph (h)(2) that 
pertain to the storage of PPE. Accordingly, OSHA has revised the 
title of paragraph (h)(2) to read ``Removal of PPE.''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This rule finalizes the proposed changes to paragraph (h) in the 
2019 NPRM, including OSHA's proposal to remove the requirement, 
formerly designated paragraph (h)(1)(ii), to provide and ensure the use 
of PPE when there is reasonably expected dermal contact with beryllium 
(see 84 FR at 53913). As explained in the NPRM, OSHA did not intend for 
the standards' provisions aimed at protecting workers from the effects 
of dermal contact with beryllium to apply to operations that involve 
materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium absent significant 
airborne exposures (84 FR at 53912 (citing 83 FR at 19938); see also 84 
FR at 53905-06). In the construction and shipyards sectors, the 
operations that cause airborne exposure to beryllium that can exceed 
the TWA PEL or STEL are either abrasive blasting operations, which 
involve materials or generate particulate matter containing less than 
0.1 percent beryllium by weight, or welding operations in shipyards, 
where the process and materials do not present a dermal contact risk. 
OSHA thus proposed to remove the requirement to provide and ensure the 
use of PPE when there is reasonably expected dermal contact with 
beryllium because it was not aware of any operations in the 
construction or shipyard sectors in which dermal contact with beryllium 
would occur at levels above trace amounts, making such a provision 
unnecessary.
    OSHA received comments challenging the underlying premise that 
abrasive blasting operations and welding operations in shipyards would 
not result in dermal contact with beryllium at levels above trace 
amounts. Specifically, NJH, citing a study indicating that beryllium 
was ``present at a concentration of 4 parts per million (ppm) in coal 
slag samples analyzed prior to blasting, and measured airborne 
beryllium concentrations of up to 9.5 [mu]g/m3 during abrasive blasting 
tasks,'' questioned OSHA's determination that abrasive blasting 
operations only contain or produce materials containing trace 
concentrations of beryllium (Document ID 2211, p. 7). Additionally, USW 
contested OSHA's statement that skin or surface contamination is not 
likely to result from welding operations in shipyards, stating that 
``beryllium-copper rods typically contain 2 percent beryllium and at 
least one manufacturer warns users against grinding, cutting or 
polishing the weld without proper protection,'' and alleging that 
``welds are often subjected to the operations the manufacturer warned 
against, sometimes by workers other than welders'' (Document ID 2212, 
p. 3; see also Document ID 2222, Tr. 31 (USW stating that it believes 
that welding rods containing up to 2 percent are sometimes used, but 
USW does not know how often)). In support, USW pointed to an 
information sheet on beryllium copper welding wire and rods published 
by U.S. Alloy Company (Document ID 2212, Attachment A).
    OSHA responded to these comments in the summary and explanation 
section for paragraph (f). In short, NJH's concern is misplaced because 
the 4 ppm of beryllium documented in the coal slag samples in the study 
that NJH cited, which would amount to 0.0004 percent by weight, is a 
trace amount within OSHA's usage of that term (0.1 percent beryllium by 
weight or less). So too is USW's concern about skin contamination 
during welding operation. As OSHA explained in the NPRM, the agency's 
understanding that the amount of beryllium oxide to form on the surface 
of materials being welded in shipyards is likely far lower than would 
be expected based solely on the percentage of beryllium in the base 
metal is based on a study by Cole, 2007 (84 FR at 53906; see Document 
ID 0885, p. 685). USW's comment does not discuss this study, nor does 
it offer evidence to undermine the conclusions that OSHA has drawn from 
it (see above, Summary and Explanation for paragraph (f)(1)). The 
information sheet from U.S. Alloy Company that USW included with its 
comment makes no mention of a dermal contact risk from the welding rods 
used in the operation, and instead warns that action ``should be taken 
to avoid inhaling the welding fumes'' (Document 2212, Attachment A). 
OSHA finds that the lack of any mention of a risk of dermal contact 
with beryllium in the information sheet supports OSHA's determination 
that dermal exposures are not a concern in welding operations.
    OSHA also received several comments expressing concern that, by 
removing from the standards the provisions that are solely aimed at 
preventing dermal contact with beryllium (including paragraph 
(h)(1)(ii)), OSHA would expose workers to a significant risk of harm, 
and would be abandoning its position in the 2017 final rule that all 
construction and shipyard industry employees within the scope of the 
standards need protection against dermal contact with beryllium 
(Document ID 2210, p. 4, 7; 2212, p. 4;


2239, p. 1; 2240, p. 5; 2244, pp. 8-10; see also Document ID 2222, Tr. 
117-18). Relatedly, commenters expressed concern that OSHA's proposed 
revisions would not sufficiently protect workers who may be exposed to 
dermal contact with dust, fumes, or mists containing beryllium in 
greater-than-trace concentrations in operations other than abrasive 
blasting and welding, such as maintenance, renovation, repair and 
demolition operations at locations where beryllium operations were 
performed; maintenance of non-sparking tools; or, in new operations 
that construction and shipyards employers may undertake in the future 
(Document ID 2202, p. 2; 2208, pp. 6-7; 2210, pp. 4-5, 7; 2211, pp. 1, 
7-8, 10; 2212, pp. 2-4; 2213, pp. 3-4; 2239, pp. 1-2; 2240, pp. 3-5; 
2242, pp. 2-3; 2244, p. 13; see also Document ID 2222, Tr. 17-19, 32, 
47-48, 84-87, 114-15, 131).
    OSHA also fully responded to these comments in the Summary and 
Explanation for paragraph (f). In short, OSHA has not changed its 
position on the employees who require protection from dermal contact 
with beryllium in the construction and shipyards sectors, nor has it 
changed its position that all employers with operations that fall 
within the scope of the standards must comply with their terms. OSHA 
has not changed (or proposed to change) the scope of the standards, 
which are broadly drawn to cover all occupational exposure to beryllium 
in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in construction, except those 
articles and materials specifically exempted. The standards continue to 
require employers to apply provisions related to dermal contact, 
through the provision of PPE and other measures, when airborne 
exposures exceed the TWA PEL or STEL. OSHA's removal of the provisions 
solely aimed at preventing dermal contact with beryllium without 
airborne exposures furthers the agency's intent to tailor the 
construction and shipyards beryllium standards to the specific 
operations on which it has data documenting significant exposures of 
concern (i.e., abrasive blasting operations and welding operations in 
shipyards).
    When the agency applied some of the ancillary provisions that it 
developed for general industry employers into the construction and 
shipyards standards in the 2017 final rule (such as the provisions 
triggered on dermal contact with beryllium or beryllium contamination), 
OSHA did not fully account for the trace levels of beryllium involved 
in construction and shipyards operations. As OSHA clarified in the 2018 
general industry DFR (83 FR at 19938-39), OSHA only intended the 
provisions triggered by dermal contact with beryllium or beryllium 
contamination to apply to dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing 
beryllium in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by 
weight. The agency did not intend to regulate contact with trace 
beryllium absent significant airborne exposures. Given that abrasive 
blasting operations do not involve materials containing beryllium in 
more than trace concentrations, and the welding operations in shipyards 
that create airborne exposures of concerns do not pose a risk of skin 
contamination, OSHA recognized in the 2019 NPRM that the provisions in 
the construction and shipyards beryllium standards triggered on dermal 
contact with beryllium or beryllium contamination (such as paragraph 
(h)(i)(ii)) would never be triggered (see, e.g., 84 FR at 53906, 
53913).\26\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \26\ OSHA notes that the term ``beryllium contamination'' is not 
defined in the construction and shipyards standards. In the DFR for 
general industry, to clarify OSHA's intent that the standard's 
requirements aimed at reducing the effect of dermal contact with 
beryllium should not apply to areas where there are no processes or 
operations involving materials containing at least 0.1% beryllium by 
weight, the DFR defined ``beryllium-contaminated or contaminated 
with beryllium'' and added those terms to certain provisions in the 
standard. The DFR defined those terms as follows: ``Contaminated 
with beryllium and beryllium-contaminated mean contaminated with 
dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium in 
concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight'' (83 
FR at 19939).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The comments received in response to the NPRM have not convinced 
OSHA otherwise. Although OSHA continues to recognize the possibility 
that some construction and shipyards workers could be exposed to 
beryllium through activities other than abrasive blasting and welding, 
the record still lacks key data about these potential additional 
sources of exposure, including how often they occur, who is exposed, 
the duration of the exposures, the type and extent of exposure, or any 
controls that may be in place to address them. Specifically, as 
discussed below, OSHA finds that the record lacks evidence that 
exposures in any construction or shipyards operation would involve a 
risk of dermal contact with beryllium in greater-than-trace amounts.
    As explained more fully in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f), a number of commenters responded to OSHA's request for 
information on any additional application groups (industries, 
occupations, processes, etc.) with potential exposure to beryllium in 
the construction and shipyards sectors beyond abrasive blasting and 
welding operations (see 84 FR at 53922; Document ID 2222, Tr. 33-35; 
44-45; 75-76; 95-96; 125-26), but their comments in many cases relied 
on anecdotal or unverifiable assertions about additional exposure 
sources. Some commenters submitted studies regarding operations that, 
in the commenter's view, could expose employees to greater-than-trace 
concentrations of beryllium at general industry facilities.\27\ But the 
studies do not contain relevant exposure data, nor do they reflect the 
conditions that employees are likely to encounter at general industry 
workplaces today. Although some commenters alleged that construction 
and shipyards workers could be exposed to beryllium in greater-than-
trace concentrations during the dressing or sharpening of beryllium-
containing non-sparking tools, other comments and hearing testimony 
more persuasively indicated that the dressing or sharpening of non-
sparking tools is not an exposure source of concern for workers in the 
construction and shipyards sectors covered by the beryllium standards. 
For example, at the public hearing, a representative from NABTU, 
indicated that although non-sparking tools are used in the 
petrochemical industry, NABTU could not find examples of tradespeople 
dressing and sharpening the tools (Document ID 2222, Tr. 88). Indeed, 
Materion commented that at least one supplier of beryllium containing 
non-sparking tools offers tool sharpening as a free service to its 
customers (Document ID 2237, p. 3).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \27\ OSHA also asked AFL-CIO and NABTU at the hearing whether 
workers needed to be protected against dermal contact with only 
trace concentrations of beryllium (see Document ID 2222, Tr. 94-95, 
121-22). As Materion and CISC pointed out in their post-hearing 
submissions (Document IDs 2237, p. 1; 2241, p. 8), neither party 
directly responded to OSHA's question.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Accordingly, OSHA is tailoring certain aspects of the final 
construction and shipyards beryllium standards to the operations for 
which the agency has sufficient data to demonstrate worker exposure to 
beryllium at levels of concern, to properly characterize and evaluate 
the exposures, and to develop appropriate measures to address them 
(i.e., abrasive blasting operations and limited welding operations in 
shipyards). Tailoring the construction and shipyards beryllium 
standards to these operations ensures that the standards are no more 
complex or onerous than is needed to protect workers, which OSHA 
believes will improve compliance and thereby better protect workers.


    Removing the provisions triggered on dermal contact with beryllium 
(such as former paragraph (h)(1)(ii)) reflects OSHA's intent to 
regulate contact with trace beryllium only when it causes airborne 
exposures of concern. OSHA acknowledged in the 2017 final rule that 
there is ``potential for exposure'' in operations other than abrasive 
blasting and welding (and fashioned the scope of the standards 
accordingly), but never determined that workers in the construction 
industry are currently at risk of dermal contact with greater-than-
trace amounts of beryllium when working at general industry worksites, 
or when dressing or sharpening non-sparking tools. Where OSHA did 
originally include provisions aimed solely at dermal contact in the 
construction and shipyards standards that it now intends to remove, 
including paragraph (h)(i)(ii), it was due to the agency borrowing 
provisions from the general industry standard without appropriately 
accounting for the trace exposures in abrasive blasting and welding as 
they pertain to dermal contact. Inclusion of these provisions was not 
based on a finding by OSHA that the provisions were necessary to 
address exposures beyond abrasive blasting and welding. OSHA finds that 
the standards as revised will maintain protections in all likely 
exposure scenarios while more appropriately addressing the operations 
from which exposures regularly occur.
    Multiple commenters also expressed concern that OSHA's proposed 
removal of the provisions that target dermal contact with beryllium 
would result in insufficient protection for employees who work near, or 
in support of, abrasive blasting operations, such as pot tenders and 
clean-up helpers (see Document ID 2210, p. 4; 2211, p. 8; 2239, p. 3). 
Particularly, AFL-CIO commented that previously-submitted evidence in 
the record indicates that ``bystander'' workers are not typically 
protected against exposure to beryllium to the same extent as workers 
directly involved in abrasive blasting operations, and claimed that 
OSHA has ``proposed to revoke protections that would protect against an 
increased risk of cumulative inhalation and skin exposures even when 
there are significant airborne exposures, especially among those 
working near operations with significant airborne exposures'' (Document 
ID 2210, p. 4 (citing Document IDs 2118, 2129, and 2135); see also 
Document ID 2222, Tr. 117-18, 122-23). AFL-CIO also claimed that 
``[r]espirators and other PPE do nothing to address bystander exposure 
and leave wide variability in the times they are worn'' (Document ID 
2239, p. 3). USW also commented at the hearing that ``even though the 
blasters, the people who were actually engaged in an operation may be 
well protected, there may be bystanders who may be exposed to things 
that escape from containment or that are left over after the 
containment's removed'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 45).
    OSHA has always intended for the construction and shipyards 
beryllium standards to protect workers who support, or are bystanders 
to, abrasive blasting operations, and OSHA's beryllium standards 
protect such workers through various mechanisms, including the 
requirement for such workers to wear PPE when they have reasonably 
expected airborne exposure to beryllium. When the agency promulgated 
the standards in 2017, OSHA concluded that ``pot tenders/helpers, and 
cleanup workers have the potential for significant airborne beryllium 
exposure during abrasive blasting operations and during cleanup of 
spent abrasive material'' and thus ``require protection under the 
beryllium standards'' (82 FR at 2638). Additionally, OSHA determined in 
the 2019 final rule that, despite partial overlap between the 
requirements of the beryllium standards and other existing OSHA 
standards, OSHA could not revoke paragraph (h) in its entirety because 
``[s]ome workers exposed to beryllium in construction and shipyards, 
such as abrasive blasting helpers, would not be fully protected if OSHA 
revoked the requirements for PPE in their entirety.'' 84 FR 51394. OSHA 
has not wavered from its position that abrasive blasting support and 
bystander workers must be protected against potential airborne exposure 
to beryllium.
    Paragraph (h)(1) requires employers to provide and to ensure the 
use of PPE for abrasive blasting support workers and other bystanders 
when those employees are reasonably expected to have airborne exposure 
to beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL. Whether or not such 
workers have tended to wear PPE with the same consistency as abrasive 
blasting operators, these standards expressly require such workers to 
use appropriate PPE whenever they have reasonable expected airborne 
exposure to beryllium above the TWA PEL or STEL. This protects abrasive 
blasting support workers and bystanders from the incremental additional 
beryllium load caused by re-entrainment of trace beryllium where there 
is already significant airborne exposure, while maintaining OSHA's 
intent that dermal contact with trace beryllium alone did not require 
protections (84 FR at 53912 (citing 83 FR at 19938); see also 84 FR at 
53905-06).
    As further discussed below, and in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f), such workers are also protected from exposure to 
airborne beryllium by several other provisions, including the PPE 
removal and cleaning provisions, the requirements to include certain 
procedures in the written exposure control plan (paragraph (f)(1)), and 
the housekeeping requirements in paragraph (j). AFL-CIO is thus 
incorrect that the revised beryllium standards do not protect abrasive 
blasting support workers and bystanders when there are significant 
airborne exposures.
    This rule also finalizes OSHA's proposed modifications to 
paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of the standards, with two exceptions in 
paragraph (h)(2). In the NPRM, OSHA proposed to revise the language of 
several provisions in paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) (see 84 FR at 53913-
14). First, OSHA proposed to revise paragraph (h)(2)(i) so that it 
requires each employee to remove PPE required by the standards at the 
end of the work shift or, at the completion of all tasks involving 
beryllium, whichever comes first. To do this, OSHA proposed to remove 
the qualifier indicating that workers should remove ``beryllium 
contaminated'' PPE, and instead add language indicating that workers 
should remove PPE ``required by this standard.'' OSHA also proposed 
removing the phrase requiring PPE to be removed when it becomes 
``visibly contaminated with beryllium.'' OSHA considers a surface to be 
contaminated with beryllium when it has been contaminated with dust, 
fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium in concentrations 
greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight, and OSHA explained that 
removing the ``beryllium contaminated'' and ``visibly contaminated with 
beryllium'' language reflects the agency's understanding that the data-
supported operations that create exposures at levels of concern in 
these industries (abrasive blasting and some welding in shipyards) will 
not create a beryllium-contaminated surface.
    OSHA explained in the NPRM, however, that where employees working 
with materials containing trace concentrations of beryllium nonetheless 
have the potential for airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL, and 
would thus still be required to use PPE under paragraph (h)(1), they 
would likely be working in highly dusty environments that could 
accumulate large amounts of dust on their PPE (84


FR at 53913). In those situations, the proposed paragraph (h)(2)(i) 
would require employees to remove their PPE at the end of the work 
shift or when all tasks involving beryllium have completed, whichever 
comes first to prevent the dust on the PPE from being re-entrained into 
the air and contributing to the airborne exposure of workers who 
already are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed above the TWA 
PEL or STEL.
    For the same reason, OSHA also proposed in the NPRM to replace the 
qualifier in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) that PPE be ``beryllium 
contaminated,'' and instead add language clarifying that the provision 
applies to PPE ``required by the standard.'' The resulting proposed 
paragraph (h)(2)(ii) would require employers to ensure that PPE 
required by the standard is not removed in a manner that disperses 
beryllium into the air, which can be accomplished by cleaning the PPE 
prior to removal or carefully removing the PPE so as not to disturb the 
dust.
    OSHA also proposed to remove the language from paragraph (h)(2)(ii) 
requiring employers to ensure that employees remove PPE in accordance 
with the written exposure control plan to reflect OSHA's simultaneous 
proposal to remove from paragraph (f) the requirement to include 
procedures for doffing, laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing, and 
disposing of beryllium-contaminated PPE in the written exposure control 
plan. However, as discussed in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f), OSHA has determined that written exposure control plans 
should continue to include procedures for those PPE requirements that 
OSHA did not propose to remove. Accordingly, OSHA is including in 
paragraph (f) a requirement that the written exposure control plan 
include procedures for removal, cleaning, and maintenance of PPE in 
accordance with paragraph (h) (see paragraph (f)(1)(i)(F)). Having 
retained these procedures in the written exposure control plan, OSHA is 
not finalizing its proposal to remove the reference to the written 
exposure control plan from paragraph (h)(2)(ii).
    For paragraph (h)(3), OSHA also proposed to add language to clarify 
that the requirement that employers ensure that beryllium is not 
removed from PPE by blowing, shaking or any other means that disperses 
beryllium into the air applies to PPE that is ``required by the 
standard.'' OSHA explained in the NPRM that the proposed revision would 
assure employers that, if dust containing only trace amounts of 
beryllium migrates to the PPE of employees who are not reasonably 
expected to have airborne exposure to beryllium above the TWA PEL or 
STEL, the beryllium standards permit that PPE to be removed and cleaned 
in a manner that disperses that dust into the air. The proposed 
revision is thus consistent with the agency's goal of protecting 
employees who already have reasonably expected airborne exposure to 
beryllium at levels of concern from inhaling re-entrained beryllium-
containing dust.
    In addition to these proposed revisions to paragraphs (h)(2) and 
(3), OSHA proposed to remove four provisions from paragraphs (h)(2) and 
(3): The requirement to ensure that each employee stores and keeps 
beryllium-contaminated PPE separate from street clothing and that 
storage facilities prevent cross-contamination as specified in the 
written exposure control plan (paragraph (h)(2)(iii)); to ensure that 
beryllium-contaminated PPE is only removed from the workplace by 
employees who are authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, 
cleaning, maintaining, or disposing of such PPE (paragraph (h)(2)(iv)); 
to ensure that PPE removed from the workplace for laundering, cleaning, 
maintenance, or disposal be placed in closed, impermeable bags or 
containers labeled in accordance with the standards' employee 
information and training requirements and the Hazard Communication 
standard (paragraph (h)(2)(v)); and, to inform, in writing, any person 
or business entity who launders, cleans, or repairs PPE required by the 
standards of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to airborne 
beryllium and dermal contact with beryllium, and of the need to handle 
the PPE in accordance with the standards (paragraph (h)(3)(iii)). OSHA 
proposed to remove paragraphs (h)(2)(iii) and (iv), which apply only to 
``beryllium-contaminated'' PPE, because, as explained above, OSHA has 
defined ``beryllium-contaminated'' as contaminated with dust, fumes, 
mists, or solutions containing beryllium in concentrations greater than 
or equal to 0.1 percent by weight (see 83 FR at 19939), and the data-
supported operations that produce beryllium exposures of concern in the 
construction and shipyards industries (abrasive blasting and some 
welding in shipyards) will not produce such ``beryllium-contaminated'' 
PPE. As for the requirements in paragraphs (h)(2)(v) and (h)(3)(iii), 
which were included to protect individuals who handle beryllium-
contaminated items after operations involving beryllium have been 
completed (82 FR at 2683), OSHA preliminarily determined in the NPRM 
that it is unnecessary to protect such downstream handlers of PPE in 
this context. Given the operations to which these standards are 
tailored, downstream handlers of PPE could only come in contact with 
dust that contains beryllium in trace concentrations, and OSHA has no 
reason to believe that those individuals would be engaging in tasks 
that could generate airborne exposures at levels of concern. In keeping 
with OSHA's intent to only regulate contact with trace concentrations 
of beryllium when workers are exposed to significant airborne exposure 
to beryllium, OSHA proposed that these two provisions targeting 
downstream handlers of PPE are unnecessary and should be removed.
    OSHA received only a few comments that specifically addressed the 
proposed changes to paragraphs (h)(2) and (h)(3). NJH stated that 
``[t]he same protections should be in place for shipyards and 
constructions as in general industry when using, handling, cleaning and 
repairing PPE'' (Document ID 2211, p. 10). Additionally, when 
commenting on OSHA's proposed revisions to paragraph (f), NJH stated 
that, when workers clean and dismantle containments, ``clothes and PPE 
for non-blasting workers are likely to be contaminated with beryllium 
particulate and need to be removed, laundered, stored, cleaned, 
repaired, and disposed of in a manner similar to that outlined in the 
original housekeeping provision'' (Document ID 2211, p. 8). NJH also 
argued that the written exposure control plan should include procedures 
to identify and minimize beryllium exposures to workers involved in 
cleaning and maintaining PPE, and that whenever beryllium exposures are 
generated during a process, PPE used during the process should be 
handled in the manner outlined in the 2017 final rule (Document ID 
2211, p. 9).
    OSHA does not agree that it is necessary or appropriate for the 
construction and shipyards beryllium standards to contain the exact 
same PPE handling requirements as the general industry beryllium 
standard. As explained above, OSHA finds it appropriate to tailor the 
construction and shipyards beryllium standards to the limited 
operations in those sectors for which OSHA has significant evidence of 
exposures to beryllium at levels of concern (abrasive blasting 
operations and some welding operations in shipyards). Those operations 
do not create a risk of dermal contact with dust, fumes, or mists 
containing greater-than trace concentrations of beryllium, and 
therefore PPE used during such


operations will not accumulate surface dust with greater-than-trace 
concentrations of beryllium. OSHA agrees, however, that it is 
beneficial and necessary to require employers to establish and describe 
procedures for removing, cleaning, and maintaining PPE in the written 
exposure control plan. As discussed in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f), OSHA has included such a requirement in paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(F) of the standards, and as noted above, has retained the 
requirement in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) that PPE be removed as specified in 
the written exposure control plan.
    AFL-CIO commented that the proposed modifications to paragraph 
(h)(2) and (3), when combined with OSHA's proposed changes to paragraph 
(f), ``increase the cumulative exposure risk for workers wearing'' PPE 
and ``the risk of cross-contamination and migration of beryllium 
exposing workers with no respiratory or dermal protection'' (Document 
ID 2210, p. 7). Particularly, AFL-CIO expressed concern that OSHA's 
proposed requirement for written exposure control plans to include 
procedures used to ensure the integrity of each containment used to 
minimize exposures to employees outside of containments used to limit 
bystander exposures (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E) of the construction 
standard and paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D) of the shipyards standard) ``would 
create a higher concentration of beryllium dust inside the enclosure,'' 
while OSHA's proposed revisions to paragraphs (f) and (h)(2) and (3) 
would no longer require employers to use specific procedures to ensure 
that PPE is safely doffed (Document ID 2210, p. 7).
    AFL-CIO also expressed concern that OSHA's proposed modifications 
to paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) would not sufficiently protect downstream 
handlers of PPE. AFL-CIO stated that, ``by removing provisions to keep 
contaminated PPE separate and labelled, as well as, informing those who 
will come into contact with the PPE that there is potential of 
beryllium exposure,'' OSHA has ``assume[d] without evidence that 
downstream handlers of PPE will not generate airborne exposures,'' 
which leaves ``other employers at risk of exposing their employees to a 
carcinogen without their knowledge'' (Document ID 2210, pp. 8, 10). 
AFL-CIO similarly stated at the hearing that ``there's no evidence in 
the record that shows that [downstream] workers will not generate 
airborne exposure and that they should not be informed about the 
hazards of beryllium'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 118-19).
    In its post-hearing brief, AFL-CIO further discussed its belief 
that preventing cross-contamination and migration of beryllium-
containing dust is essential to protecting workers (see Document ID 
2244, pp. 10-15), and cite a 2019 NIOSH publication of a study by Virji 
et al. that stressed the importance of minimizing dust migration to 
reduce the risk of beryllium sensitization (Document ID 2244, pp. 11-12 
(citing Document ID 2239)). AFL-CIO specifically expressed concern that 
``[a]brasive blasting, a high dust producing task, is likely to result 
in significant dust migration and cross-contamination leading to 
increased beryllium inhalation and dermal exposure if the provisions in 
the [2017] final rule do not remain in place'' (Document ID 2244, p. 
12).
    Although specifically directed in response to OSHA's proposed 
revisions to paragraph (f), NABTU also expressed its belief that OSHA 
must retain the standards' procedures for minimizing cross-
contamination and migration of beryllium-containing dust (Document ID 
2240, p. 5). NABTU likewise pointed to the Virji et al. study, stating 
that the study indicated ``that workers at a primary beryllium 
producing facility who were not directly involved in beryllium-related 
operations were still exposed to beryllium in sufficient quantities to 
cause beryllium sensitization,'' and therefore provides ``further 
support to the need to ensure workers handle their clothing and other 
personal protective equipment in ways that minimize the potential that 
either they, their family members or others who may handle the PPE are 
incidentally exposed'' (Document ID 2240, p. 6).
    OSHA disagrees with AFL-CIO and NABTU. The modifications to 
paragraphs (h)(2) and (3), when combined with the modifications to 
paragraph (f)(1), maintain the necessary protections for workers. As 
explained above, the activities to which the construction and shipyards 
standards are tailored (abrasive blasting operations and limited 
welding operations in shipyards) do not present a risk of dermal 
contact with beryllium in greater-than-trace concentrations. In this 
context, the purpose of the provisions of paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) is 
to prevent workers with significant airborne exposure to beryllium from 
the additional inhalation risk that could result if beryllium-
containing dust were to spread and become re-entrained in the air.
    OSHA finds that paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) have been appropriately 
revised to achieve this purpose. The revised paragraph (h)(2)(i) 
requires that employees who have reasonably expected airborne exposure 
to beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL remove their PPE at 
the end of the work shift or all tasks involving beryllium, and revised 
paragraphs (h)(2)(ii) and (h)(3)(ii) prohibit removing PPE, or 
beryllium from PPE, in a manner that would disperse beryllium into the 
air. These requirements are supplemented by the requirement in 
paragraph (f)(1)(i)(F) for employers to include procedures for 
removing, cleaning, and maintaining PPE in the written exposure control 
plan, and work in concert with additional provisions that minimize the 
potential for beryllium-containing dust to spread in the workplace. 
Specifically, that goal is furthered by the standards' requirements to 
restrict access to work areas at construction worksites where exposures 
to beryllium could reasonably be expected to exceed the TWA PEL or STEL 
(paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(D) and (e)(2)) and establish and limit access to 
regulated areas at shipyard worksites (paragraph (e)); establish 
procedures to ensure the integrity of containments (paragraphs 
(f)(1)(i)(E) in construction and (f)(1)(i)(D) in shipyards); \28\ 
establish engineering and work practice controls (paragraph (f)(2)); 
and, engage in housekeeping practices that limit the potential for 
airborne exposure to beryllium (paragraph (j)).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \28\ AFL-CIO's concern that these containment integrity 
provisions in paragraph (f) will increase the levels of exposure for 
employees who are required to wear PPE under the beryllium standards 
is mistaken. As discussed in the Summary and Explanation for 
paragraph (f), these new provisions do not require employers to use 
containments, but rather require that, when an employer chooses to 
use a containment (such as a tarp or other structure), the employer 
must include in its written exposure control plan specific 
procedures for ensuring the integrity of the containment. The 
purpose of the paragraphs is to ensure that, when an employer 
chooses to use a containment, it is used in such a way that 
employees outside of the containment are not inadvertently exposed 
to beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL. Contrary to AFL-
CIO's suggestion, adding these paragraphs to the standards will 
merely ensure that containments, when used, accomplish their 
intended function.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    To further prevent beryllium-containing dust from creating an 
additional inhalation risk to employees who already have the potential 
for airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL, OSHA has decided 
against finalizing its proposal to remove former paragraph (h)(2)(iv) 
from the standards, and has retained a revised version of that 
requirement in the standards. As discussed above, paragraph (h)(2)(iv) 
previously required the employer to


ensure that no employee removes beryllium-contaminated PPE from the 
workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for the purposes of 
laundering, cleaning, maintaining or disposing of beryllium-
contaminated PPE at an appropriate location or facility away from the 
workplace. OSHA proposed to remove this provision because the data-
supported operations that produce beryllium exposures of concern in the 
construction and shipyards industries (abrasive blasting and some 
welding in shipyards) will not produce ``beryllium-contaminated'' PPE 
as OSHA has defined that term (see 83 FR at 19939).
    However, upon consideration of commenters' concerns, and 
particularly those regarding the risk of cumulative airborne exposure 
from contaminated PPE, OSHA has determined that removing this provision 
would insufficiently protect employees who already have airborne 
exposure above the PEL from the additional inhalation risk that could 
occur if they were allowed to remove their PPE from the worksite 
without first properly cleaning it. As OSHA explained in the NPRM and 
previously in this Summary and Explanation, where employees working 
with materials containing trace concentrations of beryllium have 
reasonably expected airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL due to 
their work activity, and would thus be required to use PPE under 
paragraph (h)(1), they will likely be working in highly dusty 
environments that could accumulate large amounts of dust on their PPE 
(84 FR at 53913). OSHA finds that it is appropriate to ensure that such 
workers clean their PPE in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(ii) prior 
to removing it from the worksite to prevent them from being further 
exposed to airborne beryllium if the dust on their PPE were to be re-
entrained in their vehicles or homes. Therefore, rather than removing 
paragraph (h)(2)(iv) entirely, OSHA is revising the provision (and 
renumbering it as (h)(2)(iii)) to require the employer to ensure that 
no employee with reasonably expected exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL 
removes PPE required by the beryllium standard from the workplace 
unless it has been cleaned in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(ii).
    As explained below, the provisions that OSHA is removing in this 
final rule from paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) (specifically, former 
paragraphs (h)(2)(iii) and (v) and (h)(3)(iii)) do not further the goal 
of preventing workers from encountering beryllium-containing dust that 
could be re-entrained in the air and exacerbate an already-significant 
lung burden. OSHA has therefore determined that the provisions are 
unnecessary.
    As discussed above, former paragraph (h)(2)(iii) required the 
employer to ensure that each employee stores and keeps beryllium-
contaminated PPE from street clothing and that storage facilities 
prevent cross-contamination as specified in the written exposure 
control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this standard, but PPE 
cannot become ``beryllium-contaminated,'' as OSHA has defined that term 
(see 83 FR at 19939), in the operations to which these standards are 
being tailored. Moreover, OSHA has determined that it is unnecessary to 
retain and revise former paragraphs (h)(2)(iii) so that it applies to 
PPE required by the beryllium standards, as OSHA has done for 
(h)(2)(ii) and (h)(3)(ii), because such a provision would not provide 
protection beyond that already provided by OSHA's sanitation standards 
in construction and shipyards.
    The sanitation standards for both construction and shipyards 
require employers to provide change rooms under certain circumstances. 
As explained in the Summary and Explanation of paragraph (i), the 
sanitation standard for construction requires employers to provide 
change rooms if a particular standard requires employees to wear 
protective clothing because of the possibility of contamination with 
toxic materials (29 CFR 1926.51(i)). The change rooms must be equipped 
with separate storage facilities for street clothes and protective 
clothing. Similarly, the sanitation standard for shipyards requires 
change rooms when the employer provides protective clothing to prevent 
employee exposure to hazardous or toxic substances (29 CFR 1915.88(g)). 
Furthermore, the employer must provide change rooms that provide 
privacy and storage facilities for street clothes, as well as separate 
storage facilities for protective clothing.
    Because the beryllium standards require PPE where exposures may 
exceed the TWA PEL or STEL, employers are required to provide change 
rooms under the sanitation standards where employees can store and keep 
PPE separate from street clothing to prevent cross-contamination. OSHA 
finds that, combined with the requirements in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) and 
(h)(3)(ii) regarding the safe removal and cleaning of PPE, the 
requirement in paragraph (f)(1) to include procedures for removing and 
cleaning PPE in the written exposure control plan, and the training 
requirements of paragraph (m), the sanitation standards' requirement 
allowing employees to remove and store their PPE in separate storage 
facilities provide the necessary protections for employees in the 
construction and shipyards context. Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing its 
proposal to revoke former paragraph (h)(2)(iii) in both standards.
    As for former paragraphs (h)(2)(v) and (h)(3)(iii), which target 
downstream handlers of PPE, OSHA explained in the NPRM that it has no 
reason to believe that such individuals have airborne exposure to 
beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL. In response to the NPRM, 
no commenters provided the agency with any evidence indicating 
otherwise. Accordingly, OSHA finds that downstream handlers of PPE 
would not have airborne exposure to beryllium at levels of concern that 
could be exacerbated by exposure to any residual dust encountered 
during the PPE removal, laundering, cleaning or repair process. And, 
given that the operations to which OSHA is tailoring the standards only 
involve materials containing trace concentrations of beryllium and/or 
do not pose a significant risk of skin contamination, and that OSHA 
only intended for the standards to prevent contact with materials 
containing trace concentrations of beryllium when there are significant 
airborne exposures at levels of concern, former paragraphs (h)(2)(v) 
and (h)(3)(iii) are not necessary to protect downstream handlers of PPE 
from dermal contact with beryllium.
    As for AFL-CIO's criticism that the agency has not produced 
evidence to prove that downstream workers are not exposed to airborne 
beryllium at levels above the TWA PEL or STEL, OSHA has no obligation 
or authority to prescribe remedies for problems for which it has no 
evidence of their existence. OSHA did not have evidence of any such 
exposure when it promulgated the standards in 2017, and its inclusion 
of the protections for downstream handlers of PPE in the 2017 final 
rule was due to the agency borrowing provisions from the general 
industry standard without appropriately accounting for only trace 
exposures to beryllium in abrasive blasting and welding operations as 
they pertain to dermal contact.
    With the exception of former paragraph (h)(2)(iv) (renumbered as 
(h)(2)(iii)), AFL-CIO's and NABTU's comments have not persuaded the 
agency that any of the provisions that it proposed to remove from 
paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) are necessary to protect workers in 
construction and shipyards. Both commenters appear to assume that 
workers in the construction and shipyards industries require protection


against dermal contact with beryllium, but as explained above, the 
operations to which OSHA is tailoring the construction and shipyards 
standards do not pose a risk of dermal contact with beryllium in 
greater-than-trace concentrations, and OSHA never intended to protect 
against such contact unless the individual has exposure to airborne 
beryllium at levels exceeding the TWA PEL or STEL. Furthermore, as 
explained in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (f), the Virji 
et al. study, to which both AFL-CIO and NABTU cite, likely does not 
reflect current conditions in general industry facilities, and thus 
does not establish that construction employees who enter a general 
industry site today would require protection from dermal contact with 
beryllium in more than trace amounts. OSHA has determined that, given 
the data-supported operations that produce exposures of concern in this 
context, the revised paragraphs (h)(2) and (3), working in concert with 
other relevant provisions in the standards, provide workers with the 
necessary protection against the additional inhalation exposure that 
could be posed by the spread of dust containing trace amounts of 
beryllium.
    Several other commenters responded that OSHA's proposed changes to 
paragraph (h) do not go far enough, and that none of the beryllium 
standards' ancillary provisions, including the PPE provision, are 
necessary (Document ID 2203, p. 1-2, 11; 2199, p. 3; 2205, p. 2; 2206, 
pp. 10-13; 2209, pp. 1-2; 2241, pp. 3-4). CISC specifically commented 
that, because abrasive blasting employees already wear PPE, OSHA has 
not established that requiring the provision and use of PPE when 
employees have reasonably expected airborne exposure to beryllium above 
the TWA PEL or STEL will significantly reduce the risk of harm 
(Document ID 2203, p. 11; 2241, p. 3). ABMA similarly claimed that 
``[t]here is no evidence that the pre-existing standards governing 
abrasive blasting are insufficient to protect employees, and there is 
no evidence that exposure to the trace amounts of naturally occurring 
beryllium in abrasive blasting (or welding) has resulted in any 
material impairment of health to employees in all of the many years 
this work has been performed'' (Document ID 2206, p. 11).
    OSHA did not propose in this rulemaking to remove the standards' 
PPE requirements in their entirety, and in fact, explained in the NPRM 
that it determined in the 2019 final rule that removing paragraph (h) 
in its entirety would not sufficiently protect workers from airborne 
exposure to beryllium (84 FR at 53913). OSHA acknowledged that other 
standards already require some employees engaged in abrasive blasting 
and welding operations in the construction and shipyards sectors to use 
PPE. However, some workers with known exposure to beryllium in 
construction and shipyards, such as abrasive blasting helpers, would 
not be fully protected if OSHA revoked the requirements for PPE in 
their entirety. In addition, other OSHA standards do not provide 
specific PPE removal, cleaning, and maintenance requirements. As 
explained above, the PPE removal and cleaning provisions in these 
standards are necessary to minimize the spread of beryllium-containing 
dust, which, if re-entrained could create additional inhalation 
exposures for workers with reasonably expected airborne exposure to 
beryllium at levels exceeding the TWA PEL or STEL. Commenters have 
provided no new information indicating that such protections are 
unnecessary, and OSHA finds that the PPE provisions that it is 
promulgating in paragraph (h) are necessary and appropriate to protect 
workers in the construction and shipyards industries.

Former Paragraph (i) Hygiene Areas and Practices

    In this final rule, OSHA is removing paragraph (i), hygiene areas 
and practices, from the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards. OSHA has acknowledged the importance of hygiene practices 
throughout the beryllium rulemaking process (see, e.g., 82 FR at 2684-
85; 84 FR at 53915). However, it has also acknowledged that the 
sanitation standards in general industry (29 CFR 1910.41), construction 
(29 CFR 1926.51), and shipyards (29 CFR 1915.88) include provisions 
similar to some of those in the beryllium standards (84 FR at 53914). 
In the NPRM, OSHA explained that it was reconsidering the need to 
include additional, beryllium-specific hygiene requirement in the 
construction and shipyards standards, in light of the specific exposure 
sources in these industries; specifically, abrasive blasting operations 
involving beryllium in trace amounts and limited welding operations in 
which dermal exposure is not a concern (84 FR at 53914-15).
    Based on the evidence in the record and after reviewing the 
comments and hearing testimony pertaining to hygiene areas and 
practices, OSHA has determined that the sanitation standards for 
construction (29 CFR 1926.51) and shipyards (29 CFR 1915.88) provide 
protections comparable to those in paragraph (i) of the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards and that additional 
requirements will not materially increase protections in these sectors. 
Accordingly, OSHA is removing paragraph (i) from the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards.
    Paragraph (i) of the 2017 final rule established requirements for 
hygiene areas and practices in general industry (29 CFR 1910.1024), 
construction (29 CFR 1926.1024), and shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1024). As 
promulgated in 2017, paragraph (i) required employers in all three 
industries to: (1) Provide readily accessible washing facilities to 
remove beryllium from the hands, face, and neck (paragraph (i)(1)(i)); 
(2) ensure that employees who have dermal contact with beryllium wash 
any exposed skin (paragraph (i)(1)(ii)); (3) provide change rooms if 
employees are required to use personal protective clothing and are 
required to remove their personal clothing (paragraph (i)(2)); (4) 
ensure that employees take certain steps to minimize exposure in eating 
and drinking areas (paragraph (i)(3)); and (5) ensure that employees do 
not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in areas 
where there is a reasonable expectation of exposure above the TWA PEL 
or STEL (paragraph (i)(4)).
    After publishing the 2017 final rule, OSHA clarified in a direct 
final rule (DFR) for general industry that the agency only intended to 
regulate contact with trace beryllium to the extent that it causes 
airborne exposures of concern (83 FR at 19938). Unlike in general 
industry, where processes involving exposure to beryllium are varied 
and employees are exposed to a variety of materials that can contain 
high concentrations of beryllium, exposures in the construction and 
shipyards industries are primarily limited to abrasive blasting 
operations in construction and shipyards and a small number of welding 
operations in shipyards (Document ID 2042, FEA Chapter III, pp. 103-11 
and Table III-8e) (see the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (f)(1) 
for a discussion of the potential for additional sources of exposure in 
these sectors). While the extremely high airborne exposures during 
abrasive blasting operations can expose workers to beryllium in excess 
of the PEL, the blasting materials contain only trace amounts of 
beryllium (Document ID 2042, FEA Chapter IV, p. 612). Moreover, the 
record before the agency contains evidence of beryllium exposure during 
only limited welding operations in shipyards (Document ID 2042, FEA 
Chapter III, Table III-8e) and as discussed previously, OSHA has


determined that for these limited welding operations the exposure of 
concern is exposure to airborne beryllium and not dermal contact.
    In the NPRM, OSHA preliminarily determined that, based on the trace 
beryllium content of blasting materials and the available information 
on welding operations, the construction and shipyards sectors do not 
have operations where skin or surface contamination in the absence of 
significant airborne exposures is an exposure source of concern (84 FR 
at 53906, 53914-15). In light of the existing OSHA standards providing 
many of the same protections as the beryllium standards, the limited 
operations where beryllium exposure may occur in construction and 
shipyards, and the trace quantities of beryllium present in 
construction and shipyard operations, OSHA preliminarily determined 
that the requirements for hygiene areas and practices in the 2017 
beryllium standards for construction and shipyards may be unnecessary 
to protect employees in these industries and proposed to remove all 
provisions of paragraph (i) from the construction and shipyard 
standards (84 FR 53915-16). Accordingly, the agency proposed to remove 
paragraph (i) from the construction and shipyard standards (84 FR at 
53916). Detailed explanations of each provision and OSHA's reasoning 
for removing them are presented below, along with discussion of and 
response to comments received on the proposal.
    Paragraph (i)(1) of both the construction and shipyards standards 
required that, for each employee required to use PPE by the standard, 
employers provide readily accessible washing facilities for use in 
removing beryllium from the hands, face, and neck (paragraph 
(i)(1)(i)), and ensure employees who have dermal contact with beryllium 
wash any exposed skin at the end of the activity, process, or work 
shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, 
applying cosmetics, or using the toilet (paragraph (i)(1)(ii)). OSHA 
proposed to remove these provisions because existing standards already 
require the use of washing facilities for workers in construction and 
shipyards.
    The sanitation standard for construction (29 CFR 1926.51(f)) 
requires employers to provide adequate washing facilities maintained in 
a sanitary condition for employees engaged in operations where 
contaminants may be harmful to the employees. It also requires that 
these washing facilities must be in proximity to the worksite and must 
be so equipped as to enable employees to remove such substances. 
Lavatories are also required at all places of employment and must be 
equipped with hot and cold running water, or tepid running water. Hand 
soap or similar cleansing agents must be provided along with hand 
towels, air blowers, or clean continuous cloth toweling, convenient to 
the lavatories. The sanitation standard for shipyards (29 CFR 
1915.88(e)) similarly requires employers to provide handwashing 
facilities at or adjacent to each toilet facility. The criteria for 
these handwashing facilities are similar to the construction industry 
in that they must be equipped with hot and cold running water or tepid 
running water, soap, or skin cleansing agents capable of disinfection 
or neutralizing the contaminant, and drying materials and methods. This 
standard further requires the employer to inform each employee engaged 
in operations in which hazardous or toxic substances can be ingested or 
absorbed about the need for removing surface contaminants from their 
skin's surface by thoroughly washing their hands and face at the end of 
the work shift and prior to eating, drinking, or smoking (see 29 CFR 
1915.88(e)(3)). Even though the sanitation standards do not 
specifically mention beryllium, the use of the terms harmful substances 
in the construction sanitation standard and hazardous or toxic 
substance in the shipyard sanitation standard encompass beryllium 
exposure where airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected 
to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL.
    With respect to abrasive blasting, the sanitation standards' 
washing facilities requirements are triggered by the use of blasting 
media; either due to contaminants in the blasting media (which may 
include beryllium, lead, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and arsenic) or 
contamination from the substrate or coatings on the substrate. 
Similarly, in the limited welding operations involving beryllium 
exposure, workers will likely be exposed to other hazardous chemicals 
(including hexavalent chromium, lead, and cadmium) (see https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/weldingcuttingbrazing/chemicals.html), triggering the 
requirements of the sanitation standards. Accordingly, the sanitation 
standards provide comparable protections to the washing facilities 
requirements that OSHA is proposing to remove from both the 
construction and shipyard standards (paragraphs (i)(1)(i) and (ii)).
    OSHA also proposed to remove paragraph (i)(2), which required 
employers to provide change rooms where employees are required to 
remove their personal clothing in order to don PPE (paragraph (i)(2)), 
because the sanitation standards already provide comparable protections 
(84 FR at 53915). The sanitation standard for construction (29 CFR 
1926.51(i)) requires employers to provide change rooms if a particular 
standard requires employees to wear protective clothing because of the 
possibility of contamination with toxic materials. The change rooms 
must be equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and 
separate storage facilities for the protective clothing must be 
provided. Similarly, the sanitation standard for shipyards (29 CFR 
1915.88(g)) requires change rooms when the employer provides protective 
clothing to prevent employee exposure to hazardous or toxic substances. 
Furthermore, the employer must provide change rooms that provide 
privacy and storage facilities for street clothes, as well as separate 
storage facilities for protective clothing. Because the beryllium 
standards require PPE where exposures may exceed the TWA PEL or STEL, 
employers are required to provide change rooms under the sanitation 
standards, just as they would have been required by paragraph (i)(2) of 
the beryllium standards.
    OSHA further proposed to remove paragraph (i)(3) from the 
construction and shipyards standards, which established requirements 
for eating and drinking areas. Paragraph (i)(3)(i) required that 
surfaces in eating and drinking areas be kept as free as practicable of 
beryllium and paragraph (i)(3)(ii) required that employees remove or 
clean contaminated clothing prior to entering these areas. OSHA 
proposed to remove these provisions for two reasons. First, provisions 
in the sanitation standards for construction (29 CFR 1926.51(g)) and 
shipyards (29 CFR 1915.88(h)) already require employers to ensure that 
food, beverages, and tobacco products are not consumed or stored in any 
area where employees may be exposed to hazardous or toxic materials. 
Second, these provisions relate to minimizing dermal contact.\29\ As 
explained in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (h), OSHA


intends that provisions aimed at addressing dermal contact should only 
apply to materials containing trace amounts of beryllium where there is 
also the potential for significant airborne exposure. OSHA 
preliminarily determined that the processes in construction and 
shipyards creating exposure to beryllium are either processes that 
involve materials containing less than 0.1 percent beryllium by weight 
or processes that do not produce surface or skin contamination (84 FR 
at 53916).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \29\ In the 2019 construction and shipyards final rule, in which 
OSHA declined to revoke all of the ancillary provisions of these 
standards, OSHA stated that there was not complete overlap between 
the sanitation standards and the eating and drinking area 
requirements of paragraph (i)(3) (84 FR at 51395). That rule, 
however, did not address whether additional beryllium-specific 
requirements were necessary in light of the trace exposures in these 
contexts.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OSHA further explained that other parts of the beryllium standard 
will reduce the potential for airborne beryllium in eating and drinking 
areas (84 FR at 53916). Specifically, when employees are cleaning up 
dust resulting from operations that cause, or can reasonably be 
expected to cause, airborne exposures over the TWA PEL or STEL, the 
employer must ensure the use of methods that minimize the likelihood 
and level of airborne exposure (see paragraph (j)). And under proposed 
paragraph (h)(2)(ii), employers must ensure that PPE required by the 
standard is not removed in a manner that disperses beryllium into the 
air. Given that the construction and shipyard operations known to 
involve beryllium exposure involve only trace amounts of beryllium (or, 
in the case of welding, do not pose a dermal contact risk), and that 
other provisions of the beryllium standard such as engineering controls 
and housekeeping requirements serve to minimize airborne exposures, 
OSHA preliminarily determined that existing standards adequately 
protect employees in eating and drinking areas (84 FR at 53916).
    OSHA also proposed to remove the reference in paragraph (i)(3)(iii) 
which required that eating and drinking facilities provided by the 
employer must be in accordance with the sanitation standards. OSHA does 
not believe it is necessary to maintain this reference, as this would 
be the only requirement remaining in paragraph (i) and employers are 
required to comply with the sanitation standards regardless.
    Finally, OSHA proposed to remove paragraph (i)(4), which required 
the employer to ensure that no employees eat, drink, smoke, chew 
tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in work areas where there is a 
reasonable expectation of exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL. The 
sanitation standards prohibit consuming food or beverages in areas 
exposed to toxic material and therefore provides the appropriate 
protections for areas where exposures are above the PEL. OSHA 
preliminarily determined that the sanitation standards are 
substantially similar to former paragraph (i)(4) and provide 
appropriate protections for areas where exposures are above the PEL (84 
FR at 53916).
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA requested comment on the proposed removal of 
paragraph (i), especially comments and data on the use of wash 
facilities and change rooms in construction and shipyards for 
operations that would be covered by the beryllium standards (84 FR at 
53916).
    Several commenters disagreed with OSHA that the hygiene provisions 
under paragraph (i) should be rescinded. AFL-CIO commented that 
removing paragraph (i) will increase workers' risk of cumulative 
beryllium exposure and could lead to migration of beryllium to other 
areas, resulting in inhalation exposure to other workers (Document ID 
2210, p. 8). They argued that the sanitation standards leave gaps in 
coverage, in light of ``the significant risk of impairment to worker 
health at low exposure limits and the carcinogenicity of beryllium,'' 
and that other provisions of the beryllium standard addressing airborne 
exposure are insufficient to justify removing the hygiene provisions 
(Document ID 2210, p. 8). In post-hearing comments, AFL-CIO reiterated 
their position and stated that the 2017 final rule found paragraph (i) 
``prevents additional airborne and dermal exposure to beryllium, 
accidental ingestion of beryllium, spread of beryllium inside and 
outside the workplace and reduces significant risk of beryllium 
sensitization and CBD'' (Document ID 2239, p. 2).
    AFL-CIO did not identify which protections in paragraph (i) are 
left unaddressed by the sanitation standards. With respect to increases 
in cumulative exposure or migration of beryllium resulting in increased 
airborne exposure, OSHA has explained that the sanitation standards for 
construction and shipyards contain comparable requirements for change 
rooms (29 CFR 1926.51(i); 29 CFR 1915.88(g)) and washing facilities (29 
CFR 1926.51(f); 29 CFR 1915.88(e)) and prohibit contamination in eating 
and drinking areas (29 CFR 1926.51(g); 29 CFR 1915.88(h)). At the same 
time, existing provisions of the beryllium standards further reduce the 
potential for airborne exposure by ensuring beryllium-containing dust 
is cleaned up by methods that minimize the likelihood and level of such 
exposure (paragraph (j)) and that PPE is removed and cleaned in a 
manner that does not disperse beryllium into the air (paragraphs (h)(2) 
and (3)). Regarding the need for provisions to protect against dermal 
contact, OSHA has explained that it does not intend such provisions to 
apply where, as here, exposure involves materials containing only trace 
amounts of beryllium (see the Summary and Explanation for paragraph 
(h)). Ultimately, OSHA disagrees with the AFL-CIO's broad and 
unelaborated assertion that these protections are inadequate.
    NABTU, resubmitting comments previously entered in the docket, 
argued that the hygiene provisions ``provide protections not only for 
abrasive blasting workers, but for all construction workers who may be 
exposed to beryllium,'' including workers who perform maintenance, 
repair, renovation, or demolition of worksites that contain beryllium 
(Document ID 2202, 2017 comment, p. 7; see also Document ID 2202, 2015 
comment, p. 9). According to NABTU, providing washing and clean-up 
facilities to beryllium-exposed workers benefits all workers at the 
site, ``especially those who don't perform beryllium-exposing tasks, 
who may not be aware of the hazards of beryllium'' (Document ID 2202, 
2017 comment, p. 7). At the public hearing, when asked which hygiene 
provisions they viewed as important for abrasive blasting operations in 
construction, NABTU's representative identified ``handwashing 
facilities . . . [and] the ability to change out of clothing that's 
contaminated with the dust'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 105).
    In their post-hearing brief, NABTU again emphasized their position 
that OSHA should retain provisions related to dermal contact in 
construction and argued that the sanitation standard for construction 
lacks ``the level of specificity necessary to ensure construction 
workers adequate protection'' (Document ID 2240, p. 8). Specifically, 
although paragraph (f) of the sanitation standard requires construction 
employers to provide washing facilities, NABTU notes that it does not 
specify that workers must use these facilities following dermal contact 
with beryllium and before ``eating drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco 
or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toilet'' (Document ID 2240, p. 
9). And although paragraph (g) prohibits eating or drinking in ``any 
area exposed to a toxic material,'' NABTU asserts that it ``does not 
address the range of activities covered by the beryllium standard'' 
(Document ID 2240, p. 9). Finally, they state that the sanitation 
standard does not require employees to remove surface beryllium from 
their clothing or PPE before taking the equipment into an eating or 
drinking area (Document ID 2240, p. 9).


    OSHA agrees with NABTU that washing and clean-up facilities benefit 
all workers at a worksite and that all workers with beryllium exposure 
should be protected. However, the agency has determined that a 
beryllium-specific requirement is not necessary to provide these 
protections in the construction context. OSHA has determined that the 
sanitation standard for construction provides the same protections as 
the beryllium standard with respect to washing facilities (29 CFR 
1926.51(f)) and change rooms (29 CFR 1926.51(i)).
    OSHA disagrees with NABTU that the sanitation standard for 
construction lacks sufficient specificity to protect workers in the 
construction industry. First, with respect to the previous requirement 
in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) that employees with dermal contact wash exposed 
skin prior to ``eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, 
applying cosmetics, or using the toilet,'' this requirement was 
triggered on and specifically aimed at addressing dermal contact (82 FR 
at 2684).\30\ OSHA has addressed commenters' concerns regarding dermal 
contact previously in this preamble (see the Summary and Explanation 
for paragraph (f)), and simply notes again its determination that this 
is not an exposure source of concern in the construction operations 
known to involve beryllium exposure.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \30\ In the general industry DFR, the agency revised the 
definition of ``dermal contact with beryllium'' to apply only to 
skin exposure to beryllium ``in concentrations greater than or equal 
to 0.1 percent by weight'' (83 FR at 19940). OSHA notes that under 
this revised definition of dermal contact, the requirement in 
paragraph (i)(1)(ii) would never be triggered in the context of 
abrasive blasting operations in construction and shipyards.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The same rationale applies to NABTU's concerns regarding the list 
of prohibited activities as they appear in paragraph (i)(4). OSHA 
initially included these provisions due to the risk of ``beryllium 
contaminating the food, drink, tobacco, gum, or cosmetics'' (82 FR at 
2688). Having received no comments related to this provision when OSHA 
original proposed it for the general industry standard, OSHA extended 
``substantively identical'' requirements to the construction and 
shipyards standards in the 2017 final rule (82 FR at 2688). In light of 
OSHA's determination in this final rule that exposures in the 
construction and shipyards sectors are limited to trace amounts of 
beryllium, the agency finds that this is no longer a concern in these 
sectors. Next, after considering NABTU's assertion that the sanitation 
standard does not require employees to remove surface beryllium from 
their clothing or PPE before taking the equipment into an eating or 
drinking area, OSHA has reviewed the existing requirements of 29 CFR 
1926.51 and determined that this is not the case. If an area contains 
PPE covered with surface beryllium, such that employees may be exposed 
through re-entrainment of the beryllium-containing dust, 29 CFR 
1926.51(g) by its terms prohibits employees from consuming or storing 
food, beverages, or tobacco products in that area.
    NJH commented that, although there is ``likely some overlap'' 
between the beryllium and sanitation standards, it is important to 
ensure that ``special protections'' are in place to protect workers 
from beryllium exposures (Document ID 2211, p. 10). NJH specifically 
noted that contaminated change rooms may potentially exposure workers 
not otherwise working with or exposed to beryllium (Document ID 2211, 
p. 10). OSHA notes that paragraph (i)(2) in each of the beryllium 
standards required employers to provide change rooms in accordance with 
the beryllium standard and the relevant sanitation standard, when an 
employee is required to change from street clothes to don PPE (29 CFR 
1926.1124(i)(2); 29 CFR 1915.1024(i)(2)). Paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of the 
beryllium standards, in turn, required employers to ensure that 
beryllium-contaminated PPE is kept separate from street clothes and 
that storage facilities prevent cross-contamination (29 CFR 
1926.1124(h)(2)(iii); 29 CFR 1915.1024(h)(2)(iii)). However, the 
sanitation standards each also require that change rooms contain 
separate storage facilities for street clothes and PPE to prevent 
cross-contamination (29 CFR 1926.51(i); 29 CFR 1915.88(g)). OSHA finds 
that, combined with the requirements in paragraph (h)(2) and (3) of the 
beryllium standards regarding the safe removal and cleaning of PPE, the 
sanitation standards for construction and shipyards protect against 
contamination of required change rooms to the same extent as paragraph 
(i).
    Finally, one commenter argued that paragraph (i) must be included 
for ``implementation and consistency with other comprehensive health 
standards'' (Document ID 2197). However, the commenter did not identify 
how relying on the sanitation standards would result in implementation 
issues. With respect to consistency, although it is true that some 
health standards contain substance-specific hygiene requirements, the 
breadth and content of the requirements differ by standard. For 
example, the hygiene requirements of the methylene chloride standard 
(29 CFR 1926.1152) address only the provision of washing facilities, 
while the requirements in other standards, such as the cadmium standard 
(29 CFR 1926.1127), contain numerous, more detailed requirements. Other 
health standards, such as the standards for vinyl chloride (29 CFR 
1926.1117), benzene (29 CFR 1926.1128), and respirable crystalline 
silica (29 CFR 1926.1153), contain no substance-specific hygiene 
requirements at all and rely solely on the general sanitation standard. 
Thus, relying on the sanitation standards rather than beryllium-
specific hygiene requirements will not create inconsistency among 
OSHA's comprehensive health standards.
    OSHA has reviewed these comments and the record as a whole and has 
decided to follow through with the proposed removal of paragraph (i). 
In light of existing OSHA sanitation standards which provide 
protections comparable to those in paragraph (i) of the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards and the trace quantities of 
beryllium present in these industries (or, in the case of welding 
operations, the lack of skin or surface contamination), OSHA has 
determined that additional, beryllium-specific hygiene requirements 
will not materially increase protections for workers in these 
industries. Accordingly, the agency is removing former paragraph (i) 
from the construction and shipyard standards. By doing so, OSHA intends 
to tailor the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards to 
ensure they are no more complicated or onerous than necessary to 
appropriately protect workers, thereby improving compliance.

Paragraph (j) Housekeeping

    In this final rule, paragraph (j) of the construction and shipyards 
standards mandates several housekeeping requirements aimed at reducing 
workers' airborne exposure to beryllium. Paragraph (j)(1) requires 
employers to use cleaning methods that minimize the likelihood and 
level of airborne exposure to beryllium when cleaning up dust resulting 
from operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, 
airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL. Paragraph (j)(2) prohibits 
dry sweeping or brushing for cleaning up dust from operations that 
cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above 
the TWA PEL or STEL unless other methods that minimize the likelihood 
and level of airborne exposure are not safe or effective. Paragraph 
(j)(3) prohibits the use of compressed air for cleaning if its use


causes, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above 
the TWA PEL or STEL. Paragraph (j)(4) requires respirator use and 
personal protective clothing and equipment where employees use dry 
sweeping, brushing, or compressed air to clean. Finally, paragraph 
(j)(5) requires cleaning equipment to be handled and maintained in a 
manner that minimizes the likelihood and level of airborne exposure and 
re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the workplace.
    This final rule includes several changes from paragraph (j) as 
promulgated in the 2017 final rule. As OSHA explained in the proposal, 
the agency acknowledged in the 2017 final rule that different 
approaches may be warranted for the housekeeping provisions for 
construction and shipyards than for general industry due to the nature 
of the materials and identified work processes with beryllium exposure 
in construction and shipyards (82 FR at 2690). OSHA recognized that 
beryllium exposure in these industries is limited primarily to abrasive 
blasting in construction and shipyards and a small number of welding 
operations in shipyards (Document ID 2042, FEA Chapter III, pp. 103-11 
and Table III-8e). While the extremely high airborne dust exposures 
during abrasive blasting operations can expose workers to beryllium in 
excess of the PEL, slag-based abrasive media contains only trace 
amounts of beryllium (Document ID 2042, FEA Chapter IV, p. 612). 
Moreover, the record before the agency contains evidence of beryllium 
exposure during only limited welding operations in shipyards (Document 
ID 2042, FEA Chapter III, Table III-8e). Nonetheless, in the 2017 final 
rule, OSHA applied most of the same requirements to these industries as 
to general industry,\31\ where the operations with beryllium exposure 
are significantly more varied and employees are exposed to materials 
with significantly higher beryllium content.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \31\ Due to the transient nature of the work processes in 
construction and shipyards and the fact that most of the work occurs 
outside, OSHA decided not to require employers in these industries 
to maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of beryllium, as it 
had done in general industry. Rather, the agency required employers 
in these industries to follow their written exposure control plan 
when cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas (82 FR at 2690).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Since publication of the 2017 final rule, OSHA has undertaken 
several additional rulemaking efforts affecting the beryllium standards 
for construction and shipyards. OSHA clarified in the beryllium general 
industry DFR that the agency only intended to regulate contact with 
trace beryllium to the extent that it caused airborne exposures of 
concern. OSHA explained that the agency never intended for provisions 
aimed primarily at protecting workers from the effects of dermal 
contact to apply in the case of materials containing only trace amounts 
of beryllium (83 FR at 19938).
    OSHA also published its 2017 proposal to revoke the ancillary 
provisions of the construction and shipyards beryllium standards in 
light of overlap with existing OSHA standards applicable to these 
sectors (82 FR 29182). With respect to the housekeeping provisions of 
paragraph (j), OSHA identified existing standards that at least 
partially duplicated the requirements of the beryllium standards. 
Specifically, OSHA cited the construction ventilation standard, which 
requires that dust not be allowed to accumulate outside abrasive 
blasting enclosures and that spills be cleaned up promptly (29 CFR 
1926.57(f)(7)). OSHA also identified certain provisions of OSHA's 
general ventilation standard for abrasive blasting (29 CFR 1910.94(a)), 
which apply to abrasive blasters in shipyards, and require that dust 
must not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside 
of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills must be cleaned up 
promptly. (29 CFR 1910.94(a)(7)). Although OSHA ultimately determined 
that existing standards did not duplicate all of the requirements of 
paragraph (j), the agency acknowledged that certain revisions may be 
appropriate to account for partial overlap in these standards (84 FR at 
51378).
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA announced that it was reconsidering its 
approach to the housekeeping provisions in the construction and 
shipyards standards based primarily on two rationales. First, OSHA 
preliminarily determined that skin or surface contamination in the 
absence of significant airborne exposures is not an exposure source of 
concern in the operations with known beryllium exposure in the 
construction and shipyards sectors; that is, abrasive blasting with 
material containing trace quantities of beryllium and limited welding 
operations in shipyards. Second, OSHA preliminary determined that 
partial overlap between paragraph (j) and existing OSHA standards made 
certain revisions to these requirements appropriate (84 FR at 53916-
17). Accordingly, OSHA proposed a number of changes to paragraph (j) in 
both standards.
    First, OSHA proposed to remove paragraph (j)(1), which required 
employers to follow the written exposure control plan in paragraph (f) 
when cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas and to ensure that spills 
and emergency releases of beryllium are cleaned up promptly and in 
accordance with the written exposure control plan (84 FR at 53917). 
OSHA explained that routine general housekeeping and housekeeping 
related to spills are adequately covered by the existing ventilation 
standard for construction (29 CFR 1926.57(f)(7)) and OSHA's general 
ventilation standard (29 CFR 1910.94(a)) applicable to shipyards (84 FR 
at 53917). OSHA also explained that because the housekeeping provisions 
are triggered by only one operation (abrasive blasting) using materials 
with trace amounts of beryllium and the main objective of these 
provisions is to minimize airborne exposure, a unique written plan for 
how to clean is unnecessary in this context. OSHA noted that this is in 
contrast to general industry, where there is the concern for protecting 
workers from both airborne exposures and dermal contact over a variety 
of beryllium-containing materials and processes and where employers may 
need to have more complicated or unique cleaning procedures to 
adequately protect workers. Finally, with respect to emergency releases 
of beryllium, OSHA elsewhere in the proposal preliminarily determined 
that the operations with beryllium exposure in the construction and 
shipyards sectors do not have emergencies in which exposures differ 
from the normal conditions of works (see 84 FR at 53909), rendering 
housekeeping procedures specific to emergency releases unnecessary.
    OSHA also proposed revising paragraph (j)(2), which addressed the 
use of cleaning methods that minimize the likelihood and level of 
airborne exposure, the use of dry sweeping, brushing and compressed air 
for cleaning, the use of respiratory protection and personal protective 
equipment when employing certain types of cleaning methods, and 
handling and maintaining cleaning equipment (84 FR at 53917). The first 
proposed revision relates to paragraph (j)(2)(i), renumbered as (j)(1), 
which required the use of HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that 
minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure when cleaning in 
beryllium-contaminated areas. The second proposed revision relates to 
paragraph (j)(2)(ii), renumbered as (j)(2), which prohibited dry 
sweeping or brushing for cleaning in beryllium-contaminated areas 
unless HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the


likelihood and level of airborne exposure are not safe or effective.
    In both paragraphs, OSHA proposed replacing the phrase ``cleaning 
in beryllium-contaminated area'' with ``cleaning up dust resulting from 
operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL'' (84 FR at 53917). In the 2018 DFR, 
OSHA clarified the general industry beryllium standard by defining 
``contaminated with beryllium'' and ``beryllium-contaminated'' as 
contaminated with dust, fumes, mists, or solutions containing beryllium 
in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight; a 
condition not applicable to abrasive blasting operations in 
construction and shipyards (84 FR at 53917; 83 FR at 19939-40). Because 
the agency preliminarily determined that there are no operations 
covered by the construction or shipyard beryllium standards that would 
create such a beryllium-contaminated surface, the agency proposed to 
revise these portions of renumbered paragraphs (j)(1) and (2). OSHA 
explained that the agency intends these provisions to apply where 
workers are either working in regulated areas in shipyards or in areas 
with exposures above the TWA PEL or STEL in construction. As such, OSHA 
preliminarily determined that the presence of dust produced by 
operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL is a more appropriate trigger for 
these requirements (84 FR at 53917).
    OSHA also proposed to remove the references to ``HEPA-filtered 
vacuuming'' in renumbered paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) and instead to 
refer simply to methods that minimize the likelihood and level of 
airborne exposure. OSHA explained that in abrasive blasting operations, 
where large amounts of dust are generated, the use of such vacuums may 
be problematic due to filter overload and clogging which may cause 
additional exposures (84 FR at 53917). Because the use of HEPA-filtered 
vacuums may not be appropriate in abrasive blasting operations, OSHA 
proposed to revise paragraph (j) of both standards to remove the 
references to such vacuums.
    OSHA next proposed to revise paragraph (j)(2)(iii), renumbered as 
paragraph (j)(3), which prohibited the use of compressed air for 
cleaning in beryllium-contaminated areas unless the compressed air is 
used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the 
particulates made airborne by the use of compressed air (84 FR at 
53917). OSHA again proposed to remove the reference to ``beryllium-
contaminated areas'' for reasons already discussed. OSHA also proposed 
to prohibit the use of compressed air for cleaning where its use 
causes, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above 
the TWA PEL or STEL, without reference to the use of ventilation. OSHA 
explained that in the 2017 final rule, the agency determined that the 
use of compressed air might occasionally be necessary in general 
industry (84 FR at 53918; see 82 FR at 2693). Similarly, for 
construction and shipyards, OSHA intended at the time to prohibit the 
use of compressed air during cleaning of beryllium contaminated areas 
or materials designated for recycling or disposal unless used in 
conjunction with a ventilation system (84 FR at 53918). In the 
proposal, OSHA stated that the agency was now reconsidering the 
practicality of using ventilation with compressed air when cleaning 
areas with copious amounts of dust produced during abrasive blasting at 
construction and shipyard sites. Instead, OSHA proposed to limit the 
use of compressed air to circumstances in which there is a limited 
quantity of dust, which, if re-entrained, would not result in exposures 
above the TWA PEL or STEL (84 FR at 53918).
    OSHA next proposed revising paragraph (j)(2)(iv), renumbered as 
paragraph (j)(4), which addressed respirator use and personal 
protective clothing and equipment where employees use dry sweeping, 
brushing, or compressed air to clean in beryllium-contaminated areas. 
OSHA again proposed to remove the reference to ``beryllium-contaminated 
areas'' for reasons already discussed and to instead simply require the 
use of respiratory protection and PPE ``in accordance with paragraphs 
(g) and (h)'' when dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air is used 
(84 FR at 53918).
    Finally, OSHA proposed removing the disposal provision in paragraph 
(j)(3), which required that, when transferring beryllium-containing 
materials to another party for use or disposal, employers must provide 
the recipient a copy of the warning label required by paragraph (m) (84 
FR at 53918). Separately in the proposal, OSHA proposed removing the 
labeling requirement in paragraph (m) altogether. OSHA explained that 
all beryllium-containing materials in the shipyard and construction 
industries contain or produce only trace amounts of beryllium. 
Accordingly, OSHA explained, this revision is consistent with OSHA's 
intention, explained in the 2018 DFR, that provisions aimed at 
protecting workers from the effects of dermal contact should not apply 
to materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium, such as 
abrasive blasting media, unless those workers are also exposed to 
airborne beryllium at or above the action level (84 FR at 53918; see 83 
FR at 19940). OSHA further explained that the revision aligns with the 
housekeeping requirements of the general industry beryllium standard 
(as modified by the DFR), which does not require labeling for materials 
that contain only trace quantities of beryllium and are designated for 
disposal, recycling, or reuse (84 FR at 53918). OSHA emphasized that 
these materials must still be labeled according to the Hazard 
Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) and, if appropriate, the 
hazards of beryllium must be addressed on the label and Safety Data 
Sheet (SDS) (84 FR at 53918).\32\ For additional discussion on labeling 
requirements, see the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (m).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \32\ OSHA also proposed some minor, non-substantive changes to 
paragraph (j), including renumbering existing paragraph (j)(2)(v) as 
paragraph (j)(5) and removing the heading for ``Cleaning Methods'' 
to refer to these requirements only as ``Housekeeping'' (84 FR at 
53918, FN 8). OSHA received no comments on these changes and is 
finalizing them as proposed.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Some commenters disagreed with the proposed changes to paragraph 
(j) in both comments submitted to the record and in testimony at the 
public hearing. Many reiterated in their comments that they believe 
that workers in the construction and shipyard industries are exposed 
during activities other than abrasive blasting and welding, some of 
which may involve beryllium in greater-than-trace amounts. These 
commenters included AFL-CIO (Document ID 2210, p. 9), NJH (Document ID 
2211, p. 11), NABTU (Document ID 2240, p. 9), ACOEM (Document ID 2213, 
p. 3), and certain members of Congress (Document ID 2208, p. 6). As in 
other areas of their comments, these commenters identified additional 
operations that they believe involve beryllium exposure, primarily the 
dressing of non-sparking tools and construction, maintenance, 
decommissioning, and demolition work at beryllium-processing 
facilities. With respect to the requirements of paragraph (j), some of 
these commenters argued that the potential for additional exposures in 
these operations counsel against removing any housekeeping 
requirements--but particularly those aimed at addressing dermal contact 
with beryllium--to tailor these standards to abrasive blasting and 
welding operations.


    OSHA has addressed commenters' concerns regarding additional 
sources of exposure previously in this preamble in the Summary and 
Explanation for paragraph (f) and refers readers to that discussion. To 
summarize, although OSHA acknowledges the potential for exposures 
beyond abrasive blasting and welding operations, the record continues 
to lack sufficient data for the agency to characterize the nature, 
locations, or extent of beryllium exposure in application groups other 
than abrasive blasting and certain welding operations. Further, the 
agency has reason to believe that any additional exposures that may 
occur do not present a dermal contact risk in these sectors. As a 
result, OSHA finds that it is appropriate to further tailor certain 
provisions of the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards--
including the housekeeping requirements--to those operations for which 
the agency has data; that is, abrasive blasting operations with 
material containing trace amounts of beryllium and limited welding 
operations where dermal contact is not an exposure source of concern.
    NABTU specifically urged OSHA to retain paragraph (j)(1), which 
requires employers to follow their written exposure control plans when 
cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas and dealing with spills and 
emergency releases. According to NABTU, OSHA's determination that the 
only sources of contamination with which employers need be concerned 
come from abrasive blasting is incorrect and therefore the ventilation 
standard for construction (29 CFR 1926.57(f)(7)) does not provide 
adequate coverage (Document ID 2240, p. 9). Similarly, AFL-CIO 
disagreed with the proposed removal of this paragraph stating that the 
existing ventilation standards for construction and shipyards are not 
effective at addressing the toxicity of beryllium (Document ID 2210, 
pp. 8-9; 2222, Tr. 116-17).
    OSHA has determined that in the context of the known exposures in 
construction and shipyards sectors, the previous requirements of 
paragraph (j)(1) do not meaningfully increase protections for workers 
beyond those provided by existing OSHA standards. As stated above, the 
ventilation standards for construction (29 CFR 1926.57(f)(7)) and 
general industry (29 CFR 1910.94(a)(7)), applicable to shipyards, both 
require that spills must be cleaned up promptly, just as required by 
paragraph (j)(1) of the beryllium standards. Further, beyond the 
requirements of paragraph (j)(1), these standards specifically require 
that the employer not permit dust to accumulate outside of the abrasive 
blasting enclosure. These standards, in conjunction with the other 
provisions in paragraph (j) that serve to further reduce the potential 
for exposures above the PEL or STEL, provide the appropriate level of 
protection for workers in these sectors. Further, in light of the 
limited operations with beryllium exposure in these sectors, OSHA has 
determined that paragraph (j) provides sufficient guidance for 
employers on the limited circumstances in which they are allowed to use 
cleaning methods such as dry sweeping and compressed air, making a 
unique written plan for how to clean unnecessary in this context. 
Accordingly, the agency is removing from paragraph (j) the requirement 
for employers to follow the written exposure control plan in paragraph 
(f) when cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas and to ensure that 
spills and emergency releases of beryllium are cleaned up promptly and 
in accordance with the written exposure control plan.
    AFL-CIO disagreed with what it framed as OSHA's decision to trigger 
the use of cleaning methods on exposures above the PEL or STEL instead 
of ``a more conservative trigger of beryllium-contamination,'' claiming 
the agency is ignoring the risk of health effects at exposures below 
the PEL (Document ID 2210, p. 9). First, OSHA notes that AFL-CIO 
misstates the revised trigger for paragraph (j)'s cleaning 
requirements. OSHA intentionally drafted the requirement to use 
cleaning methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne 
exposure (renumbered paragraph (j)(1)) and the prohibition on dry 
sweeping or brushing (renumbered paragraph (j)(2)) to apply whenever an 
employer ``cleans up dust resulting from'' operations that cause, or 
can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA 
PEL or STEL. As explained above, OSHA intends these provisions to apply 
where workers are either working in regulated areas in shipyards or in 
areas with exposures above the TWA PEL or STEL in construction. 
However, the requirements apply to cleaning up dust in these areas 
regardless of whether the operation that produced the dust is being 
performed at the time of the cleaning. In other words, cleaning methods 
are tied to the location of operations and are not triggered on active 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL, as AFL-CIO suggests. And although 
revised paragraph (j)(3) prohibits the use of compressed for cleaning 
when its use can reasonably be expected to cause airborne exposure 
above the PEL or STEL, compressed air would not satisfy paragraph 
(j)(1)'s requirement for the use of cleaning methods that minimize 
airborne exposure unless other more effective methods were infeasible.
    Further, in the general industry DFR, OSHA revised the definitions 
of ``contaminated with beryllium'' and ``beryllium-contaminated'' to 
clarify that these terms refer to contamination with dust, fumes, 
mists, or solutions containing beryllium in concentrations greater than 
or equal to 0.1 percent by weight (83 FR at 19939-40). OSHA reiterates 
the agency's determination that beryllium contamination, as the agency 
defines it, does not occur from the trace quantities of beryllium used 
in abrasive blasting. OSHA has likewise determined that welding 
operations in shipyards do not produce this sort of skin or surface 
contamination. If OSHA maintained the term ``beryllium-contaminated'' 
in paragraph (j), the requirements for when and how employers can use 
dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air, or when they must employ 
cleaning methods that minimize airborne exposure, would likely never be 
triggered and workers already exposed would not receive the benefit of 
these protections. For this reason, OSHA has determined that it is more 
appropriate to trigger these requirements on the presence of dust 
produced by an operation that causes, or can reasonably be expected to 
cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL.
    AFL-CIO also indicated that they opposed OSHA's proposal ``to 
remove the requirement for `HEPA filtered vacuuming' '' in renumbered 
paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) and questioned the agency's preliminary 
determination that such methods may be problematic due to overloading 
and clogging of the filters (Document ID 2210, p. 8). AFL-CIO contended 
that HEPA-filtered vacuuming is commonly used and required in other 
OSHA dust standards and that the record shows this method is the most 
effecting and safe way to clean toxic dusts and therefore should be 
used (Document ID 2210, pp. 8-9). OSHA disagrees with AFL-CIO's 
interpretation that OSHA is removing a requirement to use HEPA-filtered 
vacuuming. Paragraph (j) has never required the use of HEPA-filtered 
vacuuming, but instead required the use of HEPA-filtered vacuuming ``or 
other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne 
exposure.'' The proposed change removed the specific reference to HEPA-
filtered vacuuming while maintaining the requirement that employers 
utilize cleaning methods that


minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure. OSHA has always 
intended this requirement to be performance-oriented (see 82 FR at 
2691). Further, in the 2017 final rule, OSHA acknowledged that 
``methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure 
other than HEPA vacuuming may be appropriate for use in construction 
and shipyards'' (82 FR at 2693). Alternative methods that are effective 
in minimizing the likelihood and level of airborne exposure can include 
the use of dust suppressants and wet methods such as wet sweeping or 
wet shoveling (see 82 FR at 2693).
    Moreover, revised paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) do not preclude the use 
of HEPA-filtered vacuuming for cleaning. Removing this reference simply 
eliminates any misunderstanding that HEPA-filtered vacuuming is 
required (as AFL-CIO misinterpreted), particularly where HEPA-filtered 
vacuuming proves problematic for the particular situation involving the 
cleanup. Specifically, as OSHA noted in the proposal, abrasive blasting 
operations produce large amounts of spent abrasive and particulate and 
the use of HEPA vacuums to clean up these materials may result in 
continual filter overload and clogging. Constant cleaning of these 
filters could in fact cause additional exposures. OSHA has determined 
that removing the specific reference to HEPA-filtered vacuuming while 
continuing to allow its use is the appropriate approach for the 
construction and shipyards sectors.
    The CISC expressed concern about OSHA's inclusion of restrictions 
on the use of dry sweeping and brushing for cleaning materials that 
contain beryllium (Document ID 2203, pp. 16-17). CISC asserted that 
employers will need to ``assess the extent of naturally occurring 
beryllium in numerous construction materials to determine whether and 
how the restriction would apply'' (Document ID 2203, p. 17). OSHA 
disagrees with this perceived consequence of prohibiting the use of dry 
sweeping and brushing. These restrictions apply only when cleaning up 
dust from operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to 
cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL (29 CFR 
1926.1124(j)(2)). As explained elsewhere in this preamble, there is no 
evidence in the record demonstrating that naturally occurring beryllium 
in common construction materials at the typical construction site 
create exposures of concern, as CISC suggest. OSHA addresses similar 
assertions by CISC regarding trace amounts of naturally occurring 
beryllium in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (f).
    After reviewing these comments and considering the record as a 
whole, OSHA has determined the proposed changes addressing the use of 
cleaning methods and prohibiting dry sweeping or brushing will protect 
workers from exposure to beryllium during cleaning operations and bring 
clarity to the requirements of these provisions. Therefore, OSHA is 
adopting the changes to renumbered paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) as 
proposed.
    AFL-CIO also raised concerns that revised paragraph (j)(3) only 
prohibits the use of compressed air for cleaning when the use causes, 
or can reasonably be expected to cause, exposures above the PEL or STEL 
(Document ID 2210, p. 9). AFL-CIO stated that it is a significant 
deviation from the current provision, which prohibits compressed air 
unless combined with a ventilation system. In response to OSHA's 
preliminary determination that ventilation may be impractical in very 
dusty environments like those created by abrasive blasting operations, 
AFL-CIO argued that the agency has not demonstrated that the use of 
ventilation is infeasible or that the requirement for engineering 
controls should be removed, ``relying only on the use of respirators . 
. . , ignoring the hierarchy of controls'' (Document ID 2210, p. 9). 
Finally, AFL-CIO states that OSHA previously determined that 
prohibiting compressed air unless combined with ventilation was a 
practical and feasible approach in dusty environments, and that this 
provision is included in other dust standards (Document ID 2210, p. 9).
    First, OSHA believes that ALF-CIO has misunderstood the hierarchy 
of the housekeeping provisions. The housekeeping requirements in 
paragraph (j) are triggered when workers clean up dust resulting from 
operations that cause, or are reasonably expected to cause, airborne 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL. Under paragraph (j)(1), when 
cleaning in these areas employers must ensure the use of methods that 
minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposures. As explained 
above, the use of compressed air does not satisfy this requirement 
unless other more effective measures are infeasible. Following the 
hierarchy of controls, only after other methods that minimize exposures 
are shown to be ineffective or unsafe can the employer use methods such 
as dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air, and then must provide and 
ensure the use of respiratory protection and PPE during these 
activities under paragraph (j)(4). Even so, under revised paragraph 
(j)(3), compressed air is entirely prohibited when its use causes, or 
can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA 
PEL or STEL.
    OSHA further notes that the evidence in the record demonstrates 
that abrasive blasting helpers, those responsible for cleaning up spent 
abrasive, largely have minimal exposure to beryllium. As explained in 
the Technological Feasibility chapter of the 2017 final rule Final 
Economic Analysis (FEA), of the 30 abrasive blasting cleanup workers in 
the exposure profile of the FEA, two had exposures over the new PEL of 
0.2 mg/m\3\. One cleanup worker had an 8-hour TWA sample result of 1.1 
mg/m\3\, but blasting took place in the area during this worker's 
cleanup task and it is likely that the nearby abrasive blasting 
contributed to the sample result. The other cleanup worker had a sample 
result of 7.4 mg/m\3\, but that worker's exposure appears to be 
associated with the use of compressed air for cleaning in conjunction 
with nearby abrasive blasting (82 FR at 29197). This supports OSHA's 
determination that the use of compressed air can cause exposure over 
the PEL or STEL and, in this case, this activity would have been 
prohibited under revised paragraph (j)(3).
    After reviewing these comments and considering the record as a 
whole, OSHA finds the proposed change prohibiting the use of compressed 
air for cleaning where its use causes, or can reasonably be expected to 
cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL will limit the use 
of compressed air, such as when other methods are not feasible or 
effective. Also, by requiring respirator use and personal protective 
clothing and equipment where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or 
compressed air to clean will protect workers from exposure to beryllium 
in circumstances when there is no feasible, alternative methods for 
cleaning. Therefore, OSHA is adopting the changes to paragraphs (j)(3) 
and (4) as proposed.
    AFL-CIO also disagreed with OSHA's proposal to eliminate former 
paragraph (j)(3), which required the employer to provide a copy of the 
warning described in paragraph (m)(2) whenever it transferred materials 
containing beryllium to another party for use or disposal. AFL-CIO 
asserted that removing this provision would result in beryllium 
exposure to downstream employers and workers (Document ID 2210, p. 9). 
AFL-CIO indicated their belief that OSHA's general hazard 
communications standard (HCS) is not sufficient to protect downstream 
recipients of waste materials.


    As explained in the Summary Explanation for paragraph (m), OSHA 
proposed to remove the labeling requirements in paragraph (m), such as 
the label referenced in paragraph (j)(3), to account for the trace 
amounts of beryllium encountered in the construction and shipyards 
sectors and to align these standards with the general industry 
beryllium standard, which does not require the labeling of material 
containing less than 0.1 percent beryllium by weight. OSHA reiterates 
its finding that the known exposures in these sectors are limited to 
materials containing beryllium in trace quantities and do not present a 
risk from dermal contact. Further, there is no evidence in the record 
that downstream recipients of these materials are at risk of airborne 
exposure above the PEL or STEL from the trace amounts of beryllium in 
these materials.
    Moreover, OSHA explained in the NPRM that abrasive blasting media 
is often contaminated with several toxic chemicals such as hexavalent 
chromium or lead from the blasted substrate or coating on the substrate 
(84 FR at 53918; see OSHA Fact Sheet, Protecting Workers from the 
Hazards of Abrasive Blasting Materials, available at https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3697.pdf). AFL-CIO itself identified 
lead, cadmium, and arsenic as hazards associated with abrasive blasting 
operations (Document ID 2244, p. 11). OSHA remains concerned that 
providing warnings specific to beryllium for materials that contain 
trace beryllium and where airborne exposures are not anticipated to be 
significant may overshadow or dilute hazard warnings for other 
substances that do present a risk in this context. Neither AFL-CIO nor 
any other commenter contradicted this concern. OSHA finds that the 
general HCS requirements provide the appropriate information for spent 
abrasive blasting media containing only trace amounts of beryllium, 
where the material may be contaminated with several other toxic 
substances. Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing its proposal to remove 
former paragraph (j)(3) from the construction and shipyards standards.
    In conclusion, based on the record as a whole OSHA is finalizing 
paragraph (j) as proposed.

Paragraph (k) Medical Surveillance

    Paragraph (k) of the beryllium standard for construction and 
shipyards addresses medical surveillance requirements. The paragraph 
specifies which employees must be offered medical surveillance, as well 
as the frequency and content of medical examinations. It also sets 
forth the information that must be provided to the employee and 
employer. The purposes of medical surveillance for beryllium are (1) to 
identify beryllium-related adverse health effects so that appropriate 
intervention measures can be taken; (2) to determine if an employee has 
any condition that might make him or her more sensitive to beryllium 
exposure; and (3) to determine the employee's fitness to use personal 
protective equipment, such as respirators. The inclusion of medical 
surveillance in the beryllium standards for the construction and 
shipyard industries is consistent with Section 6(b)(7) of the OSH Act 
(29 U.S.C. 655(b)(7)), which requires that, where appropriate, medical 
surveillance programs be included in OSHA health standards to aid in 
determining whether the health of employees is adversely affected by 
exposure to the hazards addressed by the standard.
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed several revisions to paragraph (k). 
First, OSHA proposed removing paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C), which requires 
medical surveillance after exposure to beryllium during an emergency, 
to coincide with the removal of the term ``emergency'' from the 
standards (84 FR at 53918-19). Second, OSHA proposed minor revisions to 
paragraphs (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i) to replace the phrase ``airborne 
exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium'' in these provisions 
with the simpler phrase ``exposure to beryllium'' (84 FR at 53919). 
Finally, OSHA proposed two revisions to paragraph (k)(7)(i) to make it 
consistent with recent changes to the beryllium general industry 
standard \33\ (84 FR at 53919).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \33\ OSHA also proposed a number of minor, non-substantive edits 
to paragraph numbering and references to account for the addition of 
a new paragraph (k)(7)(ii).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    With respect to OSHA's proposal to remove paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C), 
as discussed previously in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph 
(b), OSHA proposed to remove references to emergencies in the shipyards 
and construction standards because OSHA expects that any emergency in 
these industries (such as a release resulting from a failure of the 
blasting control equipment, a spill of the abrasive blasting media, or 
the failure of a ventilation system during welding operations in 
shipyards) would occur only during the performance of routine tasks 
already associated with the airborne release of beryllium; i.e., during 
the abrasive blasting or welding process. Therefore, employees would 
already be protected from exposure in such circumstances. Accordingly, 
OSHA preliminarily determined that no requirements should be triggered 
for emergencies in construction and shipyards and proposed to remove 
references to emergencies in provisions related to respiratory 
protection, paragraph (g); medical surveillance, paragraph (k); and 
hazard communication, paragraph (m). The agency also preliminarily 
determined that without these provisions it would be unnecessary to 
define the term emergency in paragraph (b) (84 FR at 53909).\34\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \34\ Due to the removal of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C), OSHA is also 
adding the word ``or'' at the end of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) 
(following the semi-colon); removing a reference to paragraph 
(k)(1)(i)(C) from paragraph (k)(2)(i)(B); and redesignating 
paragraph (k)(1)(i)(D) as paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C). Consistent with 
that redesignation, OSHA is replacing the reference to paragraph 
(k)(1)(i)(D) in paragraph (k)(2)(ii) with a reference to paragraph 
(k)(1)(i)(C).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Some commenters objected to the proposed removal of provisions 
relating to emergencies. Specifically, these commenters took issue with 
OSHA's preliminary determination that an uncontrolled release of 
beryllium in the construction and shipyards industries would not create 
exposures that differ from normal operations. For a full discussion of 
these comments and the agency's response, see the Summary and 
Explanation for paragraph (g). In short, the agency is not persuaded 
that the types of uncontrolled releases that necessitated emergency 
provisions in the general industry standard are present in the 
construction and shipyards industries. Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing 
its proposal to remove all references to ``emergency'' or 
``emergencies'' throughout the construction and shipyards standards. 
Because those terms no longer appear in the standards' requirements, 
OSHA is also finalizing its proposal to remove the definition of the 
term ``emergency'' from paragraph (b).
    AFL-CIO, NABTU, and NJH specifically commented on the proposed 
removal of the emergency exposure trigger for a medical examination in 
paragraph (k). AFL-CIO opposed the removal of the emergency provisions 
and argued that medical surveillance should be required following an 
emergency (Document ID 2210, p. 9). NABTU commented that a failure of a 
containment used for abrasive blasting would be considered an emergency 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 85-86, 91-92). NABTU also noted situations where 
construction workers could experience emergency exposures to beryllium 
in manufacturing and processing facilities, and it urged OSHA to retain 
the


definition for emergency and other related protections, such as the 
trigger for an emergency examination. (Document ID 2240, p. 7). NABTU 
also commented that questions about emergency exposures should ``be 
included in the medical and work histories, to ensure that pertinent 
information about potential exposures is not overlooked.'' (Document ID 
2240, p. 8). In contrast, NJH agreed with OSHA that emergencies might 
not occur, but recommended that if the trigger for emergency exposure 
is removed, any exposure above the PEL should trigger medical 
surveillance (Document ID 2211, p. 11). Specifically, NJH commented: 
``Jobs and tasks that would generate beryllium exposure (demolition, 
repair, clean up, abrasive blasting, welding, cleaning and grinding of 
beryllium containing tools, etc.) may only be done periodically and 
meeting the ``30 days over the action level'' in order to qualify for 
medical surveillance may not be easy to quantify or may require 
extensive recordkeeping as workers move from job to job or contract to 
contract. Therefore, any exposures above the PEL should trigger the 
medical surveillance and hazard communication provisions.'' (Document 
ID 2211, p. 11). Lisa Barker from NJH further testified that persons 
who are genetically susceptible can become sensitized from limited 
exposures (Document ID 2222, Tr. 56-57).
    As explained in the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (g), OSHA 
is not reinstating a definition for emergency, and readers should refer 
to that section for a complete explanation. In response to NABTU's 
comment that emergency exposures should be included in medical and work 
histories, OSHA does not specify the individual questions to include in 
a medical and work history. Instead, OSHA simply requires that medical 
and work histories include ``past and present exposure to beryllium.'' 
An unexpected exposure, such as would occur with a containment failure, 
would therefore be included in the medical and work history for an 
employee who undergoes medical surveillance under the beryllium 
standard. In addition, paragraph (k)(4)(i) requires the employer to 
inform the PLHCP about former and current levels of airborne exposure. 
OSHA would expect the employer to inform the PLHCP if the employee 
experienced an incident where he or she was exposed to levels of 
beryllium that exceeded the employee's typical exposure levels.
    In response to NJH's suggestion that, if the emergency provision is 
removed, OSHA should require medical surveillance for any exposure 
above the PEL, OSHA notes that NJH's position is not limited to 
exposures in an emergency but to any exposures any exposures above the 
PEL that occur for fewer than 30 days. In other words, NJH asks OSHA to 
reconsider the appropriateness of the 30-day exposure-duration trigger 
generally. OSHA evaluated the appropriateness of the 30-day trigger in 
the 2017 final rule. At that time, NJH and other stakeholders opposed 
the 30-day exposure-duration trigger for medical surveillance. After 
careful consideration of comments and other evidence in the record, 
OSHA decided to maintain the 30-day exposure-duration trigger because 
it is consistent with the agency's risk assessment showing increasing 
risk of health effects from exposure at increasing cumulative 
exposures, which considers both exposure level and duration (82 FR at 
2528-40, 2698). OSHA found a 30-day trigger to be a reasonable 
benchmark for capturing increasing risk from cumulative effects caused 
by repeated exposures. Between that rulemaking and the present, OSHA 
has not received any additional evidence demonstrating that this 
benchmark is inappropriate. Finally, OSHA notes that the 30-day 
exposure-duration trigger is consistent with the general industry 
beryllium standard and other OSHA health standards, such as the 
standards for chromium (VI) (29 CFR 1910.1026), cadmium (29 CFR 
1910.1027), lead (29 CFR 1910.1025), asbestos (29 CFR 1910.1001), and 
respirable crystalline silica (29 CFR 1910.1053) (82 FR at 2698).
    With respect to NJH's related concern regarding the tracking of 
exposures in the construction industry--where tasks may be performed 
intermittently at different locations--similar concerns were raised 
during the respirable crystalline silica rulemaking. In that 
rulemaking, OSHA acknowledged that tracking exposures in construction 
can be challenging. However, it pointed to evidence in the record 
showing that some construction employers were able to determine which 
employees were exposed above the PEL based on employee schedules and 
task-based hazard assessments. (81 FR 16285, 16815-16 (March 25, 
2016)). Indeed, an employer can determine eligibility for medical 
surveillance based on information from exposure assessments for the 
various tasks and knowledge about how often the task is performed. 
Compliance officers can also determine if employees who were exposed at 
or above the action level for 30 or more days a year were not offered 
medical surveillance by questioning employees about how often they 
perform certain tasks. As such, OSHA finds it is possible to quantify 
exposure for employees that are only periodically exposed to beryllium 
without extensive recordkeeping. Accordingly, OSHA believes it is 
appropriate to maintain the 30-day trigger and that this will not 
create undue burdens with respect to recordkeeping.
    Moreover, employees experiencing signs or symptoms or other 
beryllium-related health effects after intermittent or unexpected 
exposures to beryllium can ask for an examination under paragraph 
(k)(1)(i)(B). Paragraph (m)(2)(i)(A) requires the employer to provide 
information and training in accordance with the Hazard Communication 
Standard (HCS), 29 CFR 1910.1200(h), for each employee who has, or can 
reasonably be expected to have, airborne exposure to beryllium. 
Paragraph (m)(2)(ii) also requires employers to ensure that these 
employees can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a number of 
specified topics, including the signs and symptoms of CBD. Thus, 
employees who are intermittently exposed should possess the knowledge 
necessary to determine whether they should request an examination. In 
summary, OSHA has determined that the evidence presented does not 
support reinstating triggers for an emergency exposure or reconsidering 
the 30-day exposure-duration as a trigger for medical surveillance.
    The second set of changes that OSHA proposed were minor revisions 
to paragraphs (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i). Paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(A) 
previously required the employer to ensure that the employee is offered 
a medical examination that includes a medical and work history, with an 
emphasis on, among other things, past and present airborne exposure to 
or dermal contact with beryllium. Paragraph (k)(4)(i) previously 
required the employer to ensure that the examining PLHCP (and the 
agreed upon CBD diagnostic center, if an evaluation is required under 
paragraph (k)(7) of this standard) had certain information, including a 
description of the employee's former and current duties that relate to 
the employee's airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium, 
if known. In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed to clarify these provisions 
by replacing the phrase ``airborne exposure to and dermal contact with 
beryllium'' with the simpler phrase ``exposure to beryllium'' (84 FR at 
53919). OSHA reasoned that employees with beryllium exposure of any 
kind should have access to records of their exposure, and this 
information should also be made


available to an examining PLHCP and CBD diagnostic center, if 
applicable. OSHA intended for this proposed change to alleviate any 
unnecessary confusion created by the use of the term ``dermal 
contact,'' which is defined in the general industry standard but not in 
the construction and shipyards standards.
    AFL-CIO and NABTU commented on OSHA's proposed changes to 
paragraphs (k)(3) and (4). AFL-CIO opposed OSHA's proposed revision to 
paragraph (k)(4)(i), arguing that it is important for the physician to 
be informed about both airborne and dermal exposures and that removing 
that clarification would increase confusion by putting the burden on 
the employer and physician to understand OSHA's intent (Document ID 
2210, p. 9). In further support of retaining provisions that provide 
protection from dermal exposure, AFL-CIO referenced a previous comment 
from NABTU stating that the skin should be examined because beryllium 
exposure can result in ``skin irritation, skin bumps, and sores that 
won't heal.'' (Document ID 2244, pp. 8-9; 1679, Attachment A, p. 1). 
NABTU commented that OSHA should retain the ``protections against 
airborne exposures'' in paragraph (k)(3) (Document ID 2240, p. 6).
    OSHA clarifies that it does not intend to change the requirements 
for the type of information provided to the physician, and if the 
employee does have the potential for dermal exposure, the employer is 
to provide that information to the physician. OSHA proposed this change 
not to limit the type of information provided to physicians, but 
instead, to make clear that employers and employees should inform 
physicians about any type of beryllium exposure. OSHA continues to 
believe that the change will reduce confusion by removing terminology--
the reference to dermal contact--that is not used in the construction 
and shipyards standard. In addition, the requirement for the PLHCP to 
examine the skin for rashes is retained in paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(C). 
Consistent with the 2017 final rule, OSHA continues to believe that it 
is important to examine the skin for rashes because it could be a sign 
that dermal sensitization or exposures that put the employee at risk of 
sensitization have occurred (82 FR at 2471). OSHA disagrees with AFL-
CIO that simplifying the language of these provisions will result in 
confusion, because the revised text clearly encompasses all exposure to 
beryllium. Accordingly, OSHA has decided to finalize the changes to 
paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(A) and (k)(4)(i) as proposed.
    The final set of changes that OSHA proposed to the construction and 
shipyard standards' medical surveillance requirements is in paragraph 
(k)(7), which contains the requirements for an evaluation at a CBD 
diagnostic center. In this final rule, OSHA is amending paragraph 
(k)(7) in three ways. First, OSHA is revising paragraph (k)(7)(i) to 
require that the evaluation be scheduled within 30 days, and occur 
within a reasonable time, of the employer receiving one of the types of 
documentation listed in paragraph (k)(7)(i)(A) or (B). Second, OSHA is 
adding a provision in paragraph (k)(7)(ii), which clarifies that, as 
part of the evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center, the employer must 
ensure that the employee is offered any tests deemed appropriate by the 
examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, such as pulmonary 
function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society 
criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. The 
new provision also states that if any of the tests deemed appropriate 
by the examining physician are not available at the CBD diagnostic 
center, they may be performed at another location that is mutually 
agreed upon by the employer and the employee. Third, OSHA is making a 
number of minor, non-substantive revisions to the numbering and cross-
references in paragraph (k)(7) to account for the addition of new 
paragraph (k)(7)(ii). Specifically, OSHA is renumbering current 
paragraphs (k)(7)(ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) as (k)(7)(iii), (iv), (v), 
and (vi), respectively, and is adding a reference to new paragraph 
(k)(7)(ii) to the newly renumbered paragraph (k)(7)(vi). These proposed 
changes are consistent with changes the agency proposed to paragraph 
(k)(7)(i) of the beryllium standard for general industry in December 
2018.
    Each of these final revisions differ in some way from the proposed 
amendments based on stakeholder feedback. With regard to the first 
change concerning the timing of the exam, the previous standard 
required employers to provide the examination within 30 days of the 
employer receiving one of the types of documentation listed in 
paragraph (k)(7)(i)(A) or (B). The purpose of the 30-day requirement 
was to ensure that employees receive the examination in a timely 
manner. However, since the publication of the 2017 final rule, 
stakeholders have raised concerns that it is not always possible to 
schedule and complete the examination and any required tests within 30 
days (84 FR at 53919).
    To address this concern, OSHA proposed that the employer provide an 
initial consultation with the CBD diagnostic center, which could occur 
via telephone or virtual conferencing methods, rather than the full 
evaluation, within 30 days of the employer receiving one of the types 
of documentation listed in paragraph (k)(7)(i)(A) or (B). OSHA 
explained that providing a consultation before the full examination at 
the CBD diagnostic center would demonstrate that the employer made an 
effort to begin the process for a medical examination. OSHA also noted 
that the proposed change would also (1) allow the employee to consult 
with a physician to discuss concerns and ask questions while waiting 
for a medical examination, and (2) allow the physician to explain the 
types of tests that are recommended based on medical findings about the 
employee and explain the risks and benefits of undergoing such testing. 
In both the 2019 NPRM for construction and shipyards (84 FR at 53919) 
and the 2018 NPRM for general industry (83 FR at 63758), OSHA requested 
comments on the appropriateness of providing the initial consultation 
within 30 days and on the sufficiency of a consultation via telephone 
or virtual conference.
    OSHA received several comments on the proposed changes from NJH, 
AFL-CIO, and Materion. NJH commented that an examination at the CBD 
diagnostic center should not be required to occur within 30 days of the 
referral because openings at clinics may not be available within a 30-
day period (Document ID 2211, p. 12). NJH further noted that ``[i]t is 
common practice in most diagnostic centers to schedule specialty exams 
within a 3-month window due to the need to coordinate worker time away 
from work and home, physician visits, pulmonary function testing, chest 
imaging, bronchoscopy and other testing for one clinical evaluation 
visit'' (Document ID 2211, p. 12). At the public hearing, NJH testified 
that an evaluation can take up to three days when an employee undergoes 
procedures such as bronchoscopy because the employee has to be cleared 
for testing, undergo testing on the following day, and then spend the 
night locally to ensure there are no adverse effects before discharge 
(Document ID 2222, Tr. 54).\35\ NJH also


opposed the proposed requirement for a consultation that can be 
performed via telephone or virtual conferencing within 30 days of the 
employer receiving documentation recommending a referral. NJH 
commented: ``A video or phone consultation adds cost and logistics to 
scheduling and is not necessary as the PLHCP who sees the employee for 
screening provides information on the clinical evaluation. HIPAA 
privacy issues of a phone or video conference also exist. A full 
clinical evaluation including review of both the available medical and 
exposure data and hands-on medical assessment are essential to 
providing the best, most efficient care--from a time and financial 
perspective.'' (Document ID 2211, pp. 12-13.)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \35\ In response to the 2018 NPRM for general industry, OSHA 
received similar comments on the proposed timeline for the 
evaluation at the CBD Diagnostic Center from ATS, NJH, and Materion 
(Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-0022, pp. 5-
6; OSHA-2018-0003-0038, p. 34). DOD recommended that the evaluation 
at the CBD Diagnostic center be scheduled within seven days 
(Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0029, p. 2), but OSHA found that this 
would not give employees enough time to consider obligations and 
have discussions with family members. The agency also found the 30-
day trigger to be administratively convenient because it is 
consistent with other triggers in the beryllium standard (85 FR 
42621).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Lisa Barker from NJH further testified that workers who are 
sensitized but feel well may decide to forgo additional testing 
following a video consultation (Document ID 2222, Tr. 54-55). These 
workers would miss the opportunity to determine if they have the 
disease, and if so, receive treatments to slow progression upon initial 
confirmation of sensitization (Document ID 2222, Tr. 54-55). NJH also 
expressed concerns related to the expertise and availability of a PLHCP 
who might perform the consultation and about workers who may not have a 
health care provider to facilitate a phone or video consultation 
(Document ID 2243, p. 6).
    NJH recommended that the employer be required to schedule the 
appointment within 30 days, but that the actual evaluation can take 
place beyond 30 days of the confirmed abnormal result (Document ID 
2211, p. 13). AFL-CIO agreed with NJH on the proposed timeline for an 
evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center (Document ID 2210, p. 9). 
Materion agreed with NJH that an evaluation at the CBD diagnostic 
center should be scheduled within 30 days after sensitization is 
confirmed and documented; however, it noted that employees can withhold 
test results from employers (Document ID 2237, p. 5).\36\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \36\ In response to the NPRM for general industry, Materion 
found OSHA's proposed change for a consultation with a CBD 
diagnostic center more workable than an evaluation at a CBD 
Diagnostic Center within 30 days, but similar to the comments 
provided for this construction and shipyards NPRM, ATS and NJH 
disagreed with the requirement for a consultation (Document ID OSHA-
2018-0003-0038, p. 34; OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-
0022, pp. 5-6).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After considering these comments, OSHA is convinced that scheduling 
a phone or virtual consultation with the CDB diagnostic center is an 
unnecessary step that adds logistical complications and costs. OSHA 
finds that the scheduling approach suggested by NJH addresses both the 
logistical difficulties and the timing concerns with respect to the 
requirements in the current standard. Moreover, OSHA finds that 
employees will have enough information (through trainings under 
paragraph (m) and discussions with the PLHCP) to allow them to decide 
whether to choose to be evaluated at the CBD diagnostic center without 
the need for an additional consultation.\37\ OSHA is therefore amending 
paragraph (k)(7)(i) to require that the employer schedule an 
examination at a CBD diagnostic center within 30 days of receiving one 
of the types of documentation listed in paragraph (k)(7)(i)(A) or (B). 
In response to Materion's concern that an employee can choose to 
withhold the recommendation for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic 
center from the employer, the paragraph makes clear that the 
appointment must be scheduled within 30 days of the ``employer's 
receipt'' of the appropriate documentation. That means that the 
employer's obligations do not commence until the employer receives the 
documentation for an evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center following 
the employee's authorization.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \37\ Under paragraph (k)(6)(i)(D), the employer is to ensure 
that the PLHCP explains the results of the medical examination to 
the employee, including results of tests conducted and medical 
conditions related to airborne beryllium exposure that require 
further evaluation or treatment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    To achieve the intent of the 2017 final rule and the 2019 NPRM that 
evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center occurs in a timely manner, OSHA 
is adding that the evaluation must occur within a reasonable time. 
Requiring that the evaluation occur within a reasonable time ensures 
that the evaluation be done as soon as practicable based upon 
availability of openings at the CBD diagnostic center and the 
employee's preferences. This revision better addresses OSHA's original 
intent that the employee be examined within a timely period, while 
providing employees and employers with maximum flexibility and 
convenience.
    The second change that OSHA proposed to paragraph (k)(7)(i) relates 
to the contents of the examination at the CBD diagnostic center. As 
discussed in more detail above, the former definition of CBD diagnostic 
center--which stated that the evaluation at the diagnostic center 
``must include'' a pulmonary function test as outlined by American 
Thoracic Society criteria, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and 
transbronchial biopsy--could have been misinterpreted to mean that the 
examining physician was required to perform each of these tests during 
every clinical evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center. That was not 
OSHA's intent. Rather, the agency merely intended to ensure that any 
CBD diagnostic center has the capacity to perform any of these tests, 
which are commonly needed to diagnose CBD. Therefore, OSHA proposed 
revising the definition to clarify that the CBD diagnostic center must 
simply have the ability to perform each of these tests when deemed 
appropriate.
    To account for that proposed change to the definition of CBD 
diagnostic center and to ensure that the employer provides those tests 
if deemed appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic 
center, OSHA proposed expanding paragraph (k)(7)(i) to require that the 
employer provide, at no cost to the employee and within a reasonable 
time after consultation with the CBD diagnostic center, any of the 
three tests mentioned above, if deemed appropriate by the examining 
physician at the CBD diagnostic center (84 FR at 53919). OSHA explained 
that the revision would also clarify the agency's original intent that, 
instead of requiring all three tests to be conducted after referral to 
a CBD diagnostic center, the standard would allow the examining 
physician at the CBD diagnostic center the discretion to select one or 
more of those tests as appropriate (84 FR at 53919).
    OSHA received comments addressing the types of tests that should be 
conducted for the evaluation of CBD. NJH commented that at a minimum, a 
clinical evaluation for CBD should include ``full pulmonary function 
testing (including lung volumes, spirometry and diffusion capacity for 
carbon monoxide) and chest imaging'' (Document ID 2211, p. 4); that the 
examination should include ``bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy, whether 
or not a person shows signs or symptoms of frank, chronic beryllium 
disease'' (Document ID 2222, Tr. 56); and that ``the services should be 
available at the center'' (Document ID 2211, p. 12). NJH recommended 
that OSHA follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines recommending 
that beryllium sensitized individuals undergo ``[Pulmonary function 
testing] and chest imaging (either a chest radiograph or chest CT 
[computerized tomography] scan,'' with consideration of bronchoscopy, 
depending on


``absence of contraindications, evidence of pulmonary function 
abnormalities, evidence of abnormalities on chest imaging, and personal 
preference of the patient'' (Document ID 2211, pp. 2, 4, 12). 
Similarly, NABTU submitted a description of the Building Trades 
National Medical Screening Program recommending that sensitized persons 
without clinical signs of CBD undergo pulmonary function testing and a 
high resolution chest CT, with lavage or biopsy only if the pulmonary 
function tests or CT scans suggest CBD or if the patient prefers to 
undergo lavage or biopsy (Document ID 2202, Attachment 4, PDF page 97). 
Lisa Barker from NJH testified that if OSHA does not specify such 
tests, medical directors may not order some tests because of a lack of 
education or information or because the worker feels well and is not 
interested in an evaluation (Document ID 2222, Tr. 66-68).\38\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \38\ Similar comments regarding the need for certain tests to 
diagnose CBD were submitted in response to the general industry NPRM 
by ATS, NJH, and AOEC (Document ID OSHA-2018-0003-0021, p. 3; OSHA-
2018-0003-0022, p. 3; OSHA-2018-0003-0028, p. 2).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After reviewing these comments and the remainder of the record on 
this issue, OSHA remains convinced that pulmonary function testing, 
BAL, and transbronchial biopsies are important diagnostic tools but 
finds that the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center is in 
the best position to determine which diagnostic tests are appropriate 
for particular workers. The agency believes that the modified 
definition of the term CBD diagnostic center, which requires the 
centers to have the capacity to perform these three tests, will serve 
to ensure that healthcare providers at the centers are aware of the 
importance of and are able to perform these tests.
    However, OSHA understands that the proposed provision could be 
misinterpreted to mean that the employer does not have to make 
available additional tests that the examining physician deems 
appropriate for reasons such as diagnosing or determining the severity 
of CBD. That was never the agency's intent. In fact, OSHA noted the 
potential for other tests, as deemed necessary by the CBD diagnostic 
center physician, at several points in the preamble to the 2017 final 
rule (see, e.g., 82 FR at 2709, 2714). Similar to paragraph 
(k)(3)(ii)(G), which provides that the employer must ensure that the 
employee is offered as part of the initial or periodic medical 
examination any test deemed appropriate by the PLHCP, OSHA intends for 
the employer to ensure the employee is offered any tests deemed 
appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, 
including tests for diagnosing CBD, for determining its severity, and 
for monitoring progression of CBD following diagnosis. Allowing the 
physician at the CBD diagnostic center to order additional tests that 
are deemed appropriate is also consistent with most OSHA substance-
specific standards, such as respirable crystalline silica (29 CFR 
1910.1053) and chromium (VI) (29 CFR 1910.1026).
    To clarify the agency's intent that the physician at the CBD 
diagnostic center has discretion to order appropriate tests, and to 
further respond to stakeholder concerns regarding the necessity of 
pulmonary function testing, BAL, and transbronchial biopsies, OSHA is 
adding a new paragraph (k)(7)(ii), which focuses on the content of the 
examination. This new provision requires that the evaluation include 
any tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD 
diagnostic center, such as pulmonary function testing (as outlined by 
the ATS criteria), BAL, and transbronchial biopsy. OSHA intends for the 
new provision to make clear that the employer must provide additional 
tests, such as those recommended by NJH, ATS guidelines, and by 
Building Trades National Medical Screening Program, at no cost to the 
employee, if those tests are deemed necessary by the examining 
physician. The agency also believes that explicitly naming the three 
examples of tests that may be appropriate will further emphasize their 
importance to examining physicians at the CBD diagnostic centers.
    Consistent with OSHA's original intent, those tests are only 
required to be offered if deemed appropriate by the physician at the 
CBD diagnostic center. For example, if lung volume and diffusion tests 
were performed according to ATS criteria as part of the periodic 
medical examination under paragraph (k)(3), and the physician at the 
CBD diagnostic center found them to be of acceptable quality, those 
tests would not have to be repeated as part of a CBD evaluation. The 
addition of paragraph (k)(7)(ii) clarifies that the employer must, 
however, offer any test that the PLHCP deems appropriate. Consistent 
with previous health standards and the meaning of the identical phrase 
in paragraph (k)(3)(ii)(G), OSHA intends the phrase ``deemed 
appropriate'' to mean that additional tests requested by the physician 
must be both related to beryllium exposure and medically necessary, 
based on the findings of the medical examination (see 82 FR at 2709; 
Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica, 81 FR 16286, 
16514 (March 25, 2016)). Because of the technical expertise that a 
facility must have in order to meet the definition of a CBD diagnostic 
center, OSHA is also confident that physicians at those facilities will 
have the expertise to identify additional tests that may be useful to 
diagnose or assess the severity of CBD.
    New paragraph (k)(7)(ii) also addresses the possibility that a test 
that is deemed appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD 
diagnostic center might not be available at that center. Although 
OSHA's intention has been to require any testing to be provided by the 
same CBD diagnostic center unless the employer and employee agree to a 
different CBD diagnostic center (see 83 FR at 63758), there may be 
cases where the CBD diagnostic center does not perform a type of test 
deemed appropriate by the examining physician. In such a case, OSHA 
wants to ensure that the employee can receive the appropriate test. 
Therefore, OSHA is also including in paragraph (k)(7)(ii) a requirement 
that if any of those tests deemed appropriate by the physician are not 
available at the CBD diagnostic center, they may be performed at 
another location that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the 
employee. This other location does not need to be a CBD diagnostic 
center as long as it is able to perform tests according to requirements 
under paragraph (k).
    In summary, final paragraph (k)(7)(i) requires that the employer 
provide an evaluation at no cost to the employee at a CBD diagnostic 
center that is mutually agreed to by the employer and the employee. The 
evaluation must be scheduled within 30 days and must occur within a 
reasonable time of the employer receiving one of the types of 
documentation listed in paragraph (k)(7)(i)(A) or (B). Final paragraph 
(k)(7)(ii) requires that the evaluation include any tests deemed 
appropriate by the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, 
such as pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the ATS criteria), 
BAL, and transbronchial biopsy. Paragraph (k)(7)(ii) further requires 
that if any of the tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician 
are not available at the CBD diagnostic center, they may be performed 
at another location that is agreed upon by


the employer and employee and at no cost to the employee.\39\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \39\ OSHA is also making a number of minor, non-substantive 
revisions to the numbering and cross-references in paragraph (k)(7) 
to account for the addition of new paragraph (k)(7)(ii). 
Specifically, OSHA is renumbering current paragraphs (k)(7)(ii)-(v) 
as (k)(7)(iii), (iv), (v), and (vi), and is adding a reference to 
new paragraph (k)(7)(ii) to the newly renumbered paragraph 
(k)(7)(vi).
    The addition of paragraph (k)(7)(ii) and consequential 
renumbering of current paragraphs (k)(7)(ii)-(v) also affects two 
other cross-references in the standard. Paragraphs (l)(1)(i)(B) and 
(l)(1)(ii) reference paragraphs (k)(7)(ii) and (k)(7)(iii), 
respectively. In this final rule, OSHA is updating those references 
to reflect the renumbering in paragraph (k)(7).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Paragraph (m) Communication of Hazards

    Paragraph (m) of the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards sets forth the employer's obligations to comply with OSHA's 
Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200) relative to 
beryllium, and to take additional steps to warn and train employees 
about the hazards of beryllium. Under the HCS, beryllium manufacturers 
and importers are required to evaluate the hazards of beryllium and 
prepare labels and safety data sheets (SDSs) and provide both documents 
to downstream users. Employers whose employees are exposed to beryllium 
in their workplace must develop a hazard communication program and 
ensure that employees are trained on the hazards of beryllium. These 
employers must also ensure that all containers of beryllium are labeled 
and that employees are provided access to the SDSs. In addition to the 
requirements under the HCS, paragraph (m)(1)(ii) of the beryllium 
standards specify certain criteria that must be addressed in 
classifying the hazards of beryllium. In the standard for shipyards, 
paragraph (m)(2) requires employers to provide and display warning 
signs with specified wording at each approach to a regulated area. 
Paragraph (m)(3) of the shipyards standard, and paragraph (m)(2) of the 
construction standard, details employers' duties to provide information 
and training to employees.
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed three changes to paragraph (m) of 
the construction and shipyard standards to align with proposed changes 
to other provisions in these standards. First, OSHA proposed to remove 
the paragraph (m) provisions that require specific language for warning 
labels applied to bags and containers of clothing, equipment, and 
materials contaminated with beryllium (paragraph (m)(2) in construction 
and paragraph (m)(3) in shipyards).\40\ This is consistent with OSHA's 
proposal to remove the corresponding requirements to provide such 
warning labels from paragraphs (h)(2)(v) and (j)(3). As explained in 
the 2019 NPRM, and earlier in this Summary and Explanation with regard 
to paragraphs (h)(2)(v) and (j)(3), OSHA proposed to remove the 
requirements in both standards to label PPE removed from the workplace 
for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal and to label 
beryllium-containing material destined for disposal in accordance with 
the labeling requirements in paragraph (m) of the 2017 final rule. The 
agency proposed these changes to reflect its intent that provisions 
aimed at protecting workers from the effects of dermal contact need not 
apply to materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium--like all 
beryllium-containing material used in abrasive blasting in the 
construction and shipyards industries--in the absence of significant 
airborne exposure. OSHA applied the same rationale to the limited 
welding operations in shipyards, where the agency had evidence that at 
most only trace amounts of particulate beryllium will form (84 FR at 
53906); see also the Summary and Explanation for paragraphs (h) and 
(j). Accordingly, the agency preliminarily determined that labels are 
not necessary to protect employees in the context of trace beryllium in 
construction and shipyards, and, therefore, the provisions of paragraph 
(m) mandating specific language for such labels are likewise 
unnecessary.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \40\ As a result, OSHA proposed to renumber paragraph (m)(4) in 
the shipyards standard (29 CFR 1915.1024) as (m)(3), renumber 
paragraph (m)(3) in the construction standard (29 CFR 1926.1124) as 
(m)(2), and revise the references in paragraph (m)(1)(ii) of both 
standards accordingly.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    National Jewish Health (NJH) objected to OSHA's proposal, stating 
that all PPE and waste that is contaminated with or contains beryllium 
should be labeled as such. ``It is not always the case that the 
contamination contains only trace amounts of beryllium. . . . It cannot 
be overlooked that workers in the construction industries may be 
involved in demolition and disassembly of beryllium contaminated 
buildings, machines and materials'' (Document ID 2211, p. 13). NJH 
further noted that DOE beryllium training materials state, ``Laundry 
workers and personnel who are responsible for the cleaning and 
maintenance of respirators have a high potential for being exposed to 
airborne beryllium dust'' (Document ID 2211, p. 13; COMMUNICATING 
HEALTH RISKS WORKING SAFELY WITH BERYLLIUM: Training Reference for 
Beryllium Workers and Managers/Supervisors Facilitator Manual, 
Beryllium Health Risk Communication Task Force, DOE, April 2002, 
https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/09/f18/communicating_0.pdf). AFL-CIO similarly expressed concern that without 
the labeling requirements of the 2017 standard, downstream recipients 
of contaminated PPE and scrap materials generated during renovation or 
demolition of beryllium manufacturing sites would not be informed of 
the potential for airborne beryllium exposure for workers handling 
these items (Document ID 2210, pp. 8-9; 2222, pp. 118-19).
    AFL-CIO also raised concerns about the removal of labeling 
requirements for construction materials that are contaminated with 
beryllium that are dumped in landfills (Document ID 2244, pp. 3-4). 
AFL-CIO indicated that landfill workers are at risk of exposure to 
airborne dust that may be created by their work activities. Without 
label information on beryllium-containing waste materials sent from 
construction activities, they argue, landfill workers may not don 
appropriate PPE to protect themselves from beryllium exposure while 
performing their work duties. In their comments, NABTU also included 
landfill employees as a group of workers with potential beryllium 
exposure from construction activities (Document ID 2202, p. 4).
    OSHA has no evidence that laundry or landfill workers who handle 
PPE or materials designated for disposal from construction sites or 
shipyards would engage in tasks that generate airborne exposure of 
concern. First, the agency believes that NJH's reliance on DOE's 2002 
instruction manual is misplaced. The manual is directed specifically to 
DOE facilities; facilities that processed materials containing 
beryllium in more than trace quantities. In fact, for purposes of DOE's 
own beryllium regulations, the agency defines beryllium as any 
insoluble beryllium compound or alloy containing 0.1 percent beryllium 
or greater that may be released as an airborne particulate (10 CFR 
850.3). The DOE manual is therefore not relevant to the construction 
and shipyards context.
    Furthermore, evidence in the record demonstrates that, with respect 
to materials containing only trace quantities of beryllium, airborne 
dust concentrations must be very high for exposures to approach even 
the action level (AL). For dust containing less than 4 ppm beryllium, 
airborne dust concentrations would have to exceed 25 mg/m3 to reach the 
beryllium AL of 0.1 [mu]g/m\3\. This level of dust would


significantly exceed the OSHA PEL for nuisance dust, or Particulate Not 
Otherwise Classified (PNOC), of 15 mg/m\3\ (see Document ID 2235, p. 2; 
FEA for the 2017 Final Rule, Chapter IV, p. IV-640). OSHA has no reason 
to suspect that residual dust on PPE and other materials from 
construction and shipyards sites is likely to create this level of 
airborne dust from laundry or landfill operations. Therefore, the 
agency has determined that recipients of PPE or waste from these 
worksites are not expected to be exposed at airborne levels of concern 
from re-entrainment of trace beryllium from these materials. And, as 
explained previously, provisions aimed at protecting workers from the 
effects of dermal contact need not apply to materials containing only 
trace amounts of beryllium unless those workers are also exposed to 
significant airborne beryllium.
    OSHA has retained certain provisions that protect construction and 
shipyard employees whose work activities involve exposures exceeding 
the PEL, such as abrasive blasters, from further airborne exposure via 
re-entrainment of beryllium-containing dust from PPE or other surfaces 
in the workplace. These include requiring the employer to ensure that 
each employee removes personal protective clothing and equipment 
required by this standard at the end of the work shift or at the 
completion of all tasks involving beryllium, whichever comes first 
(paragraph (h)(2)(i)); requiring the employer to ensure that personal 
protective clothing and equipment required by this standard is not 
removed in a manner that disperses beryllium into the air (paragraph 
(h)(2)(ii)); requiring the employer to ensure that all reusable 
personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard is 
cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed to maintain its 
effectiveness (paragraph (h)(3)(i)); requiring the employer to ensure 
that beryllium is not removed from personal protective clothing and 
equipment required by this standard by blowing, shaking or any other 
means that disperses beryllium into the air (paragraph (h)(3)(ii)); and 
requiring the employer to include procedures for removing, cleaning, 
and maintaining personal protective clothing and equipment in 
accordance with paragraph (h) of this standard in their written 
exposure control plan(s) (paragraph (f)(1)(i)(F)).
    OSHA proposed to remove those provisions which would apply only to 
employees whose work activities do not involve airborne exposure above 
the PEL, for whom potential exposure to re-entrained beryllium from 
materials containing trace amounts is not a significant concern. As 
OSHA explained in the Summary and Explanation for paragraphs (h)(2)(v) 
and (j)(3), this approach is consistent with the general industry 
standard as modified by the DFR, which does not require labeling for 
materials that contain only trace quantities of beryllium and are 
designated for disposal, recycling, or reuse.
    In the case where construction workers are removing materials from 
a beryllium manufacturing site covered by the general industry 
standard, beryllium-contaminated materials destined for disposal must 
be cleaned and labeled by the host employer pursuant to paragraph 
(j)(3) of the beryllium standard for general industry. Indeed, even 
without the specific requirement in the beryllium standard, OSHA has 
had a long-standing interpretation that the HCS requires upstream 
suppliers to pass on any information they have regarding known 
contaminants of scrap transferred to downstream recipients (see Letter 
to Edward L. Merrigan, from John Miles, Jr., Directorate of Field 
Operations (May 23, 1986), available at https://www.osha.gov/laws-regs/standardinterpretations/1986-05-23).
    Finally, AFL-CIO quoted a comment previously submitted by 
Washington Group International (WGI) (see Document ID 0324) which 
includes the proposition that ``it is crucial that government/
industrial buildings be screened for beryllium process operations'' and 
appears to suggest that, similar to DOE facilities, all facilities 
should do air monitoring and wipe sampling and pass this information on 
to future facility users (Document ID 2244, p. 4). It is unclear 
whether AFL-CIO intended their presentation of WGI's quote to suggest 
that all government and industrial buildings should air-monitor and 
sample surfaces for the presence of beryllium. OSHA believes that this 
approach may be appropriate for DOE, which has a limited number of 
sites that are known to have processed beryllium. However, requiring 
all government and industrial sites to do air monitoring and wipe 
sampling would be of little value since the likelihood of finding 
beryllium would be minuscule. Beryllium, unlike lead and asbestos, is 
not found in common building materials or coatings (see Document ID 
2237, pp. 2-3). Therefore unless a manufacturing site has evidence that 
beryllium is present through the review of SDSs, the likelihood that 
workers will encounter materials contaminated with beryllium is low. 
And, as noted above, where construction workers are removing materials 
from a beryllium manufacturing site covered by the general industry 
standard, beryllium-contaminated materials destined for disposal must 
be cleaned and labeled by the host employer pursuant to paragraph 
(j)(3) of the beryllium standard for general industry.
    Accordingly, OSHA has determined that the previous labeling 
provisions in paragraph (m) (paragraph (m)(2) in construction and 
(m)(3) in shipyards) are not necessary in the construction and 
shipyards contexts and is finalizing the removal of these provisions as 
proposed.
    OSHA next proposed to revise the provisions of paragraph (m) for 
employee information and training to remove requirements related to 
emergency procedures ((m)(3)(ii)(D) in construction and (m)(4)(ii)(D) 
in shipyards) \41\ and personal hygiene practices ((m)(3)(ii)(E) in 
construction and (m)(4)(ii)(E) in shipyards). These proposed revisions 
correspond with OSHA's proposed removal of emergency procedures and 
personal hygiene practices from the construction and shipyard 
standards. As discussed in the 2019 NPRM and earlier in this Summary 
and Explanation, OSHA proposed to remove references to emergencies in 
the shipyards and construction standards because OSHA expects that any 
emergency in these industries (such as a release resulting from a 
failure of the blasting control equipment, a spill of the abrasive 
blasting media, or the failure of the ventilation system for welding 
operations in shipyards) would occur only during the performance of 
routine tasks already associated with the airborne release of 
beryllium; i.e., during the abrasive blasting or welding process (84 FR 
at 53917; see also the Summary and Explanation for paragraph (g)). As 
such, any uncontrolled release of beryllium in these operations would 
not create exposures that differ from the normal conditions of work and 
workers will already be protected by the other provisions of paragraph 
(g). OSHA also proposed to remove the hygiene provisions of the 
construction and shipyard standards due to overlap with existing OSHA 
standards, the limited operations where beryllium exposure may occur in 
construction and shipyards, and the trace quantities of beryllium 
present in these operations (84 FR at 53920; see also the Summary


and Explanation for paragraph (i)). As with the previously discussed 
labeling requirement, OSHA reasoned that the removal of these 
provisions would render the correlating training requirements 
unnecessary.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \41\ OSHA proposed to renumber the provisions of paragraph 
(m)(3)(ii) in construction and (m)(4)(ii) in shipyards to reflect 
the removal of this paragraph.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In response to OSHA's proposal to remove the hygiene provisions and 
related training requirements from both standards in favor of OSHA's 
general sanitation standards, NJH stated that ``beryllium exposure 
poses a unique hazard for workers.'' As such, NJH argued that employees 
should continue to be trained on beryllium-specific hygiene practices 
(Document ID 2211, p. 13). AFL-CIO objected to the removal of 
requirements on training for both emergency and hygiene provisions, 
though they did not provide any additional explanation of their 
opposition (Document ID 2210, p. 10). As stated above, OSHA proposed to 
remove the training requirements related to emergencies and hygiene 
areas and practices from paragraph (m) because the agency proposed to 
remove the underlying requirements from the regulatory text.
    With respect to emergencies, OSHA has determined that the 
operations with known beryllium exposure in the construction and 
shipyards sectors do not have emergencies in which exposures differ 
from the normal conditions of work. As such, workers in these 
operations are already protected by other provisions of the beryllium 
standards and emergency-specific provisions are not necessary (see the 
Summary and Explanation for paragraph (g)). OSHA has also determined 
that partial overlap between the hygiene requirements of the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards and those of existing OSHA 
standards, combined with the trace quantities of beryllium present in 
these industries, make beryllium-specific hygiene requirements 
unnecessary in the construction and shipyards standards (see the 
Summary and Explanation for paragraph (i)). OSHA is finalizing the 
regulatory text as proposed for these provisions. In light of OSHA's 
decision to remove these requirements, OSHA finds that it is 
unnecessary to maintain the beryllium-specific training requirements 
for these provisions. Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing the removal of 
training provisions on emergency procedures ((m)(3)(ii)(D) in 
construction and (m)(4)(ii)(D) in shipyards) and hygiene areas and 
practices ((m)(3)(ii)(E) in construction and (m)(4)(ii)(E) in 
shipyards), as proposed.
    OSHA also proposed to revise paragraphs (m)(3)(i) in construction 
and (m)(4)(i) in shipyards--renumbered in the final standards as 
(m)(2)(i) and (m)(3)(i), respectively--to remove dermal contact as a 
trigger for training. The 2017 final standards for general industry, 
construction, and shipyards originally provided for limited training 
for each employee who has, or can reasonably be expected to have, 
airborne exposure to or dermal contact with beryllium. Specifically, 
paragraph (m)(3)(i)(A) in construction and (m)(4)(i)(A) in shipyards 
provided for training for each such employee in accordance with the 
requirements of the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200(h)), including specific 
information on beryllium as well as any other hazards addressed in the 
workplace hazard communication program.\42\ However, in the 2017 final 
rule, OSHA recognized that beryllium exposure in the construction and 
shipyard industries is narrowly limited to trace quantities contained 
in certain abrasive blasting media and to exposure during some welding 
operations in shipyards (82 FR at 2690; see also the 2017 FEA, Document 
ID 2042, p. III-66). OSHA clarified in the 2018 DFR for general 
industry that it did not intend for provisions aimed at protecting 
workers from the effects of dermal contact to apply in the case of 
materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium (83 FR at 19938). 
Therefore, OSHA preliminarily determined in the 2019 NPRM for 
construction and shipyards that training in accordance with the HCS 
should be provided to each employee who has, or can reasonably be 
expected to have, airborne exposure to beryllium, without regard to 
dermal contact. OSHA noted that both standards already exempt materials 
containing less than 0.1 percent beryllium by weight where the employer 
has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to beryllium 
will remain below the action level as an 8-hour TWA under any 
foreseeable conditions (See 29 CFR 1926.1124(a)(3) (construction) and 
29 CFR 1915.1024(a)(3) (shipyards)). OSHA reasoned that the HCS 
training requirements in proposed paragraph (m)(2) for construction and 
proposed paragraph (m)(3) for shipyards would continue to apply to all 
workers that are covered under these standards, regardless of the 
potential for dermal contact (84 FR at 53920-21). OSHA did not receive 
any comments on the removal of dermal contact as a trigger for training 
in accordance with the HCS and is therefore finalizing it as proposed.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \42\ Paragraph (m)(3)(ii) in the 2017 construction standard and 
paragraph (m)(4)(ii) in the 2017 shipyard standard required the 
employer to ensure that each employee who is or can reasonably be 
expected to be exposed to airborne beryllium can demonstrate 
knowledge of all nine enumerated categories of information.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OSHA also proposed to revise renumbered paragraphs (m)(2)(ii)(A) in 
the construction standard and (m)(3)(ii)(A) in the shipyards standard 
to remove references to ``airborne exposure'' and ``dermal contact'' 
and instead to require training on the health hazards associated with 
``exposure to beryllium.'' OSHA likewise proposed to revise renumbered 
paragraphs (m)(2)(ii)(D) in the construction standard and (m)(3)(ii)(D) 
in the shipyards standard to require training on measures employees can 
take to protect themselves from ``exposure to beryllium.'' These 
revisions, OSHA explained, would maintain OSHA's intent that training 
must cover both airborne and skin exposure while both resolving an 
inconsistency between the shipyards and construction standards with 
respect to references to dermal contact and simplifying the provisions 
(84 FR at 53921).
    AFL-CIO commented that ``OSHA should not alter the requirement for 
employers to train workers on the health hazards associated with 
airborne and dermal exposure to beryllium.'' According to the AFL-CIO, 
it is important for a worker to be provided with all potential exposure 
scenarios, including airborne and dermal exposures, so they can 
understand the full risk of exposure (Document ID 2210, p. 10). As the 
agency emphasized in the 2019 NPRM, the phrase ``exposure to 
beryllium'' is intended to encompass both airborne and skin exposure to 
beryllium (84 FR at 53921). Thus, the proposed language maintains the 
requirement to train workers on both airborne and dermal exposures. By 
resolving an inconsistency in the previous standards regarding dermal 
contact, OSHA intends the proposed change to ensure that employers 
include dermal contact when training workers on the specific hazards of 
beryllium.
    In previously submitted comments, NABTU has expressed concern that 
they do not see a high level of awareness about hazards related to 
beryllium among workers in the construction industry apart from 
abrasive blasters and contract workers for DOE, citing a survey the 
union performed with trainers in the construction industry (Document ID 
2202, Attachment 1, p. 8). OSHA believes that a few factors could 
explain this lack of awareness outside DOE and abrasive blasting. 
First, as explained earlier in this preamble, abrasive blasting is the 
primary source of exposure in the construction industry


and even the agency has been unable to obtain reliable data about any 
additional sources of exposure in the construction industry. This 
suggests that exposures in other contexts, if they occur, are rare (see 
the summary and explanation for paragraph (f)). Second, OSHA notes that 
while DOE has had a specific beryllium standard in place since 1999 (10 
CFR part 850) due to the particular risks of exposure in its 
facilities, OSHA's comprehensive standards were only promulgated in 
2017.
    OSHA included hazard communication and training provisions in these 
standards specifically to ensure awareness in those industries covered 
by the standards. As employers implement the beryllium standards for 
general industry, construction, and shipyards, the agency expects this 
lack of awareness to dissipate. Furthermore, paragraph (e)(2) of the 
HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200) requires employers who produce, use, or store 
hazardous chemicals at a workplace to ensure that workers have access 
to safety data sheets and to inform workers of any precautionary 
measures needed during ``normal operation conditions or foreseeable 
emergencies.'' These requirements of the HCS further serve to raise 
awareness among potentially exposed workers. OSHA has considered the 
comments in the record and, for the reasons explained above, is 
finalizing the changes to paragraph (m) as proposed.\43\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \43\ OSHA is also removing the heading ``Employee Information'' 
from paragraphs (m)(2)(iv) in the construction standard and 
(m)(3)(iv) in the shipyards standard to comply with the Federal 
Register's drafting rules. The requirements of these provisions are 
unchanged.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Paragraph (n) Recordkeeping

    Paragraph (n) of the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards requires employers to make and maintain records of air 
monitoring data, objective data, medical surveillance, and training. It 
also requires employers to make all required records available to 
employees, their designated representatives, and the Assistant 
Secretary in accordance with OSHA's records access standard, 29 CFR 
1910.1020. The 2017 final rule required employers to include employees' 
Social Security Numbers (SSNs) in air monitoring data ((n)(1)(ii)(F)), 
medical surveillance ((n)(3)(ii)(A)), and training ((n)(4)(i)) records. 
In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed to revise paragraphs (n)(1)(ii)(F), 
(n)(3)(ii)(A), and (n)(4)(i) of both the construction and shipyards 
standards to remove those requirements (84 FR at 53921). This final 
rule adopts the proposed revisions, eliminating the requirements to 
include employee SSNs in monitoring data, medical surveillance, and 
training records.
    In the 2015 beryllium NPRM which led to the 2017 final rule, OSHA 
proposed to require inclusion of employee SSNs in records related to 
air monitoring, medical surveillance, and training, as it had done in 
several existing substance-specific health standards (80 FR 47566, 
47806 (August 7, 2015)). In their comments, some stakeholders objected 
to the proposed requirements based on concerns about employee privacy 
and the risk of identity theft (82 FR at 2730). In the 2017 final rule, 
OSHA acknowledged these concerns, but concluded that, due to the 
agency's past consistent practice of requiring an employee's SSN on 
records, any change to such requirements should be comprehensive and 
apply to all OSHA standards, not just the standards for beryllium (82 
FR at 2730).
    After OSHA published the 2015 beryllium proposal but before issuing 
the 2017 final beryllium rule, OSHA published its Standards Improvement 
Project-Phase IV (SIP-IV) proposed rule (81 FR 68504, 68526-28 (October 
4, 2016)), in which the agency proposed to delete all requirements for 
employers to include employee SSNs in records required by the agency's 
substance-specific standards. Because the beryllium standards had not 
yet been finalized, they were not included in the SIP-IV proposal. 
Accordingly, the 2017 final rule for beryllium included the SSN 
requirements. However, OSHA acknowledged in the preamble that the SIP-
IV rulemaking was ongoing and stated that it would revisit its decision 
to require employers to include SSNs in beryllium records in light of 
the SIP-IV rulemaking, if appropriate (82 FR at 2730).
    After promulgating the 2017 final rule, OSHA finalized Phase IV of 
its Standards Improvement Project (SIP-IV), which removed from OSHA 
standards all requirements for employee SSNs in employer records (84 FR 
21416, 21439-40 (May 14, 2019)).\44\ As OSHA explained in the SIP-IV 
final rule, removing requirements for SSNs results in additional 
flexibility for employers and allows employers to develop systems that 
best work for their unique situations (84 FR at 21440). OSHA also 
explained that the change would protect employee privacy and lower the 
risk of identity theft (84 FR at 21439-40). Consistent with the SIP-IV 
final rule, OSHA proposed in the 2019 NPRM to modify the beryllium 
standards for construction and shipyards by removing the requirements 
to include SSNs in the recordkeeping provisions in paragraphs 
(n)(1)(ii)(F) (air monitoring data), (n)(3)(ii)(A) (medical 
surveillance) and (n)(4)(i) (training) (84 FR at 53921).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \44\ Eliminating requirements to include SSNs in records is also 
responsive to a directive from OMB that calls for federal agencies 
to identify and eliminate unnecessary collection and use of SSNs in 
agency systems and programs (See Memorandum from Clay Johnson III, 
Deputy Director for Management, Office of Management and Budget, to 
the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Regarding 
Safeguarding Against and Responding to the Breach of Personally 
Identifiable Information (M-07-16), May 22, 2007 (available at: 
https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/omb/memoranda/2007/m07-16.pdf).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Two commenters, the AFL-CIO (Document ID 2210, p. 10) and NJH 
(Document ID 2211, p. 14), expressed general support for the proposed 
removal of the requirements to include employees' SSNs in these three 
sets of records. No commenter opposed the proposed revisions. However, 
after stating their support for the change, NJH noted that ``it is 
important that there is an identifying link between exposure monitoring 
data and medical surveillance data in order to identify areas of 
increased risk'' (Document ID 2211, p. 14).
    OSHA acknowledges NJH's concern but notes that the beryllium 
standards have never required employers to link their exposure 
monitoring to medical surveillance data in this way. Even so, employers 
remain free to utilize SSNs, or any other unique employee identifier, 
if doing so helps them to identify areas of increased risk. Regardless, 
the agency believes that areas of increased risk will be identifiable 
based on the medical surveillance records alone. Paragraph (k)(6) 
requires that, with the employee's consent, the licensed physician's 
written medical opinion for the employer must include the PLCHP's 
recommendations regarding limitations on the employee's airborne 
exposure to beryllium, referrals to a CBD Diagnostic Center, continued 
medical surveillance, and medical removal. This information will alert 
the employer to possible increased risk of exposure in the processes in 
which that employee works and the need to reevaluate these processes. 
It may also trigger the requirement in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) that the 
employer review and evaluate the effectiveness of its written exposure 
control plan. Therefore, OSHA has determined that the proposed 
revisions to paragraph (n) will not impair the identification of areas 
of increased risk within a worksite or facility.
    NJH's comment also touches on a related concern regarding the 
removal of requirements to record workers' SSNs in exposure monitoring 
and medical


records. As OSHA explained in the SIP-IV NPRM, the agency originally 
required the collection of employee SSNs in its standards because SSNs 
are assigned at birth and do not change over time. SSNs are therefore 
useful for research that tracks employees over time, as is done in some 
epidemiological studies of workplace populations (81 FR at 68527). 
While OSHA acknowledged the usefulness of SSNs for such research, the 
agency further noted that other tracking methods have emerged that 
allow researchers to conduct these studies without the use of SSNs. 
OSHA stated that due to the seriousness of the threat of identity theft 
and the availability of other methods for tracking employees for 
research purposes, it was appropriate to reexamine the SSN collection 
requirements in its standards (81 FR at 68527). Weighing these 
considerations in the SIP-IV final rule, OSHA determined that it was 
appropriate to remove from OSHA standards all requirements for employee 
SSNs in employer records (84 FR at 21439-40). OSHA reaffirms its 
conclusions on this issue here.
    Accordingly, OSHA is finalizing the proposed changes to paragraph 
(n) in this final rule, which will align the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards with OSHA's other substance-specific 
standards by removing the requirements to include employees' SSNs in 
air monitoring data ((n)(1)(ii)(F)), medical surveillance 
((n)(3)((ii)(A)), and training ((n)(4)(i)) records. OSHA expects that 
compliance with paragraph (n) as revised will be straightforward for 
construction and shipyard employers who already comply with other OSHA 
standards that no longer contain requirements to include employee SSNs 
in records. Lastly, OSHA notes, as it did in the SIP-IV final rule, 
that by removing the requirements to include SSNs in records, OSHA is 
not requiring employers to delete SSNs from existing records or 
prohibiting employers from using SSNs in records if they wish to do so 
(see 84 FR at 21439-40).

IV. Final Economic Analysis

A. Introduction

    This Final Economic Analysis (FEA) addresses issues related to the 
profile of affected application groups, establishments, and employees; 
and the cost savings and the benefits of OSHA's rule to modify several 
construction and shipyard ancillary provisions. This rule makes no 
changes to the 2017 final rule's TWA PEL and STEL for the shipyard and 
construction industries. Relative to the estimated costs in the Final 
Economic Analysis (2017 FEA) in support of the January 9, 2017, 
beryllium final rule (Document ID 2042), this FEA would lead to total 
annualized cost savings of $2.5 million in 2019 dollars at a 3 percent 
discount rate over 10 years; and total annualized cost savings of $2.6 
million in 2019 dollars at a discount rate of 7 percent over 10 years. 
When the Department uses a perpetual time horizon, the annualized cost 
savings of the rule would be $2.3 million in 2016 dollars at a 7 
percent discount rate.
    The rule is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive 
Order 12866 or the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) (2 
U.S.C. 1501 et seq.); nor is it a ``major rule'' under the 
Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). Neither the benefits 
nor the costs of this rule exceed $100 million. In addition, they do 
not meet any of the other criteria specified by the UMRA for a 
significant regulatory action or the Congressional Review Act for a 
major rule.
    This final rule makes several changes to the beryllium standards 
for construction and shipyards. These changes are designed to 
accomplish three goals: (1) To more appropriately tailor the 
requirements of the construction and shipyards standards to the 
particular exposures in these industries in light of partial overlap 
between the beryllium standards' requirements and other OSHA standards; 
(2) to more closely align the shipyards and construction standards to 
the general industry beryllium standard with respect to the medical 
definitions and medical surveillance requirements, where appropriate; 
and (3) to clarify certain requirements with respect to materials 
containing only trace amounts of beryllium.
    This FEA provides OSHA's assessment of how this rule will affect 
the costs and benefits of complying with the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards, including costs adjustments to reflect 
changes in exposure rates and baseline compliance rates. All costs are 
estimated in 2019 dollars. Costs reported in 2019 dollars were applied 
directly in this FEA; wage data were updated to 2019 dollars using BLS 
data (BLS, 2020a); \45\ and all other costs reported for years earlier 
than 2019 were updated to 2019 dollars using the GDP implicit price 
deflator (BEA, 2020).\46\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \45\ Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment 
Statistics Survey--May 2019 (Released March 31, 2020) (Document ID 
2248), available at http://www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm (Accessed July 
9, 2020) (BLS, 2020a).
    \46\ Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table 1.1.9. Implicit Price 
Deflators for Gross Domestic Product (Document ID 2246), available 
at https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=19&step=3&isuri=1&nipa_table_list=13 (Accessed July 
9, 2020) (BEA, 2020).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This introduction to the FEA is followed by:

 Section B: Profile of Affected Application Groups, 
Establishments, and Employees
 Section C: Technological Feasibility Summary
 Section D: Cost Savings
 Section E: Benefits

B. Profile of Affected Application Groups, Establishments, and 
Employees

Introduction
    In this section, OSHA presents the profile of industries affected 
by this final rule. The profile data in this section are drawn from the 
industry profiles in Chapter III and exposure profiles and data in 
Chapter IV of the 2017 FEA (Document ID 2042); the PEA for the June 27, 
2017 beryllium proposal (2017 PEA) (82 FR 29189-216); and the PEA for 
the October 8, 2019 beryllium proposal (2019 PEA) (82 FR at 53922-45). 
Much of the analysis here is unchanged from the 2019 PEA because, as 
will be explained below, the agency received no new information or data 
during the comment period that would alter the agency's analysis.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA first identified the North American 
Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industries, both in the 
shipyard and construction sectors, with potential worker exposure to 
beryllium. Next, OSHA provided statistical information on the affected 
industries, including the number of affected entities and 
establishments, the number of workers whose exposure to beryllium could 
result in disease or death (``at-risk workers''), and the average 
revenue and profits for affected entities and establishments by six-
digit NAICS industry.\47\ The agency provided this information for each 
affected industry as


a whole, as well as for small entities, as defined by the Small 
Business Administration (SBA), and ``very small'' entities, defined by 
OSHA as those with fewer than 20 employees, in each affected industry 
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). For each industry sector identified, the 
agency described the uses of beryllium and estimated the number of 
establishments and employees that would be affected by the beryllium 
standards. Employee exposure to beryllium can also occur as a result of 
certain processes (such as welding) that are found in many industries. 
This analysis will use the term ``application group'' to refer to a 
cross-industry group with a common process.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \47\ The Census Bureau defines an establishment as a single 
physical location at which business is conducted or services or 
industrial operations are performed. The Census Bureau defines a 
business firm or entity as a business organization consisting of one 
or more domestic establishments in the same state and industry that 
are specified under common ownership or control. The firm and the 
establishment are the same for single-establishment firms. For each 
multi-establishment firm, establishments in the same industry within 
a state will be counted as one firm; the firm employment and annual 
payroll are summed from the associated establishments. (U.S. Census 
Bureau, Statistics of U.S. Businesses, Glossary, 2017, https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/susb/about/glossary.html (Accessed 
March 3, 2017)).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In Chapter III of the 2017 FEA, OSHA described each application 
group; identified the processes and occupations with beryllium 
exposure, including available sampling exposure measurements; and 
explained how OSHA estimated the number of establishments working with 
beryllium and the number of employees exposed to beryllium. Those 
estimates and the exposure profiles for abrasive blasting in 
construction and shipyards, and welding in shipyards,\48\ are presented 
in this section, along with a brief description of the application 
groups and an explanation of the derivation of the revised exposure 
profiles. For additional information about these data and the 
application groups, please see Chapter III of the 2017 FEA.\49\ 
Finally, this section discusses wage data, the hire rate, and current 
industry practices.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \48\ The exposure profile used for welding in shipyards in this 
FEA, and in the 2017 PEA, differs from the exposure profile used in 
Chapter III the 2017 FEA because OSHA is now using maritime-specific 
data from the appendices to Chapter IV of the 2017 FEA. See 82 FR 
29195.
    \49\ OSHA contractor Eastern Research Group (ERG) provided 
support for the 2017 FEA.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Affected Application Groups
    OSHA's 2017 FEA identified one affected application group in the 
construction sector and two application groups in the shipyard sector 
with potential beryllium exposure. Both the shipyard and construction 
sectors have affected employees in the abrasive blasting application 
group, and the shipyard sector has affected employees in the welding 
application group. OSHA's understanding of these affected application 
groups has not changed. For a full description of these application 
groups, see Chapter III of the FEA for the 2017 final rule (Document ID 
2042) and section V.B. of the 2017 construction and shipyards NPRM, the 
Profile of Affected Application Groups, Establishments, and Employees 
within the PEA (82 FR at 29189-29200).
    As discussed throughout this preamble, several commenters to the 
October 9, 2019 NPRM took issue with OSHA's focus on abrasive blasters 
and welders, arguing that construction and shipyards workers in various 
other jobs may be exposed to beryllium. For example, commenters argued 
that workers may be exposed to beryllium during the dressing of 
beryllium-containing non-sparking tools (Document ID 2208, p. 6; 2211, 
p. 7; 2222, Tr. 17-19) and during decommissioning, demolition, or 
renovation work at facilities that process beryllium (Document ID 2213, 
p. 3; 2239, p. 1; 2222, Tr. 84-85). However, as explained in the 
Summary and Explanation for paragraph (f), these commenters did not 
provide, nor does the record contain, sufficient data for the agency to 
characterize exposures in these or any other application groups outside 
of abrasive blasting and welding. The agency suspects that if 
additional exposures do occur they are rare, and would not 
significantly impact the agency's economic analysis.
    Other commenters, including the CISC and NDA, suggested that the 
agency has underestimated the cost of complying with the beryllium 
standard for construction because, they contend, all construction 
employers must perform exposure assessment to determine whether 
beryllium is present at their worksite in trace amounts (Document ID 
2203, p. 16; 2205, p. 2). However, as discussed in the Summary and 
Explanation, apart from certain abrasive blasting media, those 
materials at the typical construction site that the agency has 
identified as containing beryllium in trace amounts (i.e., rock, soil, 
concrete, and brick) are not likely to release airborne beryllium above 
the action level under foreseeable conditions and therefore do not 
typically trigger the requirements of the standard. Further, for any 
additional materials containing comparably low levels of beryllium, an 
employer may rely on objective data that employees will not be exposed 
above the PEL for total airborne dust to qualify for the exemption 
under paragraph (a)(3). Hence the agency does not expect any workplace 
assessments to be needed for construction sites using typical 
construction materials containing trace amounts of beryllium.
    Accordingly, the application groups for this FEA remain the same as 
those identified in the 2019 PEA; that is, abrasive blasting in 
construction and shipyards and certain welding operations in shipyards.
Exposure Profile
    This section summarizes the data from the 2017 FEA (see Document ID 
2042, FEA Chapter IV--Technological Feasibility). It is presented here 
for informational purposes only. The information in this section is 
drawn entirely from the 2017 FEA except for updated revenue data.
Abrasive Blasting in Construction and Shipyards
    The primary abrasive blasting job categories include the abrasive 
blasting operator (blaster) and pot tender (blaster's helper or 
assistant) during open blasting projects. Support personnel such as pot 
tenders or abrasive media cleanup workers might also be employed to 
clean up (e.g., by vacuuming or sweeping) and recycle spent abrasive 
and to set up, dismantle, and move containment systems and supplies 
(NIOSH, 1976, Document ID 0779; NIOSH, 1993, 0777; NIOSH, 1995, 0773; 
NIOSH, 2007, 0770; Flynn and Susi, 2004, 1608; Meeker et al., 2005, 
0699).
    Section 15 of Chapter IV of the 2017 FEA included a detailed 
discussion of exposure data and analysis for the development of the 
exposure profile for workers in abrasive blasting operations. Because 
OSHA addressed general industry abrasive blasting operations in other 
general industry sections where appropriate, such as in the nonferrous 
foundries industry, the exposure profile in Section 15 addressed only 
exposure data from construction and shipyard tasks. The exposure 
profile for abrasive blasters, pot tenders/helpers, and abrasive media 
cleanup workers was based on two National Institute for Occupational 
Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluations of beryllium exposure from 
abrasive blasting with coal slag, unpublished sampling results for 
abrasive blasting operations from four U.S. shipyards, and data 
submitted by the U.S. Navy (NIOSH, 1983, Document ID 0696; NIOSH, 2007, 
0770; OSHA, 2005, 1166; U.S. Navy, 2003, 0145).
Welding in Shipyards
    Similar to the profile for abrasive blasting activities, OSHA used 
exposure data from the 2017 FEA to develop the exposure profile for 
welding in shipyards. OSHA used the exposure data from Chapter IV-10 
Appendices 2 and 3 and combined the aluminum base metal and non-
aluminum or unknown base material data. OSHA removed shorter duration 
samples that appeared in Appendix 3 of FEA chapter IV-10. Seven 
maritime welding samples from


Appendix 3, Table IV.61 with sampling durations of 240 minutes or 
greater were used in this profile to represent the 8-hour TWA samples.
    Compared to the 2017 FEA, this caused a change in the exposure 
profile for welders in shipyards. The exposure profile for welding in 
shipyards is based on data presented in Appendices 2 and 3 of Sections 
10.6 and 10.7 of Chapter IV, and again is more fully summarized in 
Section IV of the 2017 PEA. Those data measure exposures of shipyard-
based welders, and OSHA has determined that it is a more suitable data 
set on which to base the exposure profile of welders in shipyards than 
the data used in the 2017 FEA, which were based on general industry 
welding exposures.
    Tables IV-1 and IV-2 summarize, from the exposure profiles, the 
number of workers at risk of beryllium exposure and the distribution of 
8-hour TWA beryllium exposures by affected application group and job 
category. Exposures are grouped into ranges (e.g., >0.05 [mu]g/m\3\ and 
<0.1 [mu]g/m\3\) to show the percentages of employees in each job 
category and sector exposed at levels within the indicated range.
    Table IV-3 presents data by NAICS code on the estimated number of 
workers at risk of beryllium exposure for each of the same exposure 
ranges, based on the exposure profile data and the estimated number of 
workers in each job category and application group. As shown, an 
estimated 2,168 workers have beryllium exposures above the TWA PEL of 
0.2 [mu]g/m\3\.

                                                Table IV-1--Distribution of Beryllium Exposures by Application Group and Job Category or Activity
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                             Exposure level ([micro]g/m\3\)
                                                       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Job category/activity                    0 to <=0.05   >0.05 to <=0.1   >0.1 to <=0.2  >0.2 to <=0.25  >0.25 to <=0.5   >0.5 to <=1.0   >1.0 to <=2.0
                                                              (%)             (%)             (%)             (%)             (%)             (%)             (%)         >2.0 (%)    Total (%)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blaster......................................            15.2            15.2            25.7             2.5            12.4             4.7             5.4         18.9        100.0
Pot Tender............................................            28.1            28.1            43.8             0.0             0.0             0.0             0.0          0.0        100.0
Cleanup...............................................            33.3            33.3            26.7             0.0             0.0             0.0             3.3          3.3        100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blaster......................................            15.2            15.2            25.7             2.5            12.4             4.7             5.4         18.9        100.0
Pot Tender............................................            28.1            28.1            43.8             0.0             0.0             0.0             0.0          0.0        100.0
Cleanup...............................................            33.3            33.3            26.7             0.0             0.0             0.0             3.3          3.3        100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                       Welding--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Welder................................................            47.4            47.4             1.5             0.0             0.0             3.0             0.7          0.0        100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.
[a] The lowest exposure range in OSHA's technological feasibility analysis is <=0.1 [micro]g/m\3\ (see Chapter IV-02, Limits of Detection for Beryllium Data, in the 2017 FEA (Document ID
  2042)). Because OSHA lacked information on the distribution of worker exposures in this range, the agency evenly divided the workforce exposed at or below 0.1 [micro]g/m\3\ into the two
  categories shown in this table and in the columns with identical headers in Tables IV-2 and IV-3 of this PEA. OSHA recognizes that this simplifying assumption may overestimate exposure in
  these lower exposure ranges.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
** Employers in application group Welding in Shipyards employ welders in shipyards. Some of these employers may do both welding and abrasive blasting.
Source: Table V-7, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29195).


                                  Table IV-2--Number of Workers Exposed to Beryllium by Affected Application Group, Job Category, and Exposure Range (mg/m\3\)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                             Exposure level ([micro]g/m\3\)
            Application group/job category             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          0 to <=0.05   >0.05 to <=0.1   >0.1 to <=0.2  >0.2 to <=0.25  >0.25 to <=0.5   >0.5 to <=1.0   >1.0 to <=2.0      >2.0        Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blaster......................................             511             511             863              83             416             159             182          636        3,360
Pot Tender............................................             945             945           1,470               0               0               0               0            0        3,360
Cleanup...............................................             560             560             448               0               0               0              56           56        1,680
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blaster......................................             186             186             314              30             152              58              66          232        1,224
Pot Tender............................................             344             344             536               0               0               0               0            0        1,224
Cleanup...............................................             204             204             163               0               0               0              20           20          612
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                       Welding--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Welder................................................              13              13               1               0               0               1               1            0           26
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal.................................           2,016           2,016           2,781              83             416             159             238          692        8,400
Maritime Subtotal.....................................             747             747           1,013              30             152              59              87          252        3,086
Total, All Industries.................................           2,763           2,763           3,794             114             568             218             324          944       11,486
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Data may not sum to totals due to rounding. Figures with actual values representing less than one person have been rounded up to one (person).
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
** Employers in application group Welding in Shipyards employ welders in shipyards. Some of these employers may do both welding and abrasive blasting.
Source: Table V-8, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29196).




                                              Table IV-3--Number of Workers Exposed to Beryllium by Affected Industry and Exposure Level (mg/m\3\)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                               Exposure Level ([micro]g/m\3\)
      Application Group/NAICS               Industry       -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              0 to <=0.05   >0.05 to <=0.1   >0.1 to <=0.2  >0.2 to <=0.25  >0.25 to <=0.5   >0.5 to <=1.0   >1.0 to <=2.0     >2.0      Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.............................  Painting and Wall               1,046           1,046           1,443              43             216              82             123        359      4,360
                                      Covering Contractors.
238990.............................  All Other Specialty               970             970           1,337              40             200              76             114        333      4,040
                                      Trade Contractors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a............................  Ship Building and                 734             734           1,013              30             152              58              87        252      3,060
                                      Repairing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Welding in Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b............................  Ship Building and                  13              13               1               0               0               1               1          0         26
                                      Repairing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal.....................................           2,016           2,016           2,781              83             416             159             238        692      8,400
Maritime Subtotal.........................................             747             747           1,013              30             152              59              87        252      3,086
Total, All Industries.....................................           2,763           2,763           3,794             114             568             218             324        944     11,486
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Data may not sum to totals due to rounding. Figures with actual values representing less than one person have been rounded up to one (person).
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
** Employers in application group Welding in Shipyards employ welders in shipyards. Some of these employers may do both welding and abrasive blasting.
Source: Table V-9, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29196).

Summary of Affected Establishments and Employers
    As shown in Table IV-4, OSHA estimates that a total of 11,486 
workers in 2,796 establishments will be affected by this rule. Also 
shown are the estimated annual revenues for these entities. Table IV-5 
presents the agency's estimate of affected entities defined as small by 
SBA, and Table IV-6 presents OSHA's estimate of affected establishments 
and employees by NAICS industries for the subset of small entities with 
fewer than 20 employees.\50\ For the tables showing the characteristics 
of small and very small entities, OSHA generally assumed that 
beryllium-using small entities and very small entities would be the 
same proportion of overall small and very small entities as the 
proportion of beryllium-using entities to all entities as a whole in a 
NAICS industry. OSHA in the 2017 PEA and subsequent rulemaking analyses 
has requested public comment on the profile data presented in Tables 
IV-4, IV-5, and IV-6, and has received none.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \50\ Tables IV-5 and IV-6 indicate that small entities affected 
by the proposed rule contain 2,714 affected establishments 
affiliated with entities that are small by SBA standards and 2,365 
affected establishments affiliated with entities that employ fewer 
than 20 employees. However, the small and very small entity figures 
in Tables IV-5 and IV-6 were not used to prepare the cost savings 
estimates in Section D of this FEA. For costing purposes in Section 
D, OSHA included small establishments owned by larger entities 
versus the figures in Tables IV-5 and IV-6 because such 
establishments do not qualify as ``small entities'' for the purposes 
of a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis. To see the difference in the 
number of affected establishments by size for costing purposes, 
consider the example of a ``large entity'' with 500 employees, 
consisting of 50 ten-employee establishments. In Section B., each of 
these 50 establishments would be excluded from Tables IV-5 and IV-6 
because they are part of a ``large entity''; in Section D., where 
all establishments are included because there is no filter for 
entity size, each would be considered a small establishment. Thus, 
for purposes of Section D., there are 2,399 affected establishments 
with fewer than 20 employees, 369 affected establishments with 
between 20 and 499 employees, and 28 establishments with more than 
500 employees. Census (2015) Statistics of US Businesses data 
suggest there are also a total of 3,464 establishments affiliated 
with entities in construction and shipyards employing between 20 and 
499 employees, of which approximately 157 would be affected by the 
rule.

                                                 Table IV-4--Characteristics of Industries Affected by OSHA's Beryllium Standards--All Entities
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                        Total
                                                              Total           Total           Total       Affected        Affected        Affected     revenues    Revenues/       Revenues/
         NAICS code                    Industry              entities     establishments    employees     entities     establishments    employees     ($1,000)    entity [a]  establishment [a]
                                                               [a]             [a]             [a]          [b]             [b]             [b]          [a]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.....................  Painting and Wall Covering         31,317             31,376      163,073        1,088              1,090        4,360  $21,099,458     $673,738           $672,471
                              Contractors.
238990.....................  All Other Specialty Trade          28,734             29,072      193,631          998              1,010        4,040   42,420,391    1,476,313          1,459,149
                              Contractors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a....................  Ship Building and Repairing.          604                689      108,311          604                689        3,060   28,142,463   46,593,482         40,845,374
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Welding in Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b....................  Ship Building and Repairing.          604                689      108,311            6                  7           26   28,142,463   46,593,482         40,845,374
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal....................................       60,051             60,448      356,704        2,086              2,100        8,400   63,519,849    1,057,765          1,050,818
Maritime Subtotal........................................          604                689      108,311          610                696        3,086   28,142,463   46,593,482         40,845,374
Total, All Industries....................................       60,655             61,137      465,015        2,696              2,796       11,486   91,662,312    1,511,208          1,499,294
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[a] Data may not sum to totals due to rounding. [a] US Census Bureau, Statistics of US Businesses: 2012 (Document ID 2034).


 
[b] OSHA estimates of employees potentially exposed to beryllium and associated entities and establishments. Affected entities and establishments constrained to be less than or equal to the
  number of affected employees.
Source: Table V-4, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29192), with updated revenues as shown in Document ID 2250.


                                   Table IV-5--Characteristics of Construction and Shipyard Industries Affected by OSHA's Beryllium Standards--Small Entities
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       SBA small                                               Affected                     Affected       Total
                                                       business        Small    Establishments     Small        small     Affected small   employees   revenues for   Revenues/      Revenues/
       NAICS code                 Industry          classification   business      for small       entity      business   establishments   for small       small        small          small
                                                      (employees)    entities    entities [b]    employees     entities         [c]         entities     entities       entity     establishment
                                                          [a]           [b]                         [b]          [c]                          [c]      ($1,000) [b]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320..................  Painting and Wall                   100       31,221          31,243      133,864        1,085          1,085         3,579   $17,822,841     $570,861        $570,459
                           Covering Contractors
238990..................  All Other Specialty                 100       28,537          28,605      143,112          991            994         2,986    32,076,205    1,124,022       1,121,350
                           Trade Contractors
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a.................  Ship Building and                 1,250          585             629       27,170          585            629           768     6,507,836   11,124,507      10,346,322
                           Repairing
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Welding in Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b.................  Ship Building and                 1,250          585             629       27,170            6              6             7     6,507,836   11,124,507      10,346,322
                           Repairing
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal.............................  ..............      59,758          59,848      276,976        2,076          2,079         6,565    49,899,046      835,019         833,763
Maritime Subtotal.................................  ..............         585             629       27,170          591            635           775     6,507,836   11,124,507      10,346,322
Total, All Industries.............................  ..............      60,343          60,477      304,146        2,667          2,714         7,340    56,406,882      934,771         932,700
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.
[a] SBA Size Standards, 2016.
[b] US Census Bureau, Statistics of US Businesses: 2012 (Document ID 2034).
[c] OSHA estimates of employees potentially exposed to beryllium and associated entities and establishments. Affected entities and establishments constrained to be less than or equal to the
  number of affected employees.
Source: Table V-5, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29194), with updated revenues as shown in Document ID 2250.


                                     Table IV-6--Characteristics of Industries Affected by OSHA's Beryllium Standards--Entities With Fewer Than 20 Employees
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                               Affected
                                                                                                       Employees   Affected      Affected      employees      Total                  Revenue per
                                                                           Entities   Establishments      for      entities   establishments      for     revenues for   Revenues    estab. for
     Application group           NAICS                Industry             with <20    for entities    entities    with <20    for entities    entities     entities    per entity    entities
                                                                           employees     with <20      with <20    employees     with <20      with <20     with <20     with <20     with <20
                                                                              [a]      employees [a]   employees      [b]      employees [b]   employees    employees    employees    employees
                                                                                                          [a]                                     [b]     ($1,000) [a]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blasting--                 238320  Painting and Wall Covering        29,953          29,957      87,984       1,041           1,041       2,352   $11,448,144    $382,204      $382,153
 Construction.                               Contractors.
Abrasive Blasting--                 238990  All Other Specialty Trade         27,026          27,041       90,82         939             939       1,895    20,708,351     766,238       765,813
 Construction.                               Contractors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards *
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blasting--                336611a  Ship Building and Repairing.         380             381       2,215         380             381         381       589,796   1,552,093     1,548,020
 Shipyards.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                     Welding in Shipyards **
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Welding in Shipyards......         336611b  Ship Building and Repairing.         380             381       2,215           4               4           4       589,796   1,552,093     1,548,020
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal...................................................      56,979          56,998     178,806       1,980           1,980       4,247    32,156,495     564,357       564,169
Shipyards Subtotal......................................................         380             381       2,215         384             385         385       589,796   1,552,093     1,548,020
Total, All Industries...................................................      57,359          57,379     181,021       2,364           2,365       4,632    32,746,291     570,901       570,702
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.
[a] US Census Bureau, Statistics of US Businesses: 2012 (Document ID 2034).
[b] OSHA estimates of employees potentially exposed to beryllium and associated entities and establishments. Affected entities and establishments constrained to be less than or equal to the
  number of affected employees.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
** Employers in application group Welding in Shipyards employ welders in shipyards. Some of these employers may do both welding and abrasive blasting.
Source: Table V-6, 2017 beryllium proposal (82 FR at 29195), with updated revenues as shown in Document ID 2250.

Loaded Wages and New Hire Rate
    For this FEA, OSHA updated the wage estimates from the 2019 PEA. 
Data for base wages by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) are 
from the May 2019 Occupational Employment Statistics survey of the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). OSHA applied a fringe markup (loading 
factor) of 45.8 percent of base wages (see BLS, Employer Costs for 
Employee


Compensation, March 2019 (Document ID 2249), available at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_06182019.htm) (BLS, 2020c); \51\ 
loaded hourly wages by application group and SOC are shown in Table IV-
7. OSHA also used the new hire rate for manufacturing of 31.8 percent 
(BLS, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS), 2019 (Document ID 
2247), available at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/data.htm) (BLS, 2020b). 
Finally, due to changes in data availability in the most recent OES, 
the occupation for a PLCHP, which in the PEA used Family and General 
Physicians (SOC 29-1062), has been changed to Physicians, All Other; 
and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric (SOC 29-1228).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \51\ A fringe markup (loading factor) of 45.8 percent was 
calculated in the following way. Employer costs for employee 
compensation for civilian workers averaged $36.77 per hour worked in 
March 2019. Wages and salaries averaged $25.22 per hour worked and 
accounted for 68.6 percent of these costs, while benefits averaged 
$11.55 and accounted for the remaining 31.41 percent. Therefore, the 
fringe markup (loading factor) is $11.55/$25.22, or 45.8 percent. 
Total employer compensation costs for private industry workers 
averaged $34.49 per hour worked in March 2019 (BLS, 2020c, Document 
ID 2249).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Baseline Industry Practices and Existing Regulatory Requirements 
(``Current Compliance'') on Hazard Controls and Ancillary Provisions
    Table IV-8 reflects OSHA's estimate of baseline industry compliance 
rates, by application group and job category, for each of the ancillary 
provisions in the construction and shipyards standards. See Chapter III 
of the 2017 FEA (Document ID 2042) for additional discussion of the 
baseline compliance rates for each provision, which were estimated 
based on site visits, industry contacts, published literature, and the 
Final Report of the Small Business Advocacy Review (SBAR) Panel (SBAR, 
2008, Document ID 0345). Note that the compliance rate is typically the 
same for all jobs in a given sector.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA estimated that abrasive blasters in 
construction and shipyards had a 75 percent compliance rate with the 
PPE requirements in the beryllium standards. The 2017 PEA revised those 
estimates to 100 percent compliance based on the belief that 29 CFR 
1926.57(f)(5)(v) already required abrasive blasting operators to wear 
full PPE, including respirators, gloves, safety shoes, and eye 
protection; that 29 CFR 1915.34(c)(3) required full PPE for abrasive 
blaster operators performing mechanical paint removal in shipyards. 
Some commenters disagreed with this estimate for abrasive blasting 
operations. NABTU noted that ``with the exception of abrasive blasting 
operators wearing type CE respirators, construction workers' use of PPE 
during abrasive blasting operations is extremely limited.'' (Document 
ID 2129, p. 11). BHSC also expressed concern about the degree of 
protection afforded by the other OSHA standards to workers near 
abrasive blasting operations, stating that the estimated 100 percent 
PPE use for those workers ``does not have supporting evidence of 
consistent and standard use across pot tenders and cleanup activities 
supporting abrasive blasting'' (Document ID 2118, p. 5).
    While the agency acknowledges these comments claiming that its 
revised 100 percent compliance estimate was too high for abrasive 
blasting operations, OSHA is also removing dermal contact with 
beryllium as a trigger for PPE requirements. This clarifies and limits 
the activities that would trigger PPE requirements under this rule, 
making a higher baseline compliance estimate more appropriate. The 
agency has determined that a better estimate for PPE for abrasive 
blasting operations is in between the two previous estimates of 75 
percent and 100 percent. OSHA estimates 90 percent compliance for PPE 
for areas where exposures exceed, or can reasonably be expected to 
exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL, which are the only areas in which the 
standards would require PPE under the revisions.
    For welders in shipyards, OSHA estimated a 0 percent compliance 
rate in the 2017 FEA and revised that estimate to 100 percent 
compliance in the 2017 PEA because gloves are required under 29 CFR 
1915.157(a) to protect workers from hazards faced by welders, such as 
thermal burns (82 FR at 29197-201). The agency received no comments on 
the compliance rates for welders either from the 2017 PEA or from the 
2019 PEA. Hence, OSHA continues to estimate a 100 percent PPE 
compliance rate for welders in shipyards in areas where exposures can 
exceed the TWA PEL or STEL because of the overlap with 29 CFR 
1915.157(a).\52\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \52\ In fact, the 0 percent baseline compliance rate for PPE in 
shipyard welding in the 2017 FEA was simply a mistake insofar as 
baseline compliance rate for PPE for welding in general industry was 
100 percent in the same document. 2017 FEA, Ch. III, p. III-188.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In the 2017 FEA, for the three occupational groups involved in 
abrasive blasting (operators, pot-tenders, and clean-up workers), OSHA 
estimated a 75 percent compliance rate with respirators that met the 
beryllium standards' requirements. In the 2017 PEA (82 FR at 29197), 
operators, but not pot tenders or clean-up workers, were revised to 100 
percent compliance due to the strict existing standards for operators 
(see Sec. Sec.  1926.57(f) and 1915.34(c)(3)(iv)). This FEA continues 
to use these baseline compliance estimates of 100 percent for operators 
and 75 percent for pot tenders and clean-up workers.
    For welders in shipyards, the 2017 FEA estimated 0 percent 
compliance with proper respirator use and a 25 percent compliance rate 
with the requirement to establish a respiratory protection program. 
OSHA revised this estimate to 100 percent in the 2019 PEA (84 FR at 
53927) because several other standards address respiratory protection 
for welders in shipyards, including the Confined and Enclosed Spaces 
and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment standards (29 
CFR 1915.12(c)(4)(ii)), the Welding, Cutting, and Heating standards for 
shipyards (29 CFR 1915.51(d)(2)(iv)), and the general Respiratory 
Protection standards (29 CFR 1910.134, 1915.154). The agency received 
no new comment on these revisions to the compliance rates from either 
the 2017 PEA or the 2019 PEA and will use the same estimates in this 
FEA.
    The baseline compliance rates for the housekeeping provisions in 
the 2017 FEA were 0 percent for welders in shipyards and 75 percent for 
blasters, pot tenders, and clean-up workers in abrasive blasting in 
both construction and shipyards. In the 2017 PEA, OSHA reviewed 
existing housekeeping requirements and updated the estimate from 75 
percent to 100 percent for abrasive blasting operations because some 
housekeeping is required by existing standards for abrasive blasting 
operations in construction and shipyards. The Summary and Explanation 
for housekeeping for this rule discusses the agency's finding that 
existing standards cover general housekeeping requirements for 
blasters, pot tenders, and clean-up workers, though these other 
standards allow some cleaning methods that the beryllium standards, and 
the revisions, limit, like dry sweeping or brushing and compressed air. 
Under this rule, housekeeping requirements would no longer apply when 
dust from trace amounts of beryllium could not be expected to cause 
airborne exposures above the TWA PEL and STEL. Hence, these 
requirements will only affect areas where workers are exposed above the 
TWA PEL or STEL in the exposure profile. While the revisions will limit 
the methods that employers may use to clean up beryllium, OSHA 
estimates that cleaning methods that do not disperse beryllium into the 
air take


approximately the same amount of time as cleaning methods already in 
use. The agency received no comment on this revision to the compliance 
rate from either the 2017 PEA or the 2019 PEA. For abrasive blasting 
operations, the agency therefore maintains from the 2017 PEA its 100 
percent compliance rate for housekeeping for abrasive blasting 
operations.
    For welders in shipyards, OSHA estimated a 0 percent compliance 
rate for housekeeping in both the 2017 FEA and the 2017 PEA. As 
explained in the Summary and Explanation, OSHA has reason to believe 
that skin or surface contamination is not an exposure source of concern 
in welding in shipyards. The revisions would also limit the 
circumstances in which housekeeping is required. OSHA therefore 
estimates that in welding in shipyards, employers will not have to 
engage in additional housekeeping to comply with the revisions and is 
maintaining its 2019 PEA baseline compliance estimate for housekeeping 
to 100 percent for welding in shipyards.
    In the 2017 PEA, OSHA treated the compliance rates for vacuums, 
bags, and labels separately from the labor costs of housekeeping. OSHA 
estimated a 0 percent compliance rate for all industries in 
construction and shipyards for vacuums, bags, and labels because it 
believed the cost of such equipment was not covered by other standards. 
In this FEA, as in the 2019 PEA, OSHA is setting the compliance rates 
under housekeeping for vacuums, bags, and labels to 100 percent as this 
rule removes those requirements from the standard.
    The baseline compliance rates for the hygiene areas provisions in 
the 2017 FEA were 0 percent for welders in shipyards and 75 percent for 
blasters, pot tenders, and clean-up workers in abrasive blasting in 
both construction and shipyards. As explained in the Summary and 
Explanation section of this preamble, OSHA is removing paragraph (i), 
hygiene areas, from the construction and shipyards standards. The 
standards as modified by this final rule, as in the NPRM, therefore no 
longer require employers to comply with any hygiene-related provisions, 
and the baseline compliance is revised to 100 percent to demonstrate 
that there will be no cost associated with hygiene areas under the 
rule.
    The baseline compliance rate for each of the remaining provisions 
was unchanged from the 2017 FEA to the 2017 PEA and remains unchanged 
in this FEA.
    As a final point on baseline industry practices, OSHA acknowledges 
the possibility of a future decline in the use of coal slag abrasive 
materials but did not receive new evidence on this issue. To the extent 
that coal slag abrasives are being replaced, for reasons unrelated to 
the implementation of this standard, by other blasting materials that 
do not have the potential for beryllium exposures of concern, the costs 
and benefits of compliance with the TWA PEL and STEL for abrasive 
blasting operations would also decrease.

                  Table IV-7--Loaded Hourly Wages for Occupations (Jobs) Exposed to Beryllium and Affected by OSHA's Beryllium Standard
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                  Fringe        Loaded
                                                                                                                                  markup      hourly (or
      Provision in the standard                 Job               NAICS       SOC [a]           Occupation           Median     percentage,   daily [d])
                                                                                                                  hourly wage    total [b]       wage
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Monitoring [c]......................  Industrial Hygienist             N/A          N/A  N/A....................          N/A           N/A      $175.34
                                       Consultant.
Monitoring [d]......................  IH Technician--Initial.  ...........  ...........  .......................  ...........  ............     2,808.63
                                      IH Technician--          ...........  ...........  .......................  ...........  ............     1,379.86
                                       Additional and
                                       Periodic.
Regulated Area/Job Briefing [e].....  Production Worker......        31-33      51-0000  Production Occupations.        17.78          45.8        25.92
Medical Surveillance [e]............  Human Resources Manager        31-33      11-3121  Human Resources                55.29          45.8        80.61
                                                                                          Managers.
Exposure Control Plan, Medical        Clerical...............        31-33      43-4071  File Clerks............        16.98          45.8        24.76
 Surveillance, and Medical Removal
 [e].
Training [e]........................  Training Instructor....        31-33      13-1151  Training and                   28.94          45.8        42.19
                                                                                          Development
                                                                                          Specialists.
Medical Surveillance [e]............  Physician (Employers'          31-33      29-1228  Physicians, All Other;         94.10          45.8       137.19
                                       Physician).                                        and Ophthalmologists,
                                                                                          Except Pediatric.
Multiple Provisions [f].............  First Line Supervisor..      Various      51-1011  First-Line Supervisors         30.30          45.8        44.18
                                                                                          of Production and
                                                                                          Operating Workers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sources: U.S. Dept. of Labor, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).
[a] 2010 Standard Occupational Classification System. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/soc/classification.htm.
[b] BLS, 2020c. 45.8 percent represents fringe as a percentage of base wages. BLS-reported data for fringe as a percentage of total compensation is 31.4
  percent.
[c] ERG estimates based on discussions with affected industries, and inflated to 2019 Dollars.
[d] Wages used in the economic analysis for the Silica final rule, inflated to 2019 Dollars.
[e] BLS, 2020a
[f] BLS, 2020a; Weighted average for SOC 51-1011 in NAICS 313000, 314000, 315000, 316000, 321000, 322000, 323000, 324000, 325000, 326000, 327000,
  335000, 336000, 337000, and 339000.




                                                                Table IV-8--Estimated Current Compliance Rates for Industry Sectors Affected by OSHA's Beryllium Standard
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                Hygiene                                   Respirators                 Housekeeping
                                                      Exposure    Regulated       Medical       Medical      Exposure               -------------------------------             --------------------------------------------------------
       Application group                Job          assessment     areas/     surveillance     removal      control      PPE (%)                                     Training    Employee/    Establishment/                  Vacuum,
                                                        (%)       competent         (%)       program (%)    plan (%)                 Employees    Establishments       (%)       Respirator     Respirator      Labor (%)      Bags,
                                                                  person (%)                                                             (%)             (%)                         (%)         Program (%)                 Labels  (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                     Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blasting--Construction  Abrasive Blaster.            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75          100               100          100          100
Abrasive Blasting--Construction  Pot Tender.......            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75           75                75          100          100
Abrasive Blasting--Construction  Cleanup..........            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75           75                75          100          100
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                      Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards...  Abrasive Blaster.            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75          100               100          100          100
Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards...  Pot Tender.......            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75           75                75          100          100
Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards...  Cleanup..........            0           75              75            0           75           90          100               100           75           75                75          100          100
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Welding--Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Welding--Shipyards.............  Welder...........            0            0               0            0            0          100          100               100            0          100               100          100          100
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).
[a] Estimated compliance rates for medical surveillance do not include medical referrals. OSHA estimates that baseline compliance rates for medical referrals are zero percent for all application groups shown in the table.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use mineral slag abrasive to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
** Employers in application group Welding in Shipyards employ welders in shipyards. Some of these employers may do both welding and abrasive blasting.



C. Technological Feasibility Summary

    This section summarizes OSHA's technological feasibility findings 
made in the 2017 FEA (see Document ID 2042, FEA Chapter IV--
Technological Feasibility). Because this final rule contains no new 
requirements that might raise feasibility concerns, OSHA's 
technological feasibility analysis remains unchanged from the 2017 
final rule. The findings are presented here for informational purposes 
only. The information in this section is drawn entirely from the 2017 
FEA and contains no new information or assessment.
    Overall, based on the information discussed in Chapter IV of the 
2017 FEA, OSHA determined that the majority of the exposures in 
construction and shipyards are either already at or below the new final 
PEL, or can be adequately controlled to levels below the final PEL 
through the implementation of additional engineering and work practice 
controls for most operations most of the time. The one exception is 
that OSHA determined that workers who perform open-air abrasive 
blasting using mineral grit (i.e., coal slag) will routinely be exposed 
to levels above the final PEL even after the installation of feasible 
engineering and work practice controls, and therefore, these workers 
will also be required to wear respiratory protection. Therefore, OSHA 
concluded in the January 9, 2017 final rule that the final PEL of 0.2 
[micro]g/m\3\ is technologically feasible in abrasive blasting in 
construction and shipyards and in welding in shipyards.

D. Costs of Compliance

Introduction
    Throughout this section, OSHA presents cost-saving formulas in the 
text, usually in parentheses, to help explain the derivation of cost-
saving estimates for the individual provisions. Because the values used 
in the formulas shown in the text are shown only to the second decimal 
place, while the spreadsheets supporting the text are not limited to 
two decimal places, the calculation using the presented formula will 
sometimes differ slightly from the totals presented in the tables.
    These estimates of cost savings are largely based on the cost 
estimates presented for Regulatory Alternative 2a in the preamble for 
the 2017 final rule (82 FR at 2612-15), which were in turn derived from 
the Costs of Compliance chapter (Chapter V) of the 2017 FEA. OSHA has 
retained the same calculation methods from the 2017 FEA, detailed in 
Chapter V of that document, and has updated all wages and unit costs to 
2019 dollars. All cost savings in this FEA similarly are expressed in 
2019 dollars and were annualized using discount rates of 3 percent and 
7 percent, as required by OMB.\53\ Unit costs developed in this section 
were multiplied by the number of workers who would have to comply with 
the provisions, as identified in Section B of this FEA (Profile of 
Affected Application Groups, Establishments, and Employees). The 
estimated number of affected workers depends on what level of exposure 
triggers a particular provision and the percentage of those workers 
already in compliance. In a few cases, costs were calculated based on 
the number of firms. As in the 2017 FEA, OSHA is estimating that the 
beryllium standards will reduce the number of workers exposed to 
beryllium over the PEL by 90 percent. Therefore, for ancillary 
provisions that require employers to take action for employees who 
continue to be exposed over the PEL, like respiratory protection and 
PPE, OSHA estimates the cost based on ten percent of the number of 
employees exposed over the PEL in the exposure profiles.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \53\ See OMB Memo M-17-21 (April 5, 2017), available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/omb/memoranda/2017/M-17-21-OMB.pdf. OSHA included the 3 percent rate in its primary 
analysis, but Appendix IV-A of this PEA also presents costs by NAICS 
industry and establishment size categories using, as alternatives, a 
7 percent discount rate--shown in Table IV-21--and a 0 percent 
discount rate--shown in Table IV-22.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    For purposes of calculating costs, OSHA assumes a 250-day work 
year. This is a standard calculation that OSHA and others use, which 
assumes employees work 5 days a week with 2 weeks of vacation, 
resulting in 250 work days per year (50 weeks x 5 work days a week).
    Estimated compliance rates are presented in Table IV-8 in Section B 
of this FEA. The estimated costs for this beryllium rule represent the 
additional costs necessary for employers to achieve full compliance 
with the rule. The costs of complying with the beryllium program 
requirements therefore depend on the extent to which employers in 
affected application groups have already undertaken some of the 
required actions. A discussion of affected workers is presented in 
Section B of this FEA. Complete calculations are available in the OSHA 
spreadsheet in support of the FEA (Document ID 2250). Annualization 
periods for expenditures on equipment are based on equipment life, and 
one-time costs are annualized over a 10-year period.\54\ The agency 
first presents costs for the full 2017 final rule with only updated 
wages, unit costs, and hiring rates based on 2019 data, updated from 
the PEA for this proposal. All other estimates (compliance rates, 
exposure profile, etc.) are the same as the 2017 FEA. This is the 
baseline from which all cost savings of the rule are benchmarked.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \54\ Executive Order 13563 directs agencies ``to use the best 
available techniques to quantify anticipated present and future 
benefits and costs as accurately as possible.'' In addition, OMB 
Circular A-4 suggests that analysis should include all future costs 
and benefits using a ``rule of reason'' to consider for how long it 
can reasonably predict the future and limit its analysis to this 
time period. Annualization should not be confused with depreciation 
or amortization for tax purposes. Annualization spreads costs out 
evenly over the time period (similar to the payments on a mortgage) 
to facilitate comparison of costs and benefits across different 
years. In cases where costs occur on an annual basis, but do not 
change between years, annualization is not necessary, and OSHA may 
refer simply to ``annual'' costs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Table IV-9 shows these costs, which total for all occupations in 
construction and shipyards to $12.8 million at a discount rate of 3 
percent, an increase of 4 percent from the equivalent cost for the 2017 
FEA ($12.3 million).

  Table IV-9--Total Annualized Costs of Full 2017 Final Beryllium Rule, by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry;
                                         Results Shown by Size Category
                                     [3 Percent discount rate, 2019 dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                   Very small
       Application group/NAICS              Industry              All         Small entities     entities (<20
                                                            establishments     (SBA-defined)       employees)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320...............................  Painting and Wall         $4,770,711        $4,018,176         $2,815,214
                                        Covering
                                        Contractors.
238990...............................  All Other                  4,421,009         3,399,888          2,321,792
                                        Specialty Trade
                                        Contractors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 
                                          Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a..............................  Ship Building and          3,581,319         1,148,925            602,325
                                        Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Welding in Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b..............................  Ship Building and             75,030            21,996             12,306
                                        Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal....................................         9,191,720         7,418,064          5,137,007
Maritime Subtotal........................................         3,656,348         1,170,921            614,631
Total, All Industries....................................        12,848,069         8,588,985          5,751,638
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: US DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).

    To estimate the cost savings of this rule, OSHA estimated the 
difference between the costs of the 2017 final rule (with updated 
wages, prices, and hiring rate), Table IV-9, and the costs of this 
rule. These cost savings are presented and discussed below. Table IV-10 
shows first, by affected application group and six-digit NAICS code, 
annualized cost savings for all establishments, for all small entities 
(as defined by the Small Business Act and SBA's implementing 
regulations; see 15 U.S.C. 632 and 13 CFR 121.201), and for all very 
small entities (defined by OSHA as those with fewer than 20 employees). 
OSHA estimates that this rule would yield a total annualized cost 
savings of $2.5 million using a 3 percent discount rate across the 
shipyard and construction sectors.
    The agency notes that it did not include an overhead labor cost 
either in the 2017 FEA in support of the January 9, 2017 final 
standards, the 2017 PEA, the 2019 PEA, or in this FEA. There is not one 
broadly accepted overhead rate, and the use of overhead to estimate the 
marginal costs of labor raises a number of issues that should be 
addressed before applying overhead costs to analyze the costs of any 
specific regulation. There are several approaches to look at the cost 
elements that fit the definition of overhead, and there are a range of 
overhead estimates currently used within the federal government--for 
example, the Environmental Protection Agency has used 17 percent,\55\ 
and government contractors have reportedly used an average 50 percent 
for on-site (i.e., company site) overhead.\56\ Some overhead costs, 
such as advertising and marketing, vary with output rather than with 
labor costs. Other overhead costs vary with the number of new 
employees. For example, rent or payroll processing costs may change 
little with the addition of one employee in a 500-employee firm, but 
those costs may change substantially with the addition of 100 
employees. If an employer is able to rearrange current employees' 
duties to implement a rule, then the marginal share of overhead costs 
such as rent, insurance, and major office equipment (e.g., computers, 
printers, copiers) would be very difficult to measure with accuracy.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \55\ Cody Rice, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ``Wage 
Rates for Economic Analyses of the Toxics Release Inventory 
Program,'' June 10, 2002 (document ID 2025). This analysis itself 
was based on a survey of several large chemical manufacturing 
plants: Heiden Associates, Final Report: A Study of Industry 
Compliance Costs Under the Final Comprehensive Assessment 
Information Rule, Prepared for the Chemical Manufacturers 
Association, December 14, 1989.
    \56\ For a further example of overhead cost estimates, please 
see the Employee Benefits Security Administration's guidance at 
Grant Thornton LLP, 2017 Government Contractor Survey, https://www.grantthornton.com/-/media/content-page-files/public-sector/pdfs/surveys/2018/2017-government-contractor-survey. According to Grant 
Thornton's 2017 Government Contractor Survey, on-site rates are 
generally higher than off-site rates, because the on-site overhead 
pool includes the facility-related expenses incurred by the company 
to house the employee, while no such expenses are incurred or 
allocated to the labor costs of direct charging personnel who work 
at the customer site. For further examples of overhead cost 
estimates, please see the Employee Benefits Security 
Administration's guidance at https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ebsa/laws-and-regulations/rules-and-regulations/technical-appendices/labor-cost-inputs-used-in-ebsa-opr-ria-and-pra-burden-calculations-july-2017.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    If OSHA had included an overhead rate when estimating the marginal 
cost of labor, without further analyzing an appropriate quantitative 
adjustment, and adopted for these purposes an overhead rate of 17 
percent on base wages, the cost savings of this rule would increase by 
approximately $243,000 per year, or approximately 10 percent above the 
primary estimate of cost savings.

Table IV-10--Total Annualized Cost Savings, by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry, for Entities Affected by the
                                  Shipyard and Construction Beryllium Standards
                            [By size category, 3 percent discount rate, 2019 dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                   Very small
     Application group/NAICS             Industry               All           Small entities     entities (<20
                                                           establishments     (SBA-defined)        employees)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320...........................  Painting and Wall              $948,051           $780,379           $516,588
                                    Covering
                                    Contractors.


 
238990...........................  All Other Specialty             878,469            652,049            417,270
                                    Trade Contractors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards *
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a..........................  Ship Building and               664,522            171,816             86,053
                                    Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Welding in Shipyards **
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b..........................  Ship Building and                20,896              5,520              3,063
                                    Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal..................................          1,826,520          1,432,428            933,858
Shipyard Subtotal......................................            685,418            177,336             89,116
Total, All Industries..................................          2,511,938          1,609,763          1,022,974
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use
  mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
Source: US DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).

Program Cost Savings
    This subsection presents OSHA's estimated cost savings from this 
rule for each provision individually. Each provision will be discussed 
separately below. Because many of the revisions discussed in the 2019 
Preliminary Economic Analysis (PEA) are being finalized as proposed, 
this FEA focuses primarily on differences from the 2017 final rule. 
Where OSHA has made changes from the 2019 PEA or received comments 
related to its analysis, the agency discusses those changes and 
comments. Where there is either no change from the 2017 final rule or a 
change that does not alter the underlying methodology, such as a change 
in compliance rates or the elimination of the dermal contact trigger, 
no underlying methodology or unit cost estimates are presented as they 
are the same, updated to 2019 dollars, as the 2017 FEA. In other cases 
both the initial methodology and unit cost estimates are presented. All 
cost savings by program element, along with the cost savings for each 
affected NAICS industry, are shown in Table IV-15 at the end of this 
program cost-savings section.
Exposure Assessment
    OSHA did not propose any changes to paragraph (d), Exposure 
assessment. OSHA is also not changing any estimates to the baseline 
compliance rate with this paragraph. Hence, there are no cost savings 
for this provision.
Beryllium Regulated Areas (Shipyards) and Competent Person 
(Construction)
    OSHA is not making any changes to paragraph (e), the regulated 
areas provision in shipyards or the competent person provision in 
construction, nor are there any changes to compliance rates. Hence, 
there are no cost savings for this provision.
Methods of Compliance
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    Under the 2017 beryllium standards, employers are required to 
establish and maintain a written exposure control plan.
    Further, employers must review it at least annually, and must 
update the exposure control plan when:
    (A) Any change in production processes, materials, equipment, 
personnel, work practices, or control methods results or can reasonably 
be expected to result in new or additional airborne exposures to 
beryllium;
    (B) The employer becomes aware that an employee has a beryllium-
related health effect or symptom, or is notified that an employee is 
eligible for medical removal; or
    (C) The employer has any reason to believe that new or additional 
airborne exposures are occurring or will occur.
    Finally, the employer must make a copy of the written exposure 
control plan accessible to each employee who is, or can reasonably be 
expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium.
    Paragraph (f)(2)(i) of the 2017 standards requires employers to use 
at least one engineering or work practice control where exposures are, 
or can reasonably be expected to be, above the action level unless the 
employer can establish that such controls are not feasible or that 
airborne exposure is below the action level. Paragraph (f)(3) prohibits 
rotation of workers among jobs to achieve compliance with the TWA PEL 
and STEL.
Cost Savings Estimates of This Rule
    For the written exposure control plan, OSHA is making several 
revisions. First, OSHA is removing the words ``airborne'' and ``or 
dermal contact with'' as qualifiers for exposure to beryllium. This 
will not change coverage of workers for which a written exposure 
control plan is needed for these sectors, and would therefore have no 
impact on costs. This rule would reduce the number of elements that 
must be listed in the plan. The elements OSHA is eliminating are: 
Procedures for minimizing cross contamination and the migration of 
beryllium within or to locations outside the workplace; procedures for 
removing, laundering, cleaning, storing, repairing, and disposing of 
beryllium contaminated PPE, including clothing, and equipment including 
respirators; a separate listing of operations and job titles for those 
that would entail beryllium exposure above action level; and a separate 
listing of those that would be above the TWA PEL or STEL. This 
streamlined written control plan would still include a list of 
operations and job titles that involve exposure to beryllium; a list of 
engineering controls, work practices,


and respiratory protection; and procedures for restricting access to 
work areas where airborne exposures are, or can reasonably be expected 
to be, above the TWA PEL or STEL. OSHA is also including a new 
requirement to list procedures used to ensure the integrity of each 
containment used to minimize exposures to employees outside the 
containment. Finally, there is a change from the NPRM that the written 
control plan must document procedures for removing, cleaning, and 
maintaining personal protective clothing and equipment.57 58
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \57\ Several commenters discussed the written exposure control 
plan as it relates to the overall scope of the rule. A discussion of 
comments on this subject can be found in the Summary and Explanation 
section. For purposes of this FEA, the agency is not making any 
adjustments to its scope of affected industries.
    \58\ This new addition from the NPRM is judged to have 
negligible effects on the cost of the written control plan. Hence 
the cost estimates for this provision in this FEA are the same as 
the NPRM.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The agency estimates that the cost for the written exposure control 
plan will be cut in half due to the reduced requirements in this rule. 
This estimate includes the additional time needed for the new 
paragraphs that require including procedures both for containment and 
the removal, cleaning, and maintaining of PPE. OSHA estimated in the 
2017 final rule that the time burden per establishment for an average-
sized firm to develop the initial written exposure control plan was 8 
hours. With the simplified written plan requirements in this final 
rule, the agency judges that a manager will need only 4 hours, a 
reduction of 4 hours, for a per establishment cost savings of $322.44 
at an hourly wage of $80.61 (Human Resources Managers, SOC: 11-3121), 
to develop the plan.
    In addition, because larger firms with more affected workers will 
need to develop more complicated written control plans, OSHA estimated 
for the 2017 beryllium standards that the development of a plan would 
require an extra thirty minutes of a manager's time per affected 
employee over the 4 hours required for average-sized firms. The reduced 
number of job titles and operations that would need to be listed in 
some cases for this rule, as well as other elements, will decrease this 
burden, and the agency has lowered the time per affected employee to 15 
minutes, a reduction of 15 minutes. The cost savings for 15 minutes 
less of a manager's time per affected employee to develop a less 
complicated plan is $20.15 (0.25 x $80.61) per affected employee in 
this FEA.
    Because of various triggers under which the employer would have to 
update the plan at least annually after the first year, the agency 
further estimated that under the 2017 beryllium standards, on average, 
managers would need 12 minutes (0.2 hours) per affected employee per 
quarter--or 48 minutes (4 x 12), which equals 0.8 hours, per affected 
employee per year--to review and update the plan. The streamlined plan 
will similarly be simpler to update, and the agency assumes the amount 
will be cut in half, from 48 minutes per employee per year to 24 
minutes, a reduction of 24 minutes. Thus, the cost savings for managers 
to review and update the plan would be $32.24 (0.4 x $80.61 per 
affected employee) for years 2-10.
    Finally, OSHA estimated 5 minutes of clerical time each year per 
employee for providing each employee with a copy of the written 
exposure control plan. This will not change under this rule, so there 
are no cost savings for this element. See Table IV-11 for a summary of 
these unit cost saving estimates.

    Table IV-11--Unit Cost Savings for Written Exposure Control Plan
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Item                                 Value
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              Develop Plan
------------------------------------------------------------------------
HR Manager Hour Decrease per Establishment..............               4
HR Manager Hour Decrease per Employee...................            0.25
HR Manager Wage.........................................          $80.61
Unit Cost Savings per Establishment.....................         $322.44
Unit Cost Savings per Employee..........................          $20.15
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Review Plan
------------------------------------------------------------------------
HR Manager Hour Decrease per Employee...................            0.10
Times Reviewed per Year.................................               4
HR Manager Wage.........................................          $80.61
Unit Cost Savings per Employee..........................          $32.24
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit Cost Savings per Establishment.....................         $322.44
Unit Cost Savings per Employee..........................          $52.39
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sources: BLS, 2020a; BLS, 2018; US DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards
  and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID
  2250).

    OSHA estimates that the total annualized cost savings for reducing 
the requirements for development and update of a written exposure 
control plan is $126,668 for all affected industries in shipyards and 
construction.
    In addition, OSHA is revising paragraph (f)(2) concerning 
engineering and work practice controls by removing the requirement to 
implement one engineering or work practice control where exposures are 
between the action level and the PEL. However, based on the 
technological feasibility analysis presented in Chapter IV of the 2017 
FEA, OSHA determined that there were no instances in construction or 
shipyards where this provision would apply (see Document ID 2042, 
Chapter V, pp. V-11 to V-12). Thus, this revision has no effect on 
costs.
    OSHA is not revising paragraph (f)(3), which prohibits rotation of 
workers to achieve the TWA PEL and STEL, so there are no cost savings 
associated with this provision.


    OSHA is not revising the baseline compliance estimates for the 
requirements of paragraph (f), so there are no associated cost 
adjustments.
Respiratory Protection
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    The employer must provide respiratory protection at no cost to the 
employee and ensure that each employee uses respiratory protection: 
during periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering 
and work practice controls where airborne exposure exceeds, or can 
reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL; during 
operations, including maintenance and repair activities and non-routine 
tasks, when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible and 
airborne exposure exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the 
TWA PEL or STEL; during operations for which an employer has 
implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls when 
such controls are not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or 
below the TWA PEL or STEL; during emergencies; and when an employee who 
is eligible for medical removal under paragraph (l)(1) chooses to 
remain in a job with airborne exposure at or above the action level, as 
permitted by paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this standard.
    The selection and use of such respiratory protection must be in 
accordance with the Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). 
The employer must provide at no cost to the employee a powered air-
purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator 
when respiratory protection is required, an employee requests one, and 
the PAPR would provide adequate protection to the employee.
Cost Savings Estimates of This Rule
Changes From the 2017 FEA
    OSHA is revising paragraph (g) by removing the requirement to 
provide respiratory protection during emergencies. In the 2017 final 
rule, OSHA stated that emergencies should be rare and therefore did not 
account for any respirator costs due to emergencies. The cost 
adjustments described in this section are due to revised baseline 
compliance estimates from the 2019 PEA and are discussed below.
Updated Baseline Compliance Estimates
    As discussed in section IV.B of this FEA, the compliance rate for 
respirator use, for abrasive blasting operators only, is estimated to 
be 100 percent in this FEA, due to closer analysis of existing 
standards for operators. The 2017 FEA estimated compliance rates for 
respirators for all abrasive blasting occupations as 75 percent. Hence, 
there is a cost adjustment due to the 25 percent of operators who will 
not need to be provided respirators as estimated under the 2017 final 
rule. For pot tenders and helpers, OSHA is not estimating a change in 
the compliance rate for respiratory protection. For welders in 
shipyards, the change in the exposure profile from the 2017 FEA to the 
2017 PEA (as explained above in section IV.B.), and retained in this 
FEA, slightly decreased respirator use as well. The 2017 FEA estimated 
a 0 percent compliance rate for respiratory protection and a 25 percent 
compliance rate for setting up a respiratory protection program, while 
this FEA estimates a 100 percent compliance rate for both. The 2017 FEA 
estimated 29.7 percent of welders in shipyards had beryllium exposures 
over the new PEL of 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\. The 2017 PEA and this FEA 
estimate that only 3.7 percent of welders in shipyards have beryllium 
exposures over the new PEL of 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\. As in the 2017 FEA, 
OSHA is estimating that the beryllium standards will reduce the number 
of workers with exposures above the PEL by 90 percent.
    The cost method that follows is largely the same as that used in 
the 2017 FEA with updated 2019 wage rates based on BLS data and the GDP 
implicit price deflator, with two exceptions. First, blasting 
operators, due to other existing standards (Sec. Sec.  1926.57(f), 
1915.34(c)), must use supplied air respirators (SARs) and will not have 
the option of requesting a PAPR. Second, no cleaning costs for a PAPR 
were estimated in the 2017 FEA. This is revised below because OSHA now 
estimates that PAPRs will need to be cleaned periodically.
Unit Cost Estimates
    There are five primary costs for respiratory protection. First, 
there is a cost per establishment to set up a written respirator 
program in accordance with the respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 
1910.134). The respiratory protection standard requires written 
procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and 
maintenance of respirators. OSHA estimates that these procedures will 
take a human resources manager 8 hours to develop, at an hourly wage of 
$80.61 (Human Resources Managers, SOC: 11-3121), for an initial cost of 
$645 (8 x $80.61). Every year thereafter, OSHA estimates that the same 
employee will take 2 hours to update the respirator program, for an 
annual cost of $161 (2 x $80.61).
    The four other major costs of respiratory protection are the per-
employee costs for all aspects of respirator use: Equipment, training, 
fit testing, and cleaning.
    In the 2017 FEA, no respirator cleaning was assumed to be required 
for PAPRs. OSHA explained in the 2019 PEA that the agency now believes 
that despite the fact that PAPRs are assigned to individual employees, 
PAPRs, like half-mask respirators, will need periodic cleaning (84 FR 
at 53934). No commenter challenged this determination and the agency is 
including the cost for respirator cleaning in this FEA.
    This cleaning cost for a PAPR is estimated to be the same as for a 
half mask respirator. Periodic cleaning of a PAPR is estimated to be 
needed every two days, or 125 times annually (250/2). Each cleaning is 
estimated to take 5 minutes, or 0.08 (5/60) hours, and the wage cost 
per hour is $25.92 (Production Occupations, SOC: 51-0000). Multiplied 
together, this gives an annual respirator cleaning cost of $270.03 (125 
x 0.08 x $25.92). Summing these costs together, the total annualized 
per-employee cost for a full-face powered air-purifying respirator is 
$1460.01 ($147.87 + $96.03 + $946.08 + $270.03).
Cost Savings Estimates
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA estimated that PAPRs would be used 10 percent 
of the time in situations where only the APF of 10 provided by a half-
mask negative pressure respirator would normally be required to comply 
with the final beryllium TWA PEL and STEL. For the 25 percent of pot 
tenders and clean-up workers who need respirators (accounting for an 
unchanged baseline compliance rate of 75 percent), this amounts to 2.5 
percent of the pot tenders and clean-up workers who are still exposed 
over the PEL after the standards take effect who will use PAPRs. OSHA 
is therefore adjusting the costs by including the cost of cleaning 
PAPRs for that 2.5 percent of workers.
    For the revised compliance rate for abrasive blasting operators, 
from 75 percent in the 2017 FEA to 100 percent in this FEA, there is a 
cost adjustment due to the 25 percent of overexposed operators after 
the standards take effect who should not have had costs taken in the 
2017 FEA. Since the 2017 FEA did not estimate cleaning costs for PAPRs, 
the cost savings here will not include such cleaning costs. This cost 
savings consists of the cost of PAPRs minus cleaning costs (10 percent 
of


respirators), and the cost of half-mask respirators (90 percent of 
respirators).
    The cost adjustment due to the change in the exposure profile for 
welders discussed in section IV.B of this FEA uses this same 
methodology of accounting for savings due to PAPRs (minus cleaning 
costs) and half-mask respirators. Furthermore, OSHA notes there is a 
change in the exposure profile for welders in shipyards from the 2017 
FEA, but because the revised baseline compliance rate for these workers 
is 100 percent, this does not affect the cost adjustment.
    The exposure profile (Table IV-2) shows the number of abrasive 
blasting operators that are above the 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\ PEL. This FEA 
follows the 2017 FEA of estimating 10 percent of workers will still be 
above the PEL after the standards take effect. The compliance rate for 
operators went from 75 percent in the 2017 FEA to 100 percent in this 
FEA, so 25 percent of operators above the PEL after the rule is in 
place were assigned costs in the 2017 FEA that, with the 100 percent 
compliance rate, should no longer be taken. In the 2017 FEA, OSHA 
estimated the average cost of a respirator for an abrasive blasting 
operator as 90 percent of the cost of a half-mask respirator and 10 
percent of a PAPR. For the abrasive blasting operators above the PEL, 
this gives a total cost adjustment of $41,507.
    As discussed above, 2.5 percent of pot-tenders and clean-up workers 
still exposed above the PEL after the standards take effect will be 
using PAPRs. The total number of such workers can be found in Table IV-
2, and when multiplied by cleaning costs of PAPRs, this gives an 
additional cost adjustment of $12,556 for the revision from the 2017 
FEA of including cleaning costs for PAPRs for these workers.
    Welders in shipyards were inadvertently assigned a 0 percent 
compliance rate in the 2017 FEA, revised in this FEA to 100 percent. 
Hence all welders in shipyards, found in Table IV-2, will be affected. 
Like all others needing respirators, in the 2017 FEA, 90 percent were 
assigned half-mask respirators and 10 percent were assigned PAPRs. 
These two groups of welders, multiplied by the costs of their 
respective type of respirators (minus the cleaning costs that were not 
accounted for in the 2017 FEA), gives a cost adjustment of $871 for 
welders in shipyards.
    The reduction in workers needing respirators and needing to 
participate in respiratory protection programs due to the update of the 
compliance rate for abrasive blasting operators in both construction 
and shipyards and welders in shipyards, the extra cleaning costs for 
pot-tenders and clean-up workers who opt for PAPRs, and the updated 
unit costs, together give a total cost adjustment of $54,934, as shown 
in Table IV-16.
    Tables IV-12 and IV-13 summarize the unit cost estimates for the 
two types of respirators.

       Table IV-12--Unit Respiratory Protection Cost per Employee
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Value
                  Item                   -------------------------------
                                             Half mask         PAPR
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Training
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Class size..............................               4               4
Hours...................................               2               4
Employee wage...........................          $25.92          $25.92
Supervisor wage.........................          $44.18          $44.18
Hourly cost per employee................          $36.97          $36.97
Annual Cost Savings per Employee........          $73.94         $147.87
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Respirator Cleaning Cost Savings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Frequency per year......................             125             125
Employee hours..........................            0.08            0.08
Employee wage...........................          $25.92          $25.92
Annual Cost Savings per Employee........         $265.30         $270.03
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Fit Testing
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Testing group size......................            4.00            2.00
Employee hours..........................            1.00            2.00
Employee wage...........................          $25.92          $25.92
Supervisor wage.........................          $44.18          $44.18
Annual Cost Savings per Employee........          $36.97          $96.03
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             Equipment Cost
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Respirator..............................          $34.28         $988.31
Respirator service life (years).........               2               3
Annualized respirator cost savings (3%).          $17.91         $349.40
Annual accessory cost savings...........         $214.15         $596.68
Total Annualized Equipment Cost Savings          $232.06         $946.08
 (3%)...................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Equipment...............................         $232.06         $946.08
Training, cleaning, and fit testing.....         $376.21         $513.93
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.


 
Sources: BLS, 2020a; BLS, 2018; Magidglove, 2012; Grainger, 2012e;
  Restockit, 2012; Spectrumchemical, 2012; Conney, 2012a; Conney, 2012b;
  Zoro Tools, 2012a; Grainger, 2019c; Grainger, 2019d; Advanz Lens
  Goggles, 2019; Gemplers, 2012; Buying Direct, 2012; Amazon.com, 2013;
  Zoro Tools, 2013; Grainger, 2013b; EnviroSafety Products, 2013; BEA,
  2020; US DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of
  Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250); Grainger, 2019a;
  Grainger, 2019b.


 Table IV-13--Half-Mask and Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Unit
                                  Cost
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Half-mask         PAPR
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Respirator
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Respirator..............................          $34.28         $988.31
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              Annual Costs
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Training................................          $73.94         $147.87
Cleaning................................         $265.30         $270.03
Fit Testing.............................          $36.97          $96.03
Accessories.............................         $214.15         $596.68
Annual Subtotal.........................         $590.36       $1,110.61
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Annualized Costs
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Years...................................               2               3
Annualized Unit Cost (3%)...............         $608.27       $1,460.00
Annualized Unit Cost (7%)...............         $609.31       $1,487.20
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sources: Magidglove, 2012; Grainger, 2012e; Restockit, 2012;
  Spectrumchemical, 2012; Conney, 2012a; Conney, 2012b; Zoro Tools,
  2012a; Grainger, 2019c; Grainger, 2019d; Advanz Lens Goggles, 2019;
  Gemplers, 2012; Buying Direct, 2012; Amazon.com, 2013; Zoro Tools,
  2013; Grainger, 2013b; EnviroSafety Products, 2013; Grainger, 2019a;
  Grainger, 2019b.

Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    Under the 2017 final rule, personal protective clothing and 
equipment are required for workers in shipyards and construction where 
exposure exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the TWA PEL or 
STEL, or where there is a reasonable expectation of dermal contact with 
beryllium.
    The employer must ensure that each employee removes all beryllium-
contaminated personal protective clothing and equipment at the end of 
the work shift, at the completion of all tasks involving beryllium, or 
when personal protective clothing or equipment becomes visibly 
contaminated with beryllium, whichever comes first. All such personal 
protective clothing and equipment must be removed as specified in the 
written exposure control plan. Personal protective clothing and 
equipment must be kept separate from street clothing and the employer 
must ensure that storage facilities prevent cross-contamination. The 
employer must ensure that personal protective clothing and equipment is 
not removed from the workplace except by authorized personnel, with 
appropriate containers and labels that are in accordance with paragraph 
(m)(2). All reusable personal protective clothing and equipment must be 
cleaned, laundered, repaired, and replaced as needed.
    The employer must ensure that beryllium is not removed from 
personal protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any 
other means that disperses beryllium into the air. The employer must 
inform in writing the persons or the business entities who launder, 
clean, or repair the personal protective clothing or equipment required 
by this standard of the potentially harmful effects of airborne 
exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium and that the personal 
protective clothing and equipment must be handled in accordance with 
this standard.
Cost Savings Estimates of This Final Rule
    OSHA is making several revisions to the PPE provisions of the 
standards. OSHA is removing the requirements regarding storage 
facilities, providing PPE based on an expectation of dermal contact 
with beryllium, removal of PPE when it becomes visibly contaminated 
with beryllium, storing and keeping PPE separate from employees' street 
clothing, removal of beryllium-contaminated PPE from the workplace, and 
transportation and labeling of PPE that is removed from the workplace. 
OSHA is also removing the qualifier ``beryllium-contaminated'' and 
replacing it with ``required by this standard.'' A further change from 
the proposed rule is that OSHA is also adding a provision that states 
the employer must ensure that no employee with reasonably expected 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL removes personal protective clothing 
and equipment required by the beryllium standard from the workplace 
unless it has been cleaned in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(ii). The 
2017 FEA, and the 2019 PEA, estimated that employers would rent rather 
than buy PPE. The agency continues to estimate this will be the common 
approach, with any cases due to this last provision having a negligible 
effect on costs.
    Under these changes, the PPE provisions will only apply to 
employees who are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed over 
the TWA PEL or STEL. In the 2017 FEA, OSHA also estimated PPE costs for 
the 25 percent of employees who would be exposed below the PEL but who 
nevertheless may have dermal contact with beryllium. OSHA also 
estimated ten minutes of clerical time for each establishment with 
laundry needs to notify the cleaners in writing of the potentially 
harmful effects of beryllium exposure and how the protective clothing 
and equipment must be handled in accordance with the beryllium 
standard, so the removal of that provision will result in a cost 
savings. OSHA did not estimate costs for extra storage facilities 
because it judged that no employers would need them.
    As stated in the compliance section in IV.B, above, OSHA estimates 
a 90 percent compliance rate for all PPE for workers who have exposures 
above the TWA PEL or STEL. This is a change


from the 2017 FEA, which estimated a 75 percent compliance rate for PPE 
for all workers, not just those exposed above the TWA PEL or STEL. This 
results in two cost effects. First, there is an adjustment to costs due 
to the decreased number of workers, from 25 percent to 10 percent, with 
exposures above the TWA PEL or STEL who will need PPE. The exposure 
profile (Table IV-2) shows the number of workers who are exposed above 
the 0.2 [micro]g/m\3\ PEL. For those above the PEL, the 15 percent 
decrease in the compliance rate from 25 percent to 10 percent, along 
with OSHA's standard calculation that 10 percent of those workers will 
continue to be exposed above the PEL after the standards take effect, 
means 1.5 percent of these workers will no longer need PPE. This number 
of workers times the unit costs (discussed below) gives the cost 
adjustment for this group. Second, for those workers whose exposures 
are below the TWA PEL and STEL, there will also be a cost savings for 
the 25 percent that the 2017 FEA estimated did not have proper PPE, due 
to the removal of the dermal contact trigger for PPE. The exposure 
profile (Table IV-2) shows the number of workers below the PEL. OSHA is 
revising the compliance rate from 75 percent to 100 percent because the 
PPE provisions are no longer required for those below the TWA PEL and 
STEL, so 25 percent will no longer need PPE. This number of workers 
times the unit costs (discussed below) gives the cost savings for this 
group.
    The cost savings due to the removal of the requirement to notify 
laundries is per-establishment, not per-worker, and the number of 
establishments can be found in Table IV-4. The total number of affected 
establishments times the cost of clerical time, below, gives the cost 
savings for this revision.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA estimated that employers would rent rather 
than purchase PPE. The annual cost for rental would be $54.62 per 
employee, inflated from the 2017 FEA estimate of $48.62. The per-
establishment annual cost savings for the ten minutes of clerical time 
required to notify laundries is $4.12 ($24.76 hourly wage, File Clerks, 
SOC: 43-4071).
    After accounting for the 25 percent of employees who no longer need 
PPE due to the removal of the dermal contact trigger, the change in the 
compliance rate from 75 percent to 90 percent, and the removal of the 
ten minutes of clerical time for notifying laundries, the total 
annualized cost savings and adjustment for the revisions to the PPE 
paragraph is estimated to be $167,196 at a 3 percent discount rate.
Hygiene Areas and Practices
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    The 2017 final rule requires affected shipyard and construction 
employers to provide readily accessible washing facilities to remove 
beryllium from the hands, face, and neck of each employee exposed to 
beryllium; ensure that employees who have dermal contact with beryllium 
wash any exposed skin at the end of the activity, process, or work 
shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, 
applying cosmetics, or using the toilet; and provide employees required 
to use PPE with a designated change room where employees are required 
to remove their personal clothing. Wherever the employer allows 
employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where beryllium is 
present, the employer must ensure that surfaces in eating and drinking 
areas are as free as practicable of beryllium and no employees enter 
any eating or drinking area with personal protective clothing or 
equipment unless, prior to entry, surface beryllium has been removed 
from the clothing or equipment by methods that do not disperse 
beryllium into the air or onto an employee's body. The employer must 
also ensure that no employees eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, 
or apply cosmetics in work areas where there is a reasonable 
expectation of exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL.
Cost Savings Estimates in This Rule
    OSHA is rescinding this paragraph in its entirety. Both washing 
facilities and change rooms would no longer be directly required under 
this rule. However, because PPE is still required where airborne 
beryllium exceeds the TWA PEL or STEL, employers will still need to 
provide change rooms where exposures are above the TWA PEL or STEL 
pursuant to the sanitation standards.
    The 2017 FEA estimated no costs for readily accessible washing 
facilities, under the expectation that employers already have such 
facilities in place where needed, and this FEA retains this estimate. 
Therefore, OSHA is estimating no cost savings from washing facilities 
due to this rule. The 2017 FEA did include costs for disposable head 
coverings that would be purchased for processes where hair may become 
contaminated by beryllium. Employers in construction and shipyards will 
not incur these costs under the existing standards because unlike in 
general industry, there are no requirements in construction or 
shipyards to provide showers where hair can become contaminated with 
beryllium. OSHA is therefore making a cost adjustment to account for 
this. The annual cost for one disposable head covering per day in 2019 
dollars is $31.32 (Grainger, 2013). The number of workers estimated to 
need such head coverings in the 2017 FEA is 542; so the total annual 
cost adjustment is $16,975 ($31.32 x 542).
    The agency is not estimating cost savings for the removal of 
requirements to add a change room and segregated lockers. The 
sanitation standards (29 CFR 1926.51 and 29 CFR 1915.88) require 
employers to provide change rooms whenever they require employees to 
wear PPE to prevent exposure to hazardous or toxic substances. Under 
this rule, employers would still be required by the sanitation 
standards, combined with the PEL requirements in the 2017 beryllium 
final rule, to provide PPE to employees to prevent exposure to 
beryllium. Therefore, no cost savings would arise from this change.
    The revisions to the PPE paragraph would remove the need for 
employees to change out of PPE, generally at the end of a shift, for 
those not exposed to airborne beryllium above the TWA PEL and STEL. In 
the 2017 FEA, OSHA included the cost of changing clothes in the costs 
for the hygiene provisions rather than the PPE provisions. The cost for 
a clothing change is the same as in the 2017 FEA, updated to 2018 
dollars. The agency expected that, in many cases, a worker will simply 
be adding, and later removing, a layer of clothing (such as a lab coat, 
coverall, or shoe covers) at work, which might involve no more than a 
couple of minutes a day. However, in other cases, a worker may need a 
full clothing change. Taking all these factors into account, OSHA 
estimated that a worker using PPE would need 5 minutes per day to 
change clothes (Document ID 2042, p. V-185). The annual cost per 
employee to change clothes is $540.06. This cost is based on a 
production worker earning $25.92 an hour (Production Occupation, SOC: 
51-0000) and taking 5 minutes per day to change clothes for 250 days 
per year ((5/60) x $25.92 x 250).
    OSHA's removal of the eating and drinking areas and prohibited 
activities provisions of paragraph (i) have cost implications only for 
training, which is discussed later in this cost section.
    The agency estimates the total annualized cost savings of the 
removal of paragraph (i) to be $309,464 for all affected 
establishments. The breakdown of these cost savings by NAICS code can 
be seen in Table IV-15 at the end of this program cost-savings section.


Housekeeping
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    The housekeeping provisions require the employer to follow the 
written exposure control plan when cleaning beryllium-contaminated 
areas, ensure that all spills and emergency releases of beryllium are 
cleaned up promptly and in accordance with the written exposure control 
plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard. The provisions 
require the employer to ensure the use of HEPA-filtered vacuuming or 
other methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne 
exposure when cleaning beryllium-contaminated areas, and prohibit the 
employer from allowing dry sweeping or brushing for cleaning in such 
areas unless HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the 
likelihood and level of airborne exposure are not safe or effective. 
The provisions also prohibit the employer from allowing the use of 
compressed air for cleaning in beryllium-contaminated areas unless the 
compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system 
designed to capture the particulates made airborne by the use of 
compressed air. Where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or 
compressed air to clean in beryllium-contaminated areas, the employer 
must provide, and ensure that each employee uses, respiratory 
protection and personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance 
with paragraphs (g) and (h) of the standards. The employer must also 
ensure that cleaning equipment is handled and maintained in a manner 
that minimizes the likelihood and level of airborne exposure and the 
re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the workplace. When the 
employer transfers materials containing beryllium to another party for 
use or disposal, the employer must provide the recipient with the 
warning required by paragraph (m).
Cost Savings Estimates in This Rule
    OSHA is removing the requirements to follow the written exposure 
control plan when cleaning and to promptly clean up spills and 
emergency releases. OSHA is also revising the cleaning methods 
requirements to remove the reference to HEPA-filtered vacuuming and to 
trigger these provisions on the presence of dust resulting from 
operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL, rather than on the presence of a 
``beryllium-contaminated area.'' In addition, OSHA is removing the 
qualifier ``in beryllium-contaminated areas'' from the requirement to 
provide PPE and respiratory protection in accordance with other 
provisions in the standards. Next, OSHA is prohibiting the use of 
compressed air for cleaning where the use of compressed air causes, or 
can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA 
PEL or STEL. Finally, OSHA is removing the requirement to provide a 
warning when transferring materials containing beryllium to another 
party for use or disposal.
    The agency is estimating cost savings for removing the requirement 
to use HEPA-filtered vacuums for shipyards and construction and for 
removing the need for a warning label when transferring materials 
containing beryllium to another party for use or disposal. The other 
cost included for this provision is labor time spent doing housekeeping 
tasks, and the agency estimates the revisions do not alter its 2017 FEA 
estimate of an additional 5 minutes per day for each employee.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA estimated a compliance rate for the 
housekeeping provisions of 75 percent for all workers in abrasive 
blasting based on the agency's determination that other standards 
required some housekeeping for abrasive blasting in both construction 
and shipyards. As discussed above, a further review of other standards 
has led the agency to revise its compliance rate for housekeeping to 
100 percent. While the revisions will limit the methods that employers 
may use to clean up beryllium, OSHA estimates that cleaning methods 
which do not disperse beryllium into the air take approximately the 
same amount of time as cleaning methods already in use. OSHA is making 
a cost adjustment in this FEA, maintaining the change in the 2019 PEA, 
for the additional 25 percent of workers in abrasive blasting 
operations who are now estimated to be performing housekeeping tasks. 
Furthermore, while those areas that are below the TWA PEL and STEL no 
longer have any requirements for housekeeping tasks, OSHA is not 
estimating an additional cost savings because its revised compliance 
estimate is already at 100 percent. OSHA estimated in the 2017 FEA that 
welding in shipyards had a 0 percent compliance rate for housekeeping. 
This has also been changed to 100 percent compliance in this FEA, as 
explained in section IV.B of this FEA. OSHA is also making a cost 
adjustment for this change in the compliance rate.
    OSHA estimated the following costs for the housekeeping provisions 
in the 2017 FEA (Document ID 2042, pp. V-187-190, amounts adjusted for 
2019 dollars): A one-time annualized cost per worker of a HEPA-filtered 
vacuum ($652); the annual cost per worker of the additional time needed 
to perform housekeeping ($540); and the annual cost of the warning 
labels per worker ($6). The total annual per-employee cost was $1,197 
($652 + $540 + $6). This per-employee cost is then multiplied by the 25 
percent of workers in abrasive blasting operations and 100 percent of 
the welders who are now estimated to be in compliance versus the 2017 
FEA to calculate the cost adjustment due to the revised baseline 
compliance rates.
    The total annualized cost adjustment in this rule due to revisions 
to this ancillary provision are $1,764,878. The breakdown of these cost 
savings by NAICS code is shown in Table IV-15 at the end of this 
program cost-savings section.
Medical Surveillance
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    The 2017 final rule requires affected employers in shipyards and 
construction to make medical surveillance available at a reasonable 
time and place, and at no cost, to the following employees:
    1. Employees who are, or are reasonably expected to be, exposed at 
or above the action level for more than 30 days per year;
    2. Employees who show signs or symptoms of chronic beryllium 
disease (CBD) or signs or symptoms of other beryllium-related health 
effects;
    3. Employees exposed to beryllium during an emergency; and
    4. Employees whose most recent written medical opinion required by 
this standard recommends periodic medical surveillance.
    The medical surveillance paragraph also specifies the frequency 
with which examinations must be provided, the required contents of the 
examination, the information that the employer must provide to the 
physician or other licensed healthcare provider (PLHCP), the 
information that must be contained in the physician's written medical 
report for the employee, the information that must be contained in the 
physician's written medical opinion for the employer, and procedures 
and requirements related to referral to a CBD diagnostic center.
Cost Savings of This Rule
    OSHA is making minor changes to the medical surveillance provision 
of the 2017 final rule. In response to the 2019 NPRM, the agency 
received one


comment on its medical exam costs estimates. Referring to comments it 
had previously submitted, NABTU reiterated its prior assessment of 
medical exam costs: ``$216 is for shipping of specimen and lab 
analysis. In a standalone situation an additional charge would be for 
blood draw, which we estimate to be about $20.00'' (Document ID 2236, 
p. 2). Because NABTU's initial comments were reviewed and incorporated 
into the 2017 FEA and their subsequent comment indicates the estimates 
are generally unchanged, OSHA is not altering any of the unit costs 
from the 2017 FEA, including these medical surveillance costs.
    First, OSHA is removing the emergency trigger for medical 
surveillance. The 2017 FEA did not break out a separate cost for 
emergencies, stating that ``a very small number of employees will be 
affected by emergencies in a given year'' (Document ID 2042, Chapter V, 
p. V-196). The agency therefore concludes that removing the emergency 
trigger will result in de minimis cost savings.
    OSHA is also modifying the language in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) to 
match the General Industry standard. This modification adds more detail 
regarding requirements for a medical examination at the termination of 
an employee's employment and is meant to clarify who will receive such 
an exam. The agency does not expect this to significantly change the 
number of exams performed and judges it to have de minimis cost 
implications.
    OSHA also is replacing from the 2017 standards the phrase 
``airborne exposure to and dermal contact with beryllium'' in these 
provisions with the simpler phrase ``exposure to beryllium.'' As 
explained in the Summary and Explanation section, this is not a 
substantive change and has no cost implications.
    OSHA proposed a change to the definition of CBD diagnostic center 
to clarify that a center must have a pulmonologist or pulmonary 
specialist on staff and must be capable of performing a variety of 
tests commonly used in the diagnosis of CBD, but need not necessarily 
perform all of the tests during all CBD evaluations. The 2016 FEA did 
not estimate that all tests would be performed during all CBD 
evaluations, so the agency takes no cost savings for this change. In 
response to comments received and to align with changes made in the 
July 14, 2020 general industry final rule (85 FR 42582), OSHA is 
further modifying the language of this definition from the language 
proposed in the 2019 NPRM. Specifically, rather than requiring CBD 
diagnostic centers to have a pulmonary specialist on site, the 
definition now specifies that centers must have one on staff. Also, 
rather than stating that each evaluation must include pulmonary 
function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society 
criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy, the 
definition now states that CBD diagnostic centers must have the 
capacity to perform such tests. Because the 2017 FEA for a medical 
examination at a CBD diagnostic center costed the typical tests given 
by a CBD diagnostic center, these changes have no effect on costs (see 
Document ID 2042, Chapter V, p. V-204)
    OSHA is amending paragraph (k)(7)(i) to require that the employer 
must provide, at no cost to the employee and at a CBD diagnostic center 
that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and employee, an 
evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center that must be scheduled within 
30 days, and must occur within a reasonable time. The 2017 beryllium 
standards required the actual evaluation to take place within 30 days. 
This change to paragraph (k)(7) allows increased flexibility in 
scheduling and may lead to minor cost savings.
    In the 2019 NPRM, OSHA proposed that the employer provide an 
initial consultation with the CBD diagnostic center, rather than the 
full evaluation, within 30 days of the employer receiving notice that a 
full evaluation must be performed. This initial consultation could be 
done in conjunction with the tests but it was not required to be. As 
the initial consultation could be conducted remotely, by phone or 
virtual conferencing, the cost of the consultation would consist only 
of time spent by the employee and the PLHCP and would not have to 
include any travel or accommodation.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA accounted for the cost of both the employee's 
time and the local examining physician's time for a 15-minute 
discussion (2017 FEA, Chapter V, p. V-206). The 2019 PEA concluded that 
because the consultation at the CBD diagnostic center would replace 
this initial discussion, there would be no additional cost.
    In this final rule, OSHA is not adopting the proposed requirement 
for an initial consultation with the CBD diagnostic center. Since in 
the economic analysis the initial consultation was a replacement for a 
discussion with a local PLCHP, the removal of this requirement will 
have no change in costs: There will still be the discussion with the 
local PLCHP with the same unit cost.
    OSHA is making another change from the requirements for the CBD 
diagnostic center examination as proposed in the 2019 NPRM. In this 
final rule, OSHA has clarified that, if the examining physician at the 
CBD diagnostic center recommends a test that is not available at that 
center, the test may instead be performed at another location that is 
mutually agreed upon by the employer and the employee. In terms of the 
cost impact of this change, it will allow more flexibility in 
identifying a location for tests and may allow employers to find more 
economical travel and accommodation options. The change also aligns the 
construction and shipyards standards to changes made in the July 14, 
2020 general industry final rule. The agency concludes these changes 
would produce minor, if any, cost savings, and no additional costs.
    Another proposed change with potential implications for medical 
surveillance costs is a proposed change in the definition of confirmed 
positive. The 2019 NPRM proposed to clarify that confirmed positive 
means the person tested has had two abnormal BeLPT test results, an 
abnormal and a borderline test result, or three borderline test results 
obtained within the 30-day follow-up test period after a first abnormal 
or borderline BeLPT test result. Unlike the 2017 standards, the 
proposed change explicitly required that the qualifying test results be 
obtained within one testing cycle (including the 30-day follow-up test 
period required after a first abnormal or borderline BeLPT test 
result), rather than arguably over an unlimited time period. The 2019 
NPRM explained that some stakeholders had construed the 2017 final rule 
to allow these tests to cumulate over an unlimited time period though 
this was not the agency's intent. OSHA explained in the 2019 PEA that 
the exact effect of this proposed change was uncertain, as it is 
unknown how many employees would have a series of BeLPT results 
associated with a confirmed positive finding (two abnormal results, one 
abnormal and one borderline result, or three borderline results) over 
an unlimited period of time, but would not have any such combination of 
results within a single testing cycle.
    OSHA received several comments discussing the practicality of the 
provisions relating to the 30-day testing cycle (Document ID 2208, 
2211, 2213, 2237, 2243, and 2244). These comments are discussed in the 
summary and explanation for paragraph (b). After reviewing the comments 
and record,


OSHA has further modified the definition of confirmed positive in this 
final rule from the definition proposed in the 2019 NPRM. In this final 
rule, OSHA is requiring that the set of tests that demonstrate 
confirmed positive must be from tests conducted within a 3-year period. 
This change aligns with similar revisions made in the July 14, 2020 
general industry final rule. As in the PEA in support of the 2018 
proposed revisions to the general industry standard, OSHA concludes 
that this change would not increase compliance costs and would 
incidentally yield some cost savings by lessening the likelihood of 
false positives.
    Other changes are to align these standards with the (proposed) 
general industry standard and, similar to the economic analysis there, 
are also estimated to only have de minimis effects on costs.
Medical Removal
    OSHA is not making any changes to paragraph (l), Medical removal 
protection. OSHA is also not making any changes to the baseline 
compliance rate with this paragraph. Therefore, there are no cost 
savings associated with this provision.
Communication of Hazards
Overview of Regulatory Requirements in the 2017 Final Rule
    Paragraph (m) of the beryllium standards for construction and 
shipyards sets forth the employer's obligations to comply with OSHA's 
Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200) relative to 
beryllium, and to provide warnings and training to employees about the 
hazards of beryllium.
Cost Savings in This Rule
    OSHA is making three changes to paragraph (m) in both the 
construction and shipyards standards. First, OSHA is removing the 
paragraph (m) provisions that require specific language for warning 
labels applied to materials designated for disposal or PPE when removed 
from the workplace ((m)(2) in construction and (m)(3) in shipyards). 
This is consistent with OSHA's modification to remove the corresponding 
requirements to provide such warning labels and any cost implications 
are accounted for in the sections on those corresponding provisions.
    Second, OSHA is revising paragraphs (m)(3)(i) in construction and 
(m)(4)(i) in shipyards--renumbered as (m)(2)(i) and (m)(3)(i), 
respectively--to remove dermal contact as a trigger for training in 
accordance with the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200(h)). As explained in the 
summary and explanation for paragraph (m), because OSHA judges that 
there are no workers who would have received training solely due to the 
potential for dermal contact, the agency has determined that the HCS 
training requirements will continue to apply to all workers that are 
covered under the construction and shipyards standards. Regardless, for 
purposes of its economic analysis, OSHA did not included in the 2017 
FEA costs associated with training under the HCS. Accordingly, OSHA 
expects no cost implications from this change.
    Third, OSHA is revising the provisions of paragraph (m) for 
employee information and training related to emergency procedures 
((m)(3)(ii)(D) in construction and (m)(4)(ii)(D) in shipyards) and 
personal hygiene practices ((m)(3)(ii)(E) in construction and 
(m)(4)(ii)(E) in shipyards), for consistency with OSHA's removal of 
emergency procedures and personal hygiene practices from the 
construction and shipyards standards. OSHA estimates that this change 
will lead to cost savings.
    Below the agency first presents the methodology for training from 
the 2017 final rule with unit cost estimates updated to 2018 dollars, 
and then discusses and estimates the cost effects of this rule.
    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA estimated that training, which includes 
hazard communication training, would be conducted by in-house safety or 
supervisory staff with the use of training modules and videos and would 
last, on average, eight hours. (Note that this estimate does not 
include the time taken for hazard communication training that is 
already required by 29 CFR 1910.1200). The agency judged that 
establishments could purchase sufficient training materials at an 
average cost of $2.21 per worker, encompassing the cost of handouts, 
video presentations, and training manuals and exercises. For initial 
and periodic training, OSHA estimates an average class size of five 
workers (each at a wage of $25.92 (updated from Production Occupations, 
SOC: 51-0000)) with one instructor (at a wage of $42.19 (Median Wage 
for Training and Development Specialists, SOC: 13-1151)) over an eight 
hour period. The per-worker cost of initial training is therefore 
$277.07 ((8 x $25.92) + (8 x $42.19/5) + $2.21).
    Annual retraining of workers is also required by the standards. 
OSHA estimates the same unit costs as for initial training, so 
retraining would require the same per-worker cost of $277.07.
    The first type of cost savings comes from changes to the training 
provision itself, where the rule rescinds the requirement to train 
employees on emergency procedures. The agency estimates that this will 
decrease training time by 15 minutes. Other decreases in training time 
come from rescinded portions of hygiene requirements, including: 
Washing areas, change rooms, eating and drinking areas, and cross-
contamination. The agency estimates that this would decrease needed 
training by another hour.
    Together this would decrease the required per-employee training 
from 8 hours to 6.75 hours. Hence, the per-worker cost of initial and 
retraining is $234.13 ((6.75 x $25.92) + (6.75 x $42.19/5) + $2.21).
    Finally, using these unit cost estimates, as well as accounting for 
industry-specific baseline compliance rates (which, as explained in 
section IV.B of this FEA, are unchanged from the 2017 FEA), and based 
on a 31.8 percent new hire rate (BLS 2020b, using the annual 
manufacturing new hire rate, as was done in the 2017 FEA, updated to 
the current rate), OSHA estimates that the revisions to the training 
requirements in the standards would result in an annualized total cost 
savings of $103,276. The breakdown of these cost savings by NAICS code 
is shown in Table IV-15 at the end of this program cost-savings 
section.
Familiarization Costs
    In the 2017 final rule, OSHA included familiarization costs to 
account for employers' time taken to understand the new standards. The 
changes that OSHA is making to most provisions in this final rule are 
not extensive. Employers will thus only need to spend a brief amount of 
time to review them. In the 2019 PEA, OSHA estimated that employers 
would spend one hour per firm reviewing the changed requirements. As 
this final rule results in minor distinctions from the 2019 proposed 
rule, OSHA continues to estimate employers will spend an hour per firm 
reviewing the changed requirements.
    Table IV-14 shows the unit costs, by establishment size, of 
reviewing the changes in this rule. These costs will likely be one-time 
costs incurred during the first year after the effective date of a 
final rule resulting from this rule, but the aggregate costs are 
annualized for consistency with the other estimates for this rule. 
Based on the unit familiarization (negative) cost savings in Table IV-
14, the total annualized


familiarization costs of this rule are estimated to be $14,480. The 
breakdown of these costs by NAICS code is in Table IV-15 at the end of 
this program cost-savings section, and these costs are reflected in the 
tables as a negative cost savings.

            Table IV-14--Familiarization--Construction and Shipyard Assumptions and Unit Cost Savings
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Establishment size (employees)
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                              Item                                                  Medium (20-
                                                                    Small (<20)        499)        Large (500+)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hours per establishment.........................................             1.0             1.0             1.0
Total cost savings per establishment............................         -$44.18         -$44.18         -$44.18
Annualized Cost Savings (3 Percent).............................          -$5.18          -$5.18          -$5.18
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).


                      Table IV-15--Annualized Cost Savings of Program Requirements for Industries Affected by the Beryllium Standard by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry
                                                                        [In 2019 dollars using a 3 percent discount rate]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                     Regulated                               Written    Protective                                       Total
                                                         Rule          Exposure        areas/        Medical      Medical    exposure      work      Hygiene                            program
Application group/NAICS          Industry          familiarization    assessment     competent    surveillance    removal    control    clothing &  areas and  Housekeeping  Training     cost
                                                                                       person                    provision     plan     equipment   practices                           savings
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Abrasive Blasting--Construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.................  Painting and Wall                 -$5,646              $0           $0              $0         $0    $48,022      $63,055   $117,715     $665,231    $38,933   $927,311
                          Covering Contractors.
238990.................  All Other Specialty                -5,231               0            0               0          0     44,498       58,427    109,076      616,407     36,076    859,252
                          Trade Contractors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a................  Ship Building and                  -3,569               0            0               0          0     32,985       44,176     82,617      466,882     27,325    650,416
                          Repairing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                       Welding--Shipyards
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b................  Ship Building and                     -34               0            0               0          0      1,163        1,538         56       16,358        943     20,025
                          Repairing.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal............................          -10,877               0            0               0          0     92,520      121,482    226,791    1,281,638     75,009  1,786,563
Maritime Subtotal................................           -3,603               0            0               0          0     34,148       45,714     82,673      483,241     28,267    670,441
Total, All Industries............................          -14,480               0            0               0          0    126,668      167,196    309,464    1,764,878    103,276  2,457,003
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).

Total Annualized Cost Savings
    As shown in Table IV-16, the total annualized cost savings of this 
rule, using a 3 percent discount rate, is estimated to be about $2.5 
million.

 Table IV-16--Annualized Cost Savings to Industries Affected by the Beryllium Standard, by Sector and Six-Digit
                                                 NAICS Industry
                                     [2019 Dollars, 3 percent discount rate]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Engineering
                                                                controls    Respirator    Program     Total cost
       Application group/NAICS               Industry           and work       cost         cost       savings
                                                               practices     savings      savings
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320..............................  Painting and Wall                $0      $20,740     $927,311     $948,051
                                       Covering Contractors.
238990..............................  All Other Specialty               0       19,218      859,252      878,469
                                       Trade Contractors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a.............................  Ship Building and                 0       14,106      650,416      664,522
                                       Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Welding--Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b.............................  Ship Building and                 0          871       20,025       20,896
                                       Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal.......................................            0       39,957    1,786,563    1,826,520
Maritime Subtotal...........................................            0       14,977      670,441      685,418


 
Total, All Industries.......................................            0       54,934    2,457,003    2,511,938
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).

Time Distribution of Cost Savings
    OSHA analyzed the stream of (un-annualized) compliance cost savings 
for the first ten years after the rule will take effect. As shown in 
Table IV-17, total compliance cost savings are expected to decline from 
year 1 to year 2 by almost half after the initial set of capital and 
program start-up expenditure savings has been incurred. Cost savings 
are then essentially flat with relatively small variations for the 
following years.

               Table IV-17--Distribution of Undiscounted Compliance Costs and Cost Savings by Year
                                                 [2019 Dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Program cost                     Engineering          Rule
             Year                  savings       Respirators      controls      familiarization        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1............................      $4,292,553         $88,029              $0          -$123,515      $4,257,066
2............................       2,217,400          46,790               0                  0       2,264,190
3............................       2,217,400          48,491               0                  0       2,265,891
4............................       2,217,400          52,241               0                  0       2,269,641
5............................       2,217,400          48,491               0                  0       2,265,891
6............................       2,217,400          46,790               0                  0       2,264,190
7............................       2,217,400          53,942               0                  0       2,271,342
8............................       2,217,400          46,790               0                  0       2,264,190
9............................       2,217,400          48,491               0                  0       2,265,891
10...........................       2,217,400          52,241               0                  0       2,269,641
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).

    Table IV-18 breaks out total cost savings by each application group 
for the first ten years. Each application group follows the same 
pattern of a sharp decrease in cost savings between years 1 and 2, and 
then remains relatively flat for the remaining years.

                                     Table IV-18--Total Undiscounted Cost Savings of the Beryllium Standard by Year
                                                                     [2019 Dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                           Year
        Application group        -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       1           2           3           4           5           6           7           8           9          10
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abrasive Blasting--Construction.  $3,095,549  $1,646,363  $1,647,587  $1,650,286  $1,647,587  $1,646,363  $1,651,510  $1,646,363  $1,647,587  $1,650,286
Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards....   1,123,592     599,362     599,808     600,791     599,808     599,362     601,237     599,362     599,808     600,791
Welding--Shipyards..............      37,925      18,466      18,496      18,564      18,496      18,466      18,595      18,466      18,496      18,564
                                 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total.......................   4,257,066   2,264,190   2,265,891   2,269,641   2,265,891   2,264,190   2,271,342   2,264,190   2,265,891   2,269,641
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).

Appendix IV-A
Summary of Annualized Cost Savings by Entity Size Under Alternative 
Discount Rates
    In addition to using a 3 percent discount rate in its cost 
analysis, OSHA estimated compliance cost savings using alternative 
discount rates of 7 percent and 0 percent. Tables IV-19 and IV-20 
present--for 7 percent and 0 percent discount rates, respectively--
total annualized cost savings for affected employers by NAICS industry 
code and employment size class (all establishments, small entities, and 
very small entities).
    As shown in these tables, the choice of discount rate has only a 
minor effect on total annualized compliance cost savings--for example, 
annualized cost savings for all establishments remain flat/slightly 
increase to $2.6 million using a 7 percent discount rate, and remain 
flat/slightly decrease to $2.5 million using a 0 percent discount rate.




Table IV-19--Total Annualized Cost Savings, by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry, for Entities Affected by the
                                  Shipyard and Construction Beryllium Standards
                            [By size category, 7 percent discount rate, 2019 dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                  Very small
   Application group/NAICS            Industry        All establishments    Small entities       entities (<20
                                                                             (SBA-defined)        employees)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.......................  Painting and Wall                $967,892            $796,918            $527,892
                                Covering Contractors.
238990.......................  All Other Specialty               896,854             665,964             426,508
                                Trade Contractors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards*
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a......................  Ship Building and                 678,347             175,887              88,164
                                Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Welding in Shipyards**
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b......................  Ship Building and                  21,408               5,687               3,158
                                Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal...............................           1,864,746           1,462,882             954,400
Shipyard Subtotal...................................             699,755             181,574              91,322
Total, All Industries...............................           2,564,501           1,644,456           1,045,722
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use
  mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).


Table IV-20--Total Annualized Cost Savings, by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry, for Entities Affected by the
                                  Shipyard and Construction Beryllium Standards
                            [By size category, 0 percent discount rate, 2019 dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                  Very small
   Application group/NAICS            Industry        All establishments    Small entities       entities (<20
                                                                             (SBA-defined)        employees)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Abrasive Blasting--Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.......................  Painting and Wall                $946,753            $779,194            $515,604
                                Covering Contractors.
238990.......................  All Other Specialty               877,267             651,005             416,413
                                Trade Contractors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards*
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a......................  Ship Building and                 663,659             171,313              85,760
                                Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Welding in Shipyards**
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b......................  Ship Building and                  20,848               5,487               3,043
                                Repairing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal...............................           1,824,020           1,430,199             932,017
Shipyard Subtotal...................................             684,507             176,800              88,803
Total, All Industries...............................           2,508,526           1,606,999           1,020,820
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
* Employers in application group Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards are shipyards employing abrasive blasters that use
  mineral slag abrasives to etch the surfaces of boats and ships.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020)
  (Document ID 2250).

Appendix IV-B
Summary of Annualized Cost Savings by Cost Type Under Alternative 
Discount Rates
    In addition to using a 3 percent discount rate in its cost 
analysis, OSHA estimated compliance cost savings using alternative 
discount rates of 7 percent and 0 percent. Tables IV-21 and IV-22 
present--for 7 percent and 0 percent discount rates, respectively--
total annualized cost savings for affected employers by NAICS industry 
code and type of cost savings.




         Table IV-21--Annualized Compliance Cost Savings for Employers Affected by the Beryllium Standard by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry
                                                       [7 percent discount rate, in 2019 dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                            Engineering
            Application group/NAICS                              Industry                  controls and     Respirator     Program cost     Total cost
                                                                                          work practices   cost savings       savings         savings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Abrasive Blasting--Construction
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.........................................  Painting and Wall Covering Contractors.              $0         $21,257        $946,635        $967,892
238990.........................................  All Other Specialty Trade Contractors..               0          19,697         877,157         896,854
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a........................................  Ship Building and Repairing............               0          14,438         663,909         678,347
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   Welding--Shipyards
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b........................................  Ship Building and Repairing............               0             887          20,521          21,408
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal...................................................................               0          40,954       1,823,792       1,864,746
Maritime Subtotal.......................................................................               0          15,325         684,430         699,755
Total, All Industries...................................................................               0          56,279       2,508,222       2,564,501
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).


         Table IV-22--Annualized Compliance Cost Savings for Employers Affected by the Beryllium Standard by Sector and Six-Digit NAICS Industry
                                                       [0 percent discount rate, in 2019 dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                            Engineering
            Application group/NAICS                              Industry                  controls and     Respirator     Program cost     Total cost
                                                                                          work practices   cost savings       savings         savings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Abrasive Blasting--Construction
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
238320.........................................  Painting and Wall Covering Contractors.              $0         $20,684        $926,069        $946,753
238990.........................................  All Other Specialty Trade Contractors..               0          19,166         858,100         877,267
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Abrasive Blasting--Shipyards
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611a........................................  Ship Building and Repairing............               0          14,067         649,592         663,659
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   Welding--Shipyards
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
336611b........................................  Ship Building and Repairing............               0             868          19,979          20,848
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Subtotal..........................  .......................................               0          39,850       1,784,169       1,824,020
Maritime Subtotal..............................  .......................................               0          14,935         669,571         684,507
Total, All Industries..........................  .......................................               0          54,786       2,453,741       2,508,526
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Figures in rows may not add to totals due to rounding.
Source: U.S. DOL, OSHA, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Regulatory Analysis (OSHA, 2020) (Document ID 2250).

E. Benefits

    The changes in this rule are designed to accomplish three goals: 
(1) To more appropriately tailor the requirements of the construction 
and shipyards standards to the particular exposures in these industries 
in light of partial overlap between the beryllium standards' 
requirements and other OSHA standards; (2) to more closely align the 
construction and shipyards standards to the general industry standard, 
with respect to the updates to the medical definitions and medical 
surveillance, where appropriate; and (3) to clarify certain 
requirements with respect to materials containing only trace amounts of 
beryllium. As to the first group of changes, this rule clarifies that 
OSHA did not, and does not, intend the provisions aimed at protecting 
workers from the effects of dermal contact to apply in the case of 
materials containing only trace amounts of beryllium in the absence of 
significant airborne exposures. In the prior FEA, OSHA did not isolate 
any quantifiable benefits from avoiding beryllium sensitization from 
dermal contact (see discussion at p. VII-16 through VII-18). Therefore, 
OSHA concludes that the revisions in this rule that focus on dermal 
contact will not have any impact on OSHA's previous benefit estimates 
for the standards as a whole.
    OSHA also does not expect the second and third groups of changes, 
i.e., those intended to more closely tailor the standards' requirements 
to the construction and shipyard industries and closely align them to 
the general


industry standard's requirements, where appropriate, to result in a 
reduction in benefits. Rather, as explained in the summary and 
explanation, OSHA believes that the changes would maintain safety and 
health protections for workers while aligning the standards with the 
intent behind the 2017 final rule and otherwise preventing costs that 
could follow from misinterpretation or misapplication of the standards. 
Therefore, OSHA determines that the effect of these revisions on the 
benefits of the standards as a whole would be negligible.
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Grainger, 2019b. Honeywell North P100 Respirator Cartridge 
(replacements) https://www.grainger.com/product/HONEYWELL-NORTH-Respirator-Cartridge-16M232 (Accessed August 19, 2019).
Grainger, 2019c. Honeywell North Inhalation Valve, for use with 
Half-Mask Respirators. https://www.grainger.com/product/HONEYWELL-NORTH-Inhalation-Valve-3PRH4 (Accessed August 19, 2019).
Grainger, 2019d. Honeywell Exhalation Valve, for use with Half-Mask 
Respirators. https://www.grainger.com/product/HONEYWELL-Exhalation-Valve-3PRN5 (Accessed August 19, 2019).
Grainger, 2019f. Hallowell Light Gray/Black Box Locker. Available at 
https://www.grainger.com/product/HALLOWELL-Light-Gray-Black-Box-Locker-35UW78?internalSearchTerm=Light+Gray%2FBlack+Box+Locker%2C+%281%29+Wide%2C+%286%29+Tier+%2C+Openings%3A+6%2C+12%22+W+X+18%22+D+X+72%22+H&suggestConfigId=8&searchBar=true (Accessed August 21, 2019; unit cost 
in 2017 FEA based on 2016 sourcing).
Grant Thornton LLP. 2017 Government Contractor Survey, https://www.grantthornton.com/-/media/content-page-files/public-sector/pdfs/surveys/2018/2017-government-contractor-survey.
Greskevitch, M., 2000. Personal email communication between Mark 
Greskevitch of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety 
and Health (NIOSH) and Eastern Research Group, Inc., February 17, 
2000. Document ID 0701.
Kolanz, M., 2001. Brush Wellman Customer Data Summary. OSHA 
Presentation, July 2, 2001. Washington, DC. Document ID 0091.
Lerch, A., 2003. Telephone Interview between Angie Lerch, Rental 
Coordinator, Satellite Shelters, Inc. and Robert Carney of ERG. 
Document ID 0562.
Magidglove, 2012. North by Honeywell 7700 Series Silicone Half Mask 
Respirator, $28.60. From http://www.magidglove.com/North-Safety-7700-Series-Silicone-Half-Mask-Respirator-N770030S.aspx?DepartmentId=224. Document ID 2018.
Meeker, J.D., P. Susi, and A. Pellegrino, 2006. Case Study: 
Comparison of Occupational Exposures Among Painters Using Three 
Alternative Blasting Abrasives. Journal of Occupational and 
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1815, Attachment 93.
NIOSH, 1976. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 
1976. Abrasive Blasting Operations: Engineering Control and Work 
Practices Manual. NIOSH Publication No. 76-179. March 1976. Document 
ID 0779.
NIOSH, 1995. NIOSH ECTB 183-16a. In-Depth Survey Report: Control 
Technology for Removing Lead-Based Paint from Steel Structures: 
Power Tool Cleaning at Muskingum County, Ohio Bridge MUS-555-0567 
and MUS-60-3360, Olympic Painting Company, Inc., Youngstown, Ohio. 
November. Document ID 0773.
The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1999. (NSRP, 1999) 
Feasibility and Economics Study of the Treatment, Recycling and 
Disposal of Spent Abrasives. NSRP, U.S. Department of the Navy, 
Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center in cooperation with


National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California. NSRP 
0529, N1-93-1. April 9. Document ID 0767.
The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 2000. Cost-Effective 
Clean Up of Spent Grit. NSRP, U.S. Department of the Navy, Carderock 
Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center in cooperation with National 
Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California. NSRP 0570, 
N1-95-4. December 15. Document ID 0766.
OSHA, 2004 (OSHA, 2004). OSHA Integrated Management Information 
System. Beryllium data provided by OSHA covering the period 1978 to 
2003. Document ID 0340, Attachment 6.
OSHA, 2005 (OSHA, 2005). Beryllium Exposure Data for Hot Work and 
Abrasive Blasting Operations from Four U.S. Shipyards (Sample Years 
1995 to 2004). Data provided to Eastern Research Group (ERG), Inc. 
by the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration. March 2005. [Unpublished]. Document ID 1166.
OSHA, 2009 (OSHA, 2009). Integrated Management Information System 
(IMIS). Beryllium exposure data, updated April 21, 2009. Data 
provided to Eastern Research Group, Inc. by the U.S. Department of 
Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC 
[Unpublished, electronic files]. Document ID 1165.
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Economic Analysis. Document ID 2042.
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OSHA's Final Economic Analysis for the Final Standard on Beryllium 
and Beryllium Compounds: Excel Spreadsheets Supporting the FEA. 
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December 2016. Document ID OSHA-H005C-2006-0870-2044.
OSHA, 2017 (OSHA, 2017). Cost of Compliance (Chapter V) of the 
Preliminary Economic Analysis. Document ID 2076.
OSHA, 2020 (OSHA, 2020). Excel Spreadsheets of Economic Costs, 
Impacts, and Benefits in Support of OSHA's Final Economic Analysis 
(FEA) for 2020 Update to the Construction and Shipyards Beryllium 
Standard. Document ID 2250.
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Factor Documentation for AP-42, Section 13.2.6, Abrasive Blasting. 
Final Report. U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and 
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Park, North Carolina. September. Document ID 0784.
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Database (NOED) Query Report Personal Breathing Zone Air Sampling 
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Document ID 2038.

V. Economic Feasibility Analysis and Regulatory Flexibility 
Certification

Economic Feasibility Analysis

    In the 2017 FEA, OSHA concluded that the beryllium standards for 
construction and shipyards were both economically feasible (see 82 FR 
at 2471). OSHA is modifying some of the ancillary provisions in both 
standards and has concluded that the revisions would, overall, reduce 
costs for employers in both sectors (see section D, Costs of 
Compliance, in this FEA). Because the effect of this rule is a net 
reduction in costs, OSHA has determined that this rule is economically 
feasible in both the construction and shipyard sectors.

Regulatory Flexibility Certification

    In accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq. (as amended), OSHA has examined the regulatory requirements of the 
rule for construction and shipyards to determine whether they would 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. This rule would modify certain ancillary provisions for 
shipyards and construction, resulting in a reduction of overall costs. 
Furthermore, the agency believes that this rule would not impose any 
additional costs on small entities. Accordingly, OSHA certifies that 
the rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities.

VI. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

A. Overview

    OSHA is updating the beryllium standards for the construction and 
shipyards industries, which contain collections of information that are 
subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under 
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and 
OMB regulations at 5 CFR part 1320. The beryllium standards for general 
industry (29 CFR 1910.1024), construction (29 CFR 1926.1124), and 
shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1024) contain collection of information 
(paperwork) requirements that have been previously approved by OMB 
under OMB control number 1218-0267. In this rulemaking, OSHA is 
separating the collections of information in the beryllium standards 
for construction and shipyards from those in the general industry 
standard. Therefore, the agency is submitting two new information 
collection requests (ICRs)--one for the construction industry and one 
for the shipyards sector. In addition, OSHA is removing the collections 
of information related to construction and shipyards from the 
collections of information currently approved by OMB under control 
number 1218-0267. This will be a separate action and will occur after 
OMB approval of the new ICRs.
    The PRA defines ``collection of information'' to mean the 
obtaining, causing to be obtained, soliciting, or requiring the 
disclosure to third parties or the public, of facts or opinions by or 
for an agency, regardless of form or format (44 U.S.C. 3502(3)(A)). 
Under the PRA, a Federal agency cannot conduct or sponsor a collection 
of information unless OMB approves it, and the agency displays a 
currently valid OMB control number (44 U.S.C. 3507). Also,


notwithstanding any other provision of law, no employer shall be 
subject to penalty for failing to comply with a collection of 
information if the collection of information does not display a 
currently valid OMB control number (44 U.S.C. 3512).
    On January 9, 2017, OSHA published a final rule for the general 
industry, construction, and shipyard sectors that established new 
permissible exposure limits and other provisions to protect employees 
from beryllium exposure, such as requirements for exposure assessment, 
respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, 
housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and 
recordkeeping. OMB approved the collections of information contained in 
the final rule under OMB Control Number 1218-0267.
    On October 8, 2019, OSHA published a proposed rule to modify the 
construction and shipyard standards by clarifying certain provisions to 
improve and simplify compliance (84 FR 53902). The 2019 proposal would 
revise the collections of information contained in the construction and 
shipyard standard approved by OMB by clarifying requirements related to 
the written exposure control plan; the cleaning and replacement of 
personal protection equipment; the disposal, recycling, and reuse of 
contaminated materials; the frequency of medical examinations for 
employees who have been exposed to beryllium during an emergency or who 
show signs and symptoms of CBD; referrals to the CBD diagnostic center; 
and the collection and recording of social security numbers in medical 
surveillance and recordkeeping. OSHA prepared and submitted two new 
ICRs to OMB under the 2019 proposed rule for review in accordance with 
44 U.S.C. 3507(d). OSHA proposed to separate the construction and 
shipyard sectors from the 2017 Beryllium ICR approved by OMB under OMB 
Control Number 1218-0267. The three beryllium standards would have 
separate OMB control numbers for each industry.

B. Solicitation of Comments

    In accordance with the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)), the agency 
solicited public comments on the collection of information contained in 
the 2019 proposed rule. OSHA encouraged commenters to submit their 
comments on the information collection requirements contained in the 
proposed rule under docket number OSHA-2019-0006, along with their 
comments on other parts of the proposed rule. In addition to generally 
soliciting comments on the collection of information requirements, the 
proposed rule indicated that OSHA and OMB were particularly interested 
in comments on the following items:
     Whether the proposed collections of information are 
necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, 
including whether the information will have practical utility;
     The accuracy of OSHA's estimate of the burden (time and 
cost) of the proposed collections of information, including the 
validity of the methodology and assumptions used;
     The quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be 
collected; and
     Ways to minimize the compliance burden on employers, for 
example, by using automated or other technological techniques for 
collecting and transmitting information (78 FR at 56438).
    On November 8, 2019, OMB issued a Notice of Action (NOA) assigning 
the information collection requests new OMB control numbers and 
stating, ``This OMB action is not an approval to conduct or sponsor an 
information collection under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This 
action has no effect on any current approvals. If OMB has assigned this 
ICR a new OMB Control Number, the OMB Control Number will not appear in 
the active inventory. For future submissions of this information 
collection, reference the OMB Control Number provided. OMB is 
withholding approval at this time. Prior to publication of the final 
rule, the agency should provide a summary of any comments related to 
the information collection and their response, including any changes 
made to the ICR as a result of comments. In addition, the agency must 
enter the correct burden estimates.'' At this time, the ICR for the 
beryllium standard for construction was assigned OMB Control Number 
1218-0273 and the beryllium standard for shipyards was assigned OMB 
Control Number 1218-0272. Copies of the proposed ICRs are available to 
the public at http://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/PRAOMBHistory?ombControlNumber=1218-0273 and http://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/PRAOMBHistory?ombControlNumber=1218-0272.
    OSHA did not receive any public comments in response to the 
proposed ICRs.\59\ However, the agency received 16 public comments on 
the proposed rule during the initial comment period. In addition, OSHA 
held a public hearing on the proposal on December 3, 2019, where the 
agency heard testimony from several stakeholders (see Document ID 2222; 
2223). Participants who filed notices of intention to appear at the 
hearing were permitted to submit additional evidence and data relevant 
to the proceedings for a period of 44-days following the hearing. That 
post-hearing comment period closed on January 16, 2020. The record 
remained open for an additional 15 days, until January 31, 2020, for 
the submission of final briefs, arguments, and summations. OSHA 
received twenty five timely comments during this rulemaking by the 
close of the last post-hearing comment period of January 31, 2020. The 
comments submitted in response to the proposed rule and the hearing 
proceedings did modify some provisions containing collections of 
information. These responses were considered when OSHA prepared these 
two new ICRs for the final rule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \59\ Two commenters submitted comments to docket number OSHA-
2019-0006 (see Document ID OSHA-2019-0006-0003; OSHA-2019-0006-
0004). The comments did not concern the paperwork requirements but 
rather addressed other portions of the proposal. Neither comment was 
submitted during the comment period for the proposed rule, which 
ended on November 7, 2019.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

C. Information Collection Requirements

    As required by 5 CFR 1320.5(a)(1)(iv) and 1320.8(d)(2), the 
following paragraphs provide information about these two ICRs.
    Construction (ICR):
    1. Title: Occupational Exposure to Beryllium for the Construction 
Industry (29 CFR 1926.1124).
    2. Description of the ICR: The final rule separates the information 
collection requirements of the construction standard from the currently 
approved beryllium ICR. This action creates a new ICR containing only 
the collection of information requirements for the construction 
industry.
    3. Brief Summary of the Information Collection Requirements:
    The final rule revises the collection of information requirements 
contained in the existing ICR for the construction industry, approved 
under OMB under control number 1218-0267. OSHA, first, has separated 
the construction collection of information requirements from those of 
the general industry and shipyards standards and created a new ICR 
containing only those collection of information requirements in the 
construction industry. As a result, OMB has assigned a new OMB control 
number specific to the construction standard (1218-0273). Next, OSHA 
has updated the new ICR to reflect revisions made by this final rule, 
which (1) remove provisions in the construction standard that require 
employers to collect and record employees' social security number; (2) 
revise the contents


of the written exposure control plan; and (3) remove certain 
requirements related to written warnings. See Table VI.1.

   Table VI.1--Collection of Information Requirements Being Revised in the Beryllium Standard for Construction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Currently approved collection of
       Section number and title                 information  requirements                   Action taken
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sec.   1926.1124(f)(1)(i)--Methods of   A list of operations and job       Revised paragraph
 Compliance--Written Exposure Control   titles reasonably expected to involve       (f)(1)(i)(A) to list
 Plan.                                  airborne exposure to or dermal contact      operations and job titles
                                        with beryllium;                             and removed ``airborne'' and
                                                                                    ``or dermal contact'' from
                                                                                    the text.
                                        A list of operations and job       Removed paragraphs
                                        titles reasonably expected to involve       (f)(1)(i)(B) through (E),
                                        airborne exposure at or above the action    written exposure control
                                        level;                                      plan.
                                        A list of operations and job       .............................
                                        titles reasonably expected to involve
                                        airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or
                                        STEL;
                                        Procedures for minimizing cross-   .............................
                                        contamination;
                                        Procedures for minimizing the      .............................
                                        migration of beryllium within or to
                                        locations outside the workplace;
                                        A list of engineering controls,    Added a new requirement,
                                        work practices, and respiratory             paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E), to
                                        protection required by Sec.                 list procedures used to
                                        1926.1124(f)(2);                            ensure the integrity of each
                                                                                    containment used to minimize
                                                                                    exposures to employees
                                                                                    outside the containment.
                                        A list of personal protective      .............................
                                        clothing and equipment required by Sec.
                                        1926.1124(h);
                                        Procedures for removing,           .............................
                                        laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing,
                                        and disposing of beryllium-contaminated
                                        personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment, including respirators;
                                        Procedures used to restrict        Revised paragraph
                                        access to work areas when airborne          (f)(1)(i)(H) to require a
                                        exposures are, or can reasonably be         list procedures for
                                        expected to be, above the TWA PEL or        removing, cleaning, and
                                        STEL, to minimize the number of employees   maintaining personal
                                        exposed to airborne beryllium and their     protective clothing and
                                        level of exposure, including exposures      equipment in accordance with
                                        generated by other employers or sole        paragraph (h) and renumbered
                                        proprietors.                                as paragraph (f)(1)(i)(F).
Sec.   1926.1124(f)(1)(ii)(B)--        The employer is notified that an employee   Removed ``airborne'' and ``or
 Methods of Compliance--Written         is eligible for medical removal in          dermal contact with'' from
 Exposure Control Plan.                 accordance with Sec.   1926.1124(l)(1),     paragraph (f)(1)(ii)(B).
                                        referred for evaluation at a chronic
                                        beryllium disease (CBD) diagnostic
                                        center, or shows signs or symptoms
                                        associated with airborne exposure to or
                                        dermal contact with beryllium.
Sec.   1926.1124(h)(2)(v)--Personal    When personal protective clothing or        Removed this labeling
 Protective Clothing and Equipment--    equipment required by this standard is      requirement from the
 Removal and Storage.                   removed from the workplace for              beryllium standard for
                                        laundering, cleaning, maintenance or        construction and therefore
                                        disposal, the employer must ensure that     from the ICR.
                                        personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment are stored and transported in
                                        sealed bags or other closed containers
                                        that are impermeable and are labeled in
                                        accordance with Sec.   1926.1124(m)(3)
                                        and the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200).
Sec.   1926.1124(h)(3)(iii)--Personal  The employer must inform in writing the     Removed this requirement from
 Protective Clothing and Equipment--    persons or the business entities who        the beryllium standard for
 Cleaning and Replacement.              launder, clean or repair the personal       construction and therefore
                                        protective clothing or equipment required   from the ICR.
                                        by this standard of the potentially
                                        harmful effects of airborne exposure to
                                        and dermal contact with beryllium and
                                        that the personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment must be handled in accordance
                                        with the standard.
Sec.   1926.1124(j)(3)--Housekeeping-- When the employer transfers materials       Removed this requirement from
 Disposal.                              containing beryllium to another party for   the beryllium standard for
                                        use or disposal, the employer must          construction and therefore
                                        provide the recipient with a copy of the    from the ICR.
                                        warning described in Sec.
                                        1926.1124(m)(2).
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(1)(i)(C)--Medical  Who is exposed to beryllium during an       Removed paragraph
 Surveillance.                          emergency.                                  (k)(1)(i)(C) from the
                                                                                    beryllium standard for
                                                                                    construction and therefore
                                                                                    from the ICR. Renumbered
                                                                                    former paragraph
                                                                                    (k)(1)(i)(D) as
                                                                                    (k)(1)(i)(C).
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(2)(i)(B)--Medical  An employee meets the criteria of Sec.      Removed ``or (C)'' from
 Surveillance.                          1926.1124(k)(1)(i)(B) or (C).               paragraph (k)(2)(i)(B) from
                                                                                    the beryllium standard for
                                                                                    construction and therefore
                                                                                    from the ICR.


 
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(2)(ii)--Medical    At least every two years thereafter for     Replaced ``(D)'' with ``(C)''
 Surveillance.                          each employee who continues to meet the     in paragraph.
                                        criteria of Sec.   1926.1124(k)(1)(i)(A),
                                        (B), or (D).
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(3)(ii)(A)--        A medical and work history, with emphasis   Revised paragraph
 Medical Surveillance.                  on past and present airborne exposure to    (k)(3)(ii)(A) to remove
                                        or dermal contact with beryllium, smoking   ``airborne'' and ``or dermal
                                        history, and any history of respiratory     contact'' from the text.
                                        system dysfunction.
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(4)(i)--            A description of the employee's former and  Revised paragraph (k)(4)(i)
 Information Provided to the PLHCP.     current duties that relate to the           to remove ``airborne'' and
                                        employee's airborne exposure and dermal     ``and dermal contact with''
                                        contact with beryllium.                     from the text.
Sec.   1926.1124(k)(7)--Medical        The employer must provide an evaluation at  Revised the initial
 Surveillance--Referral to the CBD      no cost to the employee at a CBD            consultation with the CBD
 Diagnostic Center.                     diagnostic center that is mutually agreed   diagnostic center, as
                                        upon by the employer and the employee.      follows:
                                        The examination must be provided within
                                        30 days of either of the events in Sec.
                                        1926.1124(k)(7)(i)(A) or (B).
                                       ..........................................  The employer must provide an
                                                                                    evaluation at no cost to the
                                                                                    employee at a CBD diagnostic
                                                                                    center that is mutually
                                                                                    agreed upon by the employer
                                                                                    and the employee. The
                                                                                    evaluation at the CBD
                                                                                    diagnostic center must be
                                                                                    scheduled within 30 days,
                                                                                    and must occur within a
                                                                                    reasonable time, of:
                                       ..........................................  Added a new requirement in
                                                                                    paragraph (k)(7)(ii) that
                                                                                    the evaluation must include
                                                                                    any tests deemed appropriate
                                                                                    by the examining physician
                                                                                    at the CBD diagnostic
                                                                                    center, such as pulmonary
                                                                                    function testing (as
                                                                                    outlined by the American
                                                                                    Thoracic Society criteria),
                                                                                    bronchoalveolar lavage
                                                                                    (BAL), and transbronchial
                                                                                    biopsy. If any of the tests
                                                                                    deemed appropriate by the
                                                                                    examining physician are not
                                                                                    available at the CBD
                                                                                    diagnostic center, they may
                                                                                    be performed at another
                                                                                    location that is mutually
                                                                                    agreed upon by the employer
                                                                                    and the employee.
                                       ..........................................  As result of the changes,
                                                                                    OSHA renumbered the
                                                                                    subordinate paragraphs in
                                                                                    (k)(7).
Sec.   1926.1124(m)(2)--Warning        Consistent with the HCS (29 CFR             Removed this requirement from
 labels.                                1910.1200), the employer must label each    the beryllium standard for
                                        bag and container of clothing, equipment,   construction and therefore
                                        and materials contaminated with             from the ICR.
                                        beryllium, and must, at a minimum,
                                        include the following on the label:
                                       DANGER                                      .............................
                                       CONTAINS BERYLLIUM                          .............................
                                       MAY CAUSE CANCER                            .............................
                                       CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS                      .............................
                                       AVOID CREATING DUST                         .............................
                                       DO NOT GET ON SKIN                          .............................
Sec.   1926.1124(m)(3)(i)--Employee    For each employee who has, or can           Removed ``airborne'' and
 information and training.              reasonably be expected to have, airborne    ``and dermal contact with''
                                        exposure to or dermal contact with          from paragraph (m)(3)(i).
                                        beryllium
Sec.   1926.1124(n)(1)(ii)(F)--        The name, social security number, and job   Removed the requirement to
 Recordkeeping--Air Monitoring Data.    classification of each employee             collect and record social
                                        represented by the monitoring, indicating   security numbers, as
                                        which employees were actually monitored.    follows:
                                       ..........................................  The name and job
                                                                                    classification of each
                                                                                    employee represented by the
                                                                                    monitoring, indicating which
                                                                                    employees were actually
                                                                                    monitored.
Sec.   1926.1124(n)(3)(ii)(A)--        The record must include the following       Removed the requirement to
 Recordkeeping--Medical Surveillance.   information about the employee: Name,       collect and record social
                                        social security number, and job             security numbers, as
                                        classification.                             follows:
                                       ..........................................  The record must include the
                                                                                    following information about
                                                                                    the employee: Name and job
                                                                                    classification.


 
Sec.   1926.1124(n)(4)(i)--            At the completion of any training required  Removed the requirement to
 Recordkeeping--Training.               by the standard, the employer must          collect and record social
                                        prepare a record that indicates the name,   security numbers, as
                                        social security number, and job             follows:
                                        classification of each employee trained,
                                        the date the training was completed, and
                                        the topic of the training.
                                       ..........................................  At the completion of any
                                                                                    training required by the
                                                                                    standard, the employer must
                                                                                    prepare a record that
                                                                                    indicates the name and job
                                                                                    classification of each
                                                                                    employee trained, the date
                                                                                    the training was completed,
                                                                                    and the topic of the
                                                                                    training.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. OMB Control Number: 1218-0273.
    5. Affected Public: Business or other-for-profit. This standard 
applies to employers in the construction industry who have employees 
that may have occupational exposures to any form of beryllium, 
including compounds and mixtures, except those articles and materials 
exempted by paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of the standard.
    6. Number of Respondents: 2,100.
    7. Frequency of Responses: On occasion, quarterly, semi-annually, 
annual, biannual.
    8. Number of Reponses: 29,330.
    9. Average Time per Response: Varies.
    10. Estimated Annual Total Burden Hours: 18,075.
    11. Estimated Annual Total Cost (Capital-operation and 
maintenance): $5,611,902.
    Shipyards (ICR):
    1. Title: Occupational Exposure to Beryllium for the Shipyards 
Sector (29 CFR 1915.1024).
    2. Description of the ICR: The final rule separates information 
collection requirements of the shipyards standard from the currently 
approved beryllium ICR. This action creates a new ICR containing only 
the collection of information requirements for the shipyard sector.
    3. Brief Summary of the Information Collection Requirements:
    This final rule revises the collection of information requirements 
contained in the existing ICR for the shipyards industry, approved 
under OMB under control number 1218-0267. OSHA, first, has separated 
the shipyards collection of information requirements from those of the 
general industry and construction standards and created a new ICR 
containing only those collection of information requirements in the 
shipyard sectors. As a result, OMB has assigned a new OMB control 
number specific to the shipyards standard (1218-0272). Next, OSHA has 
updated the new ICR to reflect revisions made by this final rule, which 
(1) remove provisions in the shipyards standard that require employers 
to collect and record employees' social security number; (2) revise the 
contents of the written exposure control plan; and (3) remove certain 
requirements related to written warnings. See Table VI.2.

    Table VI.2--Collection of Information Requirements Being Revised in the Beryllium Standard for Shipyards
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Currently approved collection of
       Section number and title                 information  requirements                   Action taken
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sec.   1915.1024(f)(1)(i)--Methods of  The employer must establish, implement,     Revised paragraph
 Compliance--Written Exposure Control   and maintain a written exposure control     (f)(1)(i)(A) to list
 Plan.                                  plan, which must contain:                   operations and job titles
                                                                                    reasonably expected to
                                                                                    involve exposure to
                                                                                    beryllium.
                                        A list of operations and job       .............................
                                        titles reasonably expected to involve
                                        exposure to or dermal contact with
                                        beryllium;
                                        A list of operations and job       Removed paragraphs
                                        titles reasonably expected to involve       (f)(1)(i)(B) through (E) the
                                        airborne exposure at or above the AL;       written exposure control
                                                                                    plan.
                                        A list of operations and job       .............................
                                        titles reasonably expected to involve
                                        airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or
                                        STEL;
                                        Procedures for minimizing cross-   Added a new requirement,
                                        contamination;                              paragraph (f)(1)(i)(D) to
                                                                                    list procedures used to
                                                                                    ensure the integrity of each
                                                                                    containment used to minimize
                                                                                    exposures to employees
                                                                                    outside the containment.
                                        Procedures for minimizing the      .............................
                                        migration of beryllium within or to
                                        locations outside the workplace;
                                        A list of engineering controls,    .............................
                                        work practices, and respiratory
                                        protection required by Sec.
                                        1915.1024(f)(2);


 
                                        A list of personal protective      Revised paragraph
                                        clothing and equipment required by Sec.     (f)(1)(i)(H) to require a
                                        1915.1024(h); and                           list procedures for
                                                                                    removing, cleaning, and
                                                                                    maintaining personal
                                                                                    protective clothing and
                                                                                    equipment in accordance with
                                                                                    paragraph (h) and renumbered
                                                                                    as paragraph (f)(1)(i)(E).
                                        Procedures for removing,           .............................
                                        laundering, storing, cleaning, repairing,
                                        and disposing of beryllium-contaminated
                                        personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment, including respirators.
Sec.   1915.1024(f)(1)(ii)(B)--        The employer is notified that an employee   Removed ``airborne'' and ``or
 Methods of Compliance--Written         is eligible for medical removal in          dermal contact with'' from
 Exposure Control Plan.                 accordance with Sec.   1915.1024(l)(1),     paragraph (f)(1)(ii)(B).
                                        referred for evaluation at a chronic
                                        beryllium disease (CBD) diagnostic
                                        center, or shows signs or symptoms
                                        associated with airborne exposure to or
                                        dermal contact with beryllium.
Sec.   1915.1024(h)(2)(v)--Personal    When personal protective clothing or        Removed this labeling
 Protective Clothing and Equipment--    equipment required by this standard is      requirement from the
 Removal and Storage.                   removed from the workplace for              beryllium standard for
                                        laundering, cleaning, maintenance or        shipyards and therefore from
                                        disposal, the employer must ensure that     the ICR.
                                        personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment are stored and transported in
                                        sealed bags or other closed containers
                                        that are impermeable and are labeled in
                                        accordance with Sec.   1915.1024(m)(3)
                                        and the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200).
Sec.   1915.1024(h)(3)(iii)--Personal  The employer must inform in writing the     Removed this requirement from
 Protective Clothing and Equipment--    persons or the business entities who        the beryllium standard for
 Cleaning and Replacement.              launder, clean or repair the personal       shipyards and therefore from
                                        protective clothing or equipment required   the ICR.
                                        by this standard of the potentially
                                        harmful effects of airborne exposure to
                                        and dermal contact with beryllium and
                                        that the personal protective clothing and
                                        equipment must be handled in accordance
                                        with the standard.
Sec.   1915.1024(j)(3)--Housekeeping-- When the employer transfers materials       Removed this requirement from
 Disposal.                              containing beryllium to another party for   the beryllium standard for
                                        use or disposal, the employer must          shipyards and therefore from
                                        provide the recipient with a copy of the    the ICR.
                                        warning described in Sec.
                                        1915.1024(m)(2).
Sec.   1915.1024(k)(1)(i)(C)--Medical  Who is exposed to beryllium during an       Removed paragraph
 Surveillance.                          emergency.                                  (k)(1)(i)(C) from the
                                                                                    beryllium standard for
                                                                                    construction and therefore
                                                                                    from the ICR. Renumbered
                                                                                    former paragraph
                                                                                    (k)(1)(i)(D) as
                                                                                    (k)(1)(i)(C).
Sec.   1915.1124(k)(2)(i)(B)--Medical  An employee meets the criteria of Sec.      Removed ``or (C) of this
 Surveillance.                          1915.1024(k)(1)(i)(B) or (C).               standard'' from paragraph
                                                                                    (k)(2)(i)(B) from the
                                                                                    beryllium standard for
                                                                                    construction and therefore
                                                                                    from the ICR.
Sec.   1915.1124(k)(2)(ii)--Medical    At least every two years thereafter for     Replaced ``(D)'' with ``(C)''
 Surveillance.                          each employee who continues to meet the     in paragraph (k)(2)(ii).
                                        criteria of Sec.   1915.1024(k)(1)(i)(A),
                                        (B), or (D).
Sec.   1915.1124(k)(3)(ii)(A)--        A medical and work history, with emphasis   Revised paragraph
 Medical Surveillance.                  on past and present airborne exposure to    (k)(3)(ii)(A) to remove
                                        or dermal contact with beryllium, smoking   ``airborne'' and ``or dermal
                                        history, and any history of respiratory     contact with'' from the
                                        system dysfunction.                         text.
Sec.   1915.1124(k)(4)(i)--            A description of the employee's former and  Revised paragraph (k)(4)(i)
 Information Provided to the PLHCP.     current duties that relate to the           to remove ``airborne'' and
                                        employee's airborne exposure and dermal     ``and dermal contact with''
                                        contact with beryllium.                     from the text.
Sec.   1915.1024(k)(7)--Medical        The employer must provide an evaluation at  Revised an initial
 Surveillance-- Referral to the CBD     no cost to the employee at a CBD            consultation with the CBD
 Diagnostic Center.                     diagnostic center that is mutually agreed   diagnostic center.
                                        upon by the employer and the employee.
                                        The examination must be provided within
                                        30 days of either of the events in Sec.
                                        1915.1024(k)(7)(i)(A) or (B).
                                       ..........................................  The employer must provide an
                                                                                    evaluation at no cost to the
                                                                                    employee at a CBD diagnostic
                                                                                    center that is mutually
                                                                                    agreed upon by the employer
                                                                                    and the employee. The
                                                                                    evaluation at the CBD
                                                                                    diagnostic center must be
                                                                                    scheduled within 30 days,
                                                                                    and must occur within a
                                                                                    reasonable time, of:


 
                                       ..........................................  Added a new requirement in
                                                                                    paragraph (k)(7)(ii) that
                                                                                    the evaluation must include
                                                                                    any tests deemed appropriate
                                                                                    by the examining physician
                                                                                    at the CBD diagnostic
                                                                                    center, such as pulmonary
                                                                                    function testing (as
                                                                                    outlined by the American
                                                                                    Thoracic Society criteria),
                                                                                    bronchoalveolar lavage
                                                                                    (BAL), and transbronchial
                                                                                    biopsy. If any of the tests
                                                                                    deemed appropriate by the
                                                                                    examining physician are not
                                                                                    available at the CBD
                                                                                    diagnostic center, they may
                                                                                    be performed at another
                                                                                    location that is mutually
                                                                                    agreed upon by the employer
                                                                                    and the employee.
                                       ..........................................  As result of the changes,
                                                                                    OSHA renumbered the
                                                                                    subordinate paragraphs in
                                                                                    (k)(7).
Sec.   1915.1024(m)(2)--Warning        Consistent with the HCS (29 CFR             Removed this requirement from
 labels.                                1910.1200), the employer must label each    the beryllium standard for
                                        bag and container of clothing, equipment,   construction and therefore
                                        and materials contaminated with             from the ICR.
                                        beryllium, and must, at a minimum,
                                        include the following on the label:
                                       DANGER                                      .............................
                                       CONTAINS BERYLLIUM                          .............................
                                       MAY CAUSE CANCER                            .............................
                                       CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS                      .............................
                                       AVOID CREATING DUST                         .............................
                                       DO NOT GET ON SKIN                          .............................
Sec.   1926.1124(m)(3)(i)--Employee    For each employee who has, or can           Removed ``airborne'' and
 information and training.              reasonably be expected to have, airborne    ``and dermal contact with''
                                        exposure to or dermal contact with          from paragraph (m)(3)(i).
                                        beryllium.
Sec.   1915.1024(n)(1)(ii)(F)--        The name, social security number, and job   Removed the requirement to
 Recordkeeping --Air Monitoring Data.   classification of each employee             collect and record social
                                        represented by the monitoring, indicating   security numbers, as
                                        which employees were actually monitored.    follows:
                                       ..........................................  The name and job
                                                                                    classification of each
                                                                                    employee represented by the
                                                                                    monitoring, indicating which
                                                                                    employees were actually
                                                                                    monitored.
Sec.   1915.1024(n)(3)(ii)(B)--        The record must include the following       Remove the requirement to
 Recordkeeping--Medical Surveillance.   information about the employee: Name,       collect and record social
                                        social security number, and job             security numbers, as
                                        classification.                             follows: Name and job
                                                                                    classification.
Sec.   1915.1024(n)(4)(i)--            At the completion of any training required  Remove the requirement to
 Recordkeeping--Training.               by this standard, the employer must         collect and record social
                                        prepare a record that indicates the name,   security numbers, as
                                        social security number, and job             follows:
                                        classification of each employee trained,
                                        the date the training was completed, and
                                        the topic of the training.
                                       ..........................................  At the completion of any
                                                                                    training required by this
                                                                                    standard, the employer must
                                                                                    prepare a record that
                                                                                    indicates the name and job
                                                                                    classification of each
                                                                                    employee trained, the date
                                                                                    the training was completed,
                                                                                    and the topic of the
                                                                                    training.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. OMB Control Number: 1218-0272.
    5. Affected Public: Business or other-for-profit. This standard 
applies to employers in the shipyards industry who have employees that 
may have occupational exposures to any form of beryllium, including 
compounds and mixtures, except those articles and materials exempted by 
paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of the standard.
    6. Number of Respondents: 696.
    7. Frequency of Responses: On occasion, quarterly, semi-annually, 
annual, biannual.
    8. Number of Reponses: 10,794.
    9. Average Time per Response: Varies.
    10. Estimated Annual Total Burden Hours: 6,609.
    11. Estimated Annual Total Cost (Capital-operation and 
maintenance): $2,057,856.

VII. Federalism

    OSHA reviewed this final rule in accordance with the Executive 
order on Federalism (E.O. 13132, 64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), which 
requires that Federal agencies, to the extent possible, refrain from 
limiting State policy options, consult with States prior to taking any 
actions that would restrict State policy options, and take such actions 
only when clear constitutional and statutory authority exists and the 
problem is national in scope. E.O. 13132 provides for preemption of 
State law only with the expressed consent of Congress. Any such 
preemption is to be limited to the extent possible.
    Under Section 18 of the OSH Act, Congress expressly provides that 
States and U.S. territories may adopt, with Federal approval, a plan 
for the development and enforcement of occupational safety and health


standards. OSHA refers to such States and territories as ``State 
Plans'' (29 U.S.C. 667). Occupational safety and health standards 
developed by State Plans must be at least as effective in providing 
safe and healthful employment and places of employment as the Federal 
standards. Subject to these requirements, State Plans are free to 
develop and enforce under State law their own requirements for safety 
and health standards.
    OSHA previously concluded that promulgation of the beryllium 
standard complies with E.O. 13132 (82 FR at 2633), so this final rule 
complies with E.O. 13132. In States without OSHA-approved State Plans, 
Congress expressly provides for OSHA standards to preempt State 
occupational safety and health standards in areas addressed by the 
Federal standards. In these States, this final rule limits State policy 
options in the same manner as every standard promulgated by OSHA. In 
States with OSHA-approved State Plans, this rulemaking does not 
significantly limit State policy options.

VIII. State Plans

    When federal OSHA promulgates a new standard or more stringent 
amendment to an existing standard, the states and U.S. Territories with 
their own OSHA-approved occupational safety and health plans (State 
Plans) must promulgate a state standard adopting such new Federal 
standard, or more stringent amendment to an existing Federal standard, 
or an at least as effective equivalent thereof, within six months of 
promulgation of the new Federal standard or more stringent amendment. 
The state may demonstrate that a standard change is not necessary 
because the state standard is already the same or at least as effective 
as the Federal standard change. Because a state may include standards 
and standard provisions that are equally or more stringent than Federal 
standards, it would generally be unnecessary for a state to revoke a 
standard when the comparable Federal standard is revoked or made less 
stringent. To avoid delays in worker protection, the effective date of 
the state standard and any of its delayed provisions must be the date 
of state promulgation or the Federal effective date, whichever is 
later. The Assistant Secretary may permit a longer time period if the 
state makes a timely demonstration that good cause exists for extending 
the time limitation (29 CFR 1953.5(a)).
    Of the 28 states and territories with OSHA-approved State Plans, 22 
cover public and private-sector employees: Alaska, Arizona, California, 
Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, 
New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. The 
remaining six states and territories cover only state and local 
government employees: Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, New 
York, and the Virgin Islands.
    As discussed in detail in Section III, Summary and Explanation of 
the Final Rule, while many of the revised provisions in this final rule 
provide equivalent protection to the provisions of the 2017 standards, 
changes made by this final rule will clarify certain provisions and 
simplify or improve employer compliance, for example, by clarifying the 
medical definitions and medical surveillance provisions and aligning 
them with the general industry standard. In the July 2020 general 
industry final rule adopting many of the same clarifying revisions, 
OSHA determined, in part based on comments received, that these 
revisions enhance employee safety by ensuring provisions are not 
misinterpreted (85 FR 42595). Accordingly, OSHA determined that it was 
appropriate to require states to adopt the changes made by that final 
rule.
    OSHA received no comments with respect to State Plans in this 
rulemaking. After considering all of the changes made by this final 
rule and the record as a whole, OSHA believes that this final rule also 
enhances employee safety, in part, by revising confusing provisions. 
Therefore, OSHA has determined that, within six months of the rule's 
promulgation date, State Plans must review their state standards and 
adopt amendments to those standards that are at least as effective as 
the amendments to the beryllium construction and shipyard standard 
finalized herein, as required by 29 CFR 1953.5(a), unless a State Plan 
demonstrates that such amendments are not necessary because their 
existing standards are already at least as effective at protecting 
workers as this final rule.

IX. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    OSHA reviewed this final rule according to the Unfunded Mandates 
Reform Act of 1995 (``UMRA''; 2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.) and Executive 
Order 13132 (64 FR 43255 (August 4, 1999)). As discussed above in 
Section IV (``Final Economic Analysis'') of this preamble, the agency 
has determined that this final rule would not impose significant 
additional costs on any private- or public-sector entity. Further, OSHA 
previously concluded that the rule would not impose a federal mandate 
on the private sector in excess of $100 million (adjusted annually for 
inflation) in expenditures in any one year (82 FR at 2634). 
Accordingly, this final rule will not require significant additional 
expenditures by either public or private employers.
    As noted above under Section VIII, (``State-Plans''), the agency's 
standards do not apply to State and local governments except in states 
that have elected voluntarily to adopt a State Plan approved by the 
agency. Consequently, this final rule does not meet the definition of a 
``Federal intergovernmental mandate'' (see Section 421(5) of the UMRA 
(2 U.S.C. 658(5))). Therefore, for the purposes of the UMRA, the agency 
certifies that this final rule does not mandate that state, local, or 
tribal governments adopt new, unfunded regulatory obligations of, or 
increase expenditures by the private sector by, more than $100 million 
in any year.

X. Environmental Impacts

    OSHA has reviewed this final rule according to the National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the 
regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500), 
and the Department of Labor's NEPA procedures (29 CFR part 11). OSHA 
has determined that this final rule will have no significant impact on 
air, water, or soil quality; plant or animal life; the use of land; or 
aspects of the external environment.

XI. Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments

    OSHA reviewed this final rule in accordance with E.O. 13175 (65 FR 
67249) and determined that it does not have ``tribal implications'' as 
defined in that order. This final rule does not have substantial direct 
effects on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the 
Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes.

List of Subjects in 29 CFR Parts 1915 and 1926

    Beryllium, Cancer, Chemicals, Hazardous substances, Health, 
Occupational safety and health.

Authority and Signature

    This document was prepared under the direction of Loren Sweatt, 
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety 
and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.


    The agency issues the sections under the following authorities: 29 
U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; 40 U.S.C. 3704; 33 U.S.C. 941; Secretary of 
Labor's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912 (January 25, 2012)); and 29 CFR part 
1911.

    Signed at Washington, DC, on August 13, 2020.
Loren Sweatt,
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety 
and Health.

Amendments to Standards

    For the reasons set forth in the preamble, chapter XVII of title 
29, parts 1915 and 1926, of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended 
as follows:

PART 1915--OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD 
EMPLOYMENT

0
1. The authority citation for part 1915 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 33 U.S.C. 941; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754); 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 
FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 
50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), 4-2010 (75 FR 
55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912); 29 CFR part 1911; and 5 U.S.C. 553, 
as applicable.


0
2. Amend Sec.  1915.1024 by:
0
a. In paragraph (b), add a definition for ``Beryllium sensitization'' 
in alphabetical order, revise the definitions for ``CBD diagnostic 
center,'' ``Chronic beryllium disease (CBD),'' and ``Confirmed 
positive,'' and remove the definitions of ``Emergency'' and ``High-
efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.''
0
b. Revise paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A).
0
c. Remove paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B), (C), (D), (E), and (H).
0
d. Redesignate paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(F) and (G) as paragraphs 
(f)(1)(i)(B) and (C).
0
e. In newly redesignated paragraph (f)(1)(i)(C), remove the word 
``and'' at the end of the paragraph;
0
f. Add new paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(D) and (E).
0
g. Revise paragraphs (f)(1)(ii)(B), (f)(2), and (g)(1)(iii).
0
h. Remove paragraph (g)(1)(iv).
0
i. Redesignate paragraph (g)(1)(v) as paragraph (g)(1)(iv).
0
j. Revise paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) and (h)(3)(ii).
0
k. Remove paragraph (h)(3)(iii).
0
l. Remove and reserve paragraph (i).
0
m. Revise paragraphs (j) and (k)(1)(i)(B).
0
n. Remove paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C).
0
o. Redesignate paragraph (k)(1)(i)(D) as paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C).
0
p. Revise paragraphs (k)(2)(i)(B), (k)(2)(ii), (k)(3)(ii)(A), 
(k)(4)(i), and (k)(7)(i) introductory text.
0
q. Redesignate paragraphs (k)(7)(ii) through (v) as paragraphs 
(k)(7)(iii) through (vi).
0
r. Add a new paragraph (k)(7)(ii).
0
s. Revise paragraph (m)(1)(ii).
0
t. Remove paragraph (m)(3).
0
u. Redesignate paragraph (m)(4) as paragraph (m)(3).
0
v. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(3)(i) introductory text and 
(m)(3)(ii)(A).
0
w. Remove newly redesignated paragraph (m)(3)(ii)(D).
0
x. Further redesignate newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(3)(ii)(E) 
through (I) as paragraphs (m)(3)(ii)(D) through (H).
0
z. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(3)(ii)(D) and (m)(3)(iv) 
and paragraphs (n)(1)(ii)(F), (n)(3)(ii)(A), and (n)(4)(i).
    The revisions and additions read as follows:


Sec.  1915.1024  Beryllium.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    Beryllium sensitization means a response in the immune system of a 
specific individual who has been exposed to beryllium. There are no 
associated physical or clinical symptoms and no illness or disability 
with beryllium sensitization alone, but the response that occurs 
through beryllium sensitization can enable the immune system to 
recognize and react to beryllium. While not every beryllium-sensitized 
person will develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium 
sensitization is essential for development of CBD.
    CBD diagnostic center means a medical diagnostic center that has a 
pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist on staff and on-site facilities 
to perform a clinical evaluation for the presence of chronic beryllium 
disease (CBD). The CBD diagnostic center must have the capacity to 
perform pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the American 
Thoracic Society criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and 
transbronchial biopsy. The CBD diagnostic center must also have the 
capacity to transfer BAL samples to a laboratory for appropriate 
diagnostic testing within 24 hours. The pulmonologist or pulmonary 
specialist must be able to interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL 
diagnostic test results.
    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) means a chronic granulomatous lung 
disease caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who 
is beryllium-sensitized.
    Confirmed positive means the person tested has had two abnormal 
BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, or three 
borderline test results from tests conducted within a 3-year period. It 
also means the result of a more reliable and accurate test indicating a 
person has been identified as having beryllium sensitization.
* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (A) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to 
involve exposure to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (D) Procedures used to ensure the integrity of each containment 
used to minimize exposures to employees outside of the containment; and
    (E) Procedures for removing, cleaning, and maintaining personal 
protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h) of 
this standard.
    (ii) * * *
    (B) The employer is notified that an employee is eligible for 
medical removal in accordance with paragraph (l)(1) of this standard, 
referred for evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center, or shows signs or 
symptoms associated with exposure to beryllium; or
* * * * *
    (2) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer must use 
engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee 
airborne exposure to beryllium to or below the TWA PEL and STEL, unless 
the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. 
Wherever the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to reduce 
airborne exposure to or below the PELs with engineering and work 
practice controls, the employer must implement and maintain engineering 
and work practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest 
levels feasible and supplement these controls by using respiratory 
protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard.
* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (iii) During operations for which an employer has implemented all 
feasible engineering and work practice controls when such controls are 
not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or below the TWA PEL or 
STEL; and
* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) Provision and use. Where airborne exposure exceeds, or can 
reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer 
must provide at no cost, and ensure that each employee uses, 
appropriate personal protective


clothing and equipment in accordance with the written exposure control 
plan required under paragraph (f)(1) of this standard and OSHA's 
Personal Protective Equipment standards for shipyards (subpart I of 
this part).
    (2) Removal of personal protective clothing and equipment. (i) The 
employer must ensure that each employee removes all personal protective 
clothing and equipment required by this standard at the end of the work 
shift or at the completion of all tasks involving beryllium, whichever 
comes first.
    (ii) The employer must ensure that personal protective clothing and 
equipment required by this standard is not removed in a manner that 
disperses beryllium into the air, and is removed as specified in the 
written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this 
standard.
    (iii) The employer must ensure that no employee with reasonably 
expected exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL removes personal protective 
clothing and equipment required by this standard from the workplace 
unless it has been cleaned in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of 
this standard.
    (3) * * *
    (ii) The employer must ensure that beryllium is not removed from 
personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard by 
blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses beryllium into the 
air.
* * * * *
    (j) Housekeeping. (1) When cleaning dust resulting from operations 
that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure 
above the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer must ensure the use of methods 
that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure.
    (2) The employer must not allow dry sweeping or brushing for 
cleaning up dust resulting from operations that cause, or can 
reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or 
STEL unless methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne 
exposure are not safe or effective.
    (3) The employer must not allow the use of compressed air for 
cleaning where the use of compressed air causes, or can reasonably be 
expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL.
    (4) Where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air 
to clean, the employer must provide, and ensure that each employee 
uses, respiratory protection and personal protective clothing and 
equipment in accordance with paragraphs (g) and (h) of this standard.
    (5) The employer must ensure that cleaning equipment is handled and 
maintained in a manner that minimizes the likelihood and level of 
airborne exposure and the re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the 
workplace.
    (k) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (B) Who shows signs or symptoms of CBD or other beryllium-related 
health effects; or
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (B) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) of 
this standard.
    (ii) At least every two years thereafter for each employee who 
continues to meet the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (C) 
of this standard.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) A medical and work history, with emphasis on past and present 
exposure to beryllium, smoking history, and any history of respiratory 
system dysfunction;
* * * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) A description of the employee's former and current duties that 
relate to the employee's exposure to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (7) * * *
    (i) The employer must provide an evaluation at no cost to the 
employee at a CBD diagnostic center that is mutually agreed upon by the 
employer and the employee. The evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center 
must be scheduled within 30 days, and must occur within a reasonable 
time, of:
* * * * *
    (ii) The evaluation must include any tests deemed appropriate by 
the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, such as pulmonary 
function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society 
criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. If 
any of the tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician are not 
available at the CBD diagnostic center, they may be performed at 
another location that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the 
employee.
* * * * *
    (m) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) Employers must include beryllium in the hazard communication 
program established to comply with the HCS. Employers must ensure that 
each employee has access to labels on containers of beryllium and to 
safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements 
of the HCS (29 CFR 1910.1200) and paragraph (m)(3) of this standard.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (i) For each employee who has, or can reasonably be expected to 
have, airborne exposure to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) The health hazards associated with exposure to beryllium, 
including the signs and symptoms of CBD;
* * * * *
    (D) Measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure 
to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (iv) The employer must make a copy of this standard and its 
appendices readily available at no cost to each employee and designated 
employee representative(s).
    (n) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (F) The name and job classification of each employee represented by 
the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) Name and job classification;
* * * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) At the completion of any training required by this standard, 
the employer must prepare a record that indicates the name and job 
classification of each employee trained, the date the training was 
completed, and the topic of the training.
* * * * *

PART 1926--SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION

Subpart Z--Toxic and Hazardous Substances

0
3. The authority citation for part 1926, subpart Z, continues to read 
as follows:

    Authority:  40 U.S.C. 3704; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; and 
Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), 4-
2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912) as applicable; and 29 CFR 
part 1911.
    Section 1926.1102 not issued under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 
1911; also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553.


0
4. Amend Sec.  1926.1124 by:


0
a. In paragraph (b), add a definition for ``Beryllium sensitization'' 
in alphabetical order, revise the definitions for ``CBD diagnostic 
center,'' ``Chronic beryllium disease (CBD),'' and ``Confirmed 
positive,'' and remove the definitions of ``Emergency'' and ``High-
efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.''
0
b. Revise paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A).
0
c. Remove paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(B), (C), (D), (E), and (H).
0
d. Redesignate paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(F), (G), and (I) as paragraphs 
(f)(1)(i)(B), (C), and (D).
0
e. Remove the period at the end of newly redesignated paragraph 
(f)(1)(i)(D) and add a semicolon in its place.
0
f. Add new paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(E) and (F).
0
g. Revise paragraphs (f)(1)(ii)(B), (f)(2), and (g)(1)(iii).
0
h. Remove paragraph (g)(1)(iv).
0
i. Redesignate paragraph (g)(1)(v) as paragraph (g)(1)(iv).
0
j. Revise paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) and (h)(3)(ii).
0
k. Remove paragraph (h)(3)(iii).
0
l. Remove and reserve paragraph (i).
0
m. Revise paragraphs (j) and (k)(1)(i)(B).
0
n. Remove paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C).
0
o. Redesignate paragraph (k)(1)(i)(D) as paragraph (k)(1)(i)(C).
0
p. Revise paragraphs (k)(2)(i)(B), (k)(2)(ii), (k)(3)(ii)(A), 
(k)(4)(i), and (k)(7)(i) introductory text.
0
q. Redesignate paragraphs (k)(7)(ii) through (v) as paragraphs 
(k)(7)(iii) through (vi).
0
r. Add a new paragraph (k)(7)(ii).
0
s. Remove paragraph (m)(2).
0
t. Redesignate paragraph (m)(3) as paragraph (m)(2).
0
u. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(2)(i) introductory text and 
(m)(2)(ii)(A).
0
v. Remove newly redesignated paragraph (m)(2)(ii)(D).
0
w. Further redesignate newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(2)(ii)(E) 
through (I) as paragraphs (m)(2)(ii)(D) through (H).
0
x. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (m)(2)(ii)(D) and (m)(2)(iv) 
and paragraphs (n)(1)(ii)(F), (n)(3)(ii)(A), and (n)(4)(i).
    The revisions and additions read as follows:


Sec.  1926.1124  Beryllium.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    Beryllium sensitization means a response in the immune system of a 
specific individual who has been exposed to beryllium. There are no 
associated physical or clinical symptoms and no illness or disability 
with beryllium sensitization alone, but the response that occurs 
through beryllium sensitization can enable the immune system to 
recognize and react to beryllium. While not every beryllium-sensitized 
person will develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium 
sensitization is essential for development of CBD.
    CBD diagnostic center means a medical diagnostic center that has a 
pulmonologist or pulmonary specialist on staff and on-site facilities 
to perform a clinical evaluation for the presence of chronic beryllium 
disease (CBD). The CBD diagnostic center must have the capacity to 
perform pulmonary function testing (as outlined by the American 
Thoracic Society criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and 
transbronchial biopsy. The CBD diagnostic center must also have the 
capacity to transfer BAL samples to a laboratory for appropriate 
diagnostic testing within 24 hours. The pulmonologist or pulmonary 
specialist must be able to interpret the biopsy pathology and the BAL 
diagnostic test results.
    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) means a chronic granulomatous lung 
disease caused by inhalation of airborne beryllium by an individual who 
is beryllium-sensitized.
* * * * *
    Confirmed positive means the person tested has had two abnormal 
BeLPT test results, an abnormal and a borderline test result, or three 
borderline test results from tests conducted within a 3-year period. It 
also means the result of a more reliable and accurate test indicating a 
person has been identified as having beryllium sensitization.
* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (A) A list of operations and job titles reasonably expected to 
involve exposure to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (E) Procedures used to ensure the integrity of each containment 
used to minimize exposures to employees outside the containment; and
    (F) Procedures for removing, cleaning, and maintaining personal 
protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h) of 
this standard.
    (ii) * * *
    (B) The employer is notified that an employee is eligible for 
medical removal in accordance with paragraph (l)(1) of this standard, 
referred for evaluation at a CBD diagnostic center, or shows signs or 
symptoms associated with exposure to beryllium; or
* * * * *
    (2) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer must use 
engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee 
airborne exposure to beryllium to or below the TWA PEL and STEL, unless 
the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. 
Wherever the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to reduce 
airborne exposure to or below the PELs with engineering and work 
practice controls, the employer must implement and maintain engineering 
and work practice controls to reduce airborne exposure to the lowest 
levels feasible and supplement these controls by using respiratory 
protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this standard.
* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (iii) During operations for which an employer has implemented all 
feasible engineering and work practice controls when such controls are 
not sufficient to reduce airborne exposure to or below the TWA PEL or 
STEL; and
* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) Provision and use. Where airborne exposure exceeds, or can 
reasonably be expected to exceed, the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer 
must provide at no cost, and ensure that each employee uses, 
appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance 
with the written exposure control plan required under paragraph (f)(1) 
of this standard and OSHA's Personal Protective and Life Saving 
Equipment standards for construction (subpart E of this part).
    (2) Removal of personal protective clothing and equipment. (i) The 
employer must ensure that each employee removes all personal protective 
clothing and equipment required by this standard at the end of the work 
shift or at the completion of all tasks involving beryllium, whichever 
comes first.
    (ii) The employer must ensure that personal protective clothing and 
equipment required by this standard is not removed in a manner that 
disperses beryllium into the air, and is removed as specified in the 
written exposure control plan required by paragraph (f)(1) of this 
standard.
    (iii) The employer must ensure that no employee with reasonably 
expected exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL removes personal protective 
clothing and equipment required by this


standard from the workplace unless it has been cleaned in accordance 
with paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this standard.
    (3) * * *
    (ii) The employer must ensure that beryllium is not removed from 
personal protective clothing and equipment required by this standard by 
blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses beryllium into the 
air.
* * * * *
    (j) Housekeeping. (1) When cleaning up dust resulting from 
operations that cause, or can reasonably be expected to cause, airborne 
exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL, the employer must ensure the use of 
methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne exposure.
    (2) The employer must not allow dry sweeping or brushing for 
cleaning up dust resulting from operations that cause, or can 
reasonably be expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or 
STEL unless methods that minimize the likelihood and level of airborne 
exposure are not safe or effective.
    (3) The employer must not allow the use of compressed air for 
cleaning where the use of compressed air causes, or can reasonably be 
expected to cause, airborne exposure above the TWA PEL or STEL.
    (4) Where employees use dry sweeping, brushing, or compressed air 
to clean, the employer must provide, and ensure that each employee 
uses, respiratory protection and personal protective clothing and 
equipment in accordance with paragraphs (g) and (h) of this standard.
    (5) The employer must ensure that cleaning equipment is handled and 
maintained in a manner that minimizes the likelihood and level of 
airborne exposure and the re-entrainment of airborne beryllium in the 
workplace.
    (k) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (B) Who shows signs or symptoms of CBD or other beryllium-related 
health effects; or
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (B) An employee meets the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(B) of 
this standard.
    (ii) At least every two years thereafter for each employee who 
continues to meet the criteria of paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (C) 
of this standard.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) A medical and work history, with emphasis on past and present 
exposure to beryllium, smoking history, and any history of respiratory 
system dysfunction;
* * * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) A description of the employee's former and current duties that 
relate to the employee's exposure to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (7) * * *
    (i) The employer must provide an evaluation at no cost to the 
employee at a CBD diagnostic center that is mutually agreed upon by the 
employer and the employee. The evaluation at the CBD diagnostic center 
must be scheduled within 30 days, and must occur within a reasonable 
time, of:
* * * * *
    (ii) The evaluation must include any tests deemed appropriate by 
the examining physician at the CBD diagnostic center, such as pulmonary 
function testing (as outlined by the American Thoracic Society 
criteria), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial biopsy. If 
any of the tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician are not 
available at the CBD diagnostic center, they may be performed at 
another location that is mutually agreed upon by the employer and the 
employee.
* * * * *
    (m) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) For each employee who has, or can reasonably be expected to 
have, airborne exposure to beryllium:
* * * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) The health hazards associated with exposure to beryllium, 
including the signs and symptoms of CBD;
* * * * *
    (D) Measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure 
to beryllium;
* * * * *
    (iv) The employer must make a copy of this standard and its 
appendices readily available at no cost to each employee and designated 
employee representative(s).
    (n) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (F) The name and job classification of each employee represented by 
the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (A) Name and job classification;
* * * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) At the completion of any training required by this standard, 
the employer must prepare a record that indicates the name and job 
classification of each employee trained, the date the training was 
completed, and the topic of the training.
* * * * *
[FR Doc. 2020-18017 Filed 8-28-20; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4510-26-P