The following references aid in evaluating silica exposures in the workplace.
- Exposure to Silica Dust on Continuous Mining Operations Using Flooded-Bed Scrubbers. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-147, (1997, August). Describes the hazard of silica exposures when flooded-bed scrubbers are designed improperly, and provides recommendations.
- Silica Crystalline: Quartz - Analytical Methodologies. OSHA, (2003). Reviews analytical methods for silica.
- OSHA Technical Manual (OTM). OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A], (1999, January 20).
- Crystalline Silica. Includes sampling information for crystalline silica.
- Cyclone Leak Test Procedure. OSHA, (1997, September 15). Describes a method of leak testing cyclone sampler assemblies used for respirable sampling of silica.
- Silica Industrial Hygiene Monitoring - OSHA Consultation Program [39 KB PDF, 3 pages]. OSHA, (1994, August). Shows the x-ray diffraction pattern - quartz standard, and other information for evaluating silica.
- Overview of Analytical Procedure [2 MB PDF, 1 page]. OSHA. Shows a flow chart for the handling of silica samples.
Sampling and Analysis
OSHA Occupational Chemical Database. OSHA's premier one-stop shop for occupational chemical information. It compiles information from several government agencies and organizations. Information available on the pages includes chemical identification and physical properties, exposure limits, sampling information, and additional resources.
- Quartz and Cristobalite in Workplace Atmospheres. OSHA Method ID-142, (1996, December). Describes the collection of airborne respirable α-quartz and/or cristobalite in the breathing zone of personnel and the subsequent analysis by x
-raydiffraction (XRD). Tridymite can also be collected and analyzed using this method if a reference material and diffraction pattern for tridymite are used.
- NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM). US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-154, (2003). Contains extensive information on direct-reading instruments. The following NIOSH methods use direct-reading techniques:
- Silica, Crystalline by XRD [35 KB PDF, 9 pages]. Method No.7500.
- Silica, Amorphous [29 KB PDF, 8 pages]. Method No. 7501.
- Silica, Crystalline by VIS [23 KB PDF, 6 pages]. Method No. 7601.
- Silica, Crystalline by IR [22 KB PDF, 6 pages]. Method No. 7602.
- Silica, Crystalline in coal mine dust, by IR [26 KB PDF, 7 pages]. Method No. 7603.