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Work Beyond the Shoulder

  1. The signs illustrated in this figure are not required if the work space is behind a barrier, more than 2 feet behind the curb, or 15 feet or more from the edge of any roadway.

  2. The ROAD WORK AHEAD sign may be replaced with other appropriate signs, such as the SHOULDER WORK sign. The SHOULDER WORK sign may be used for work adjacent to the shoulder.

  3. If the work space is in the median of a divided highway, an advance warning sign should also be placed on the left side the directional roadway.

  4. For short-term, short-duration, or mobile operation, all signs and channelizing devices may be eliminated if a vehicle with an activated flashing or revolving yellow light is used.
Figure TA-1. Work beyond the shoulder.

Figure TA-1. Work beyond the shoulder.

Blasting Zone

  1. Whenever blasting caps are used within 1,000 feet of a roadway, the signing shown is required. On a divided highway the signs should be mounted on both sides of the directional roadways.

  2. The signs shall be covered or removed when there are no explosives in the area or when the area is otherwise secure.

  3. Whenever a side road intersects the roadway between the BLASTING ZONE AHEAD sign and the END BLASTING ZONE sign, or a side road is within 1,000 feet of any blasting cap, similar signing, as on the mainline, shall be erected on the side road.

  4. Before to blasting, the blaster in charge shall determine whether highway traffic in the blasting zone will be endangered by the blasting operation. If there is danger, highway traffic shall not be permitted to pass through the blasting zone during blasting operations.
Figure TA-2. Blasting Zone.

Figure TA-2. Blasting Zone.

Work on Shoulders

  1. The ROAD WORK AHEAD sign on an intersecting roadway is not required if drivers emerging from that roadway will encounter another advance warning sign before they reach this activity area.

  2. A SHOULDER WORK sign should be placed on the left side of a divided or one-way roadway only if the left shoulder is affected.

  3. For short-duration operations 60 minutes or less, all signs and channelizing devices may be eliminated if a vehicle with an activated flashing or revolving yellow light is used.

  4. WORKER signs may be used instead of SHOULDER WORK signs.
Figure TA-3. Work on shoulders.

Figure TA-3. Work on shoulders.

Mobile Operation on Shoulder

  1. In situations where multiple work locations in a limited distance make it practicable to place stationary signs, the maximum spacing for the advance warning sign is 5 miles in advance of the work.

  2. The length of activity area sign may be used as the stationary advance warning sign if the work locations occur over a distance of more than 2 miles.

  3. Warning signs are not required if the work vehicle displays a flashing or revolving yellow light, if the distance between work locations is 1 mile or more, and if the work vehicle travels at traffic speeds between locations.
Figure TA-4. Mobile operation on shoulder.

Figure TA-4. Mobile operation on shoulder.

Shoulder Closed on Freeway

  1. SHOULDER CLOSED signs should be used on limited-access highways where there is no opportunity for disabled vehicles to pull off the traveled way.

  2. If motorists cannot see a pull-off area beyond the closed shoulder, information regarding the length of the shoulder closure should be provided in feet or miles, as appropriate.

  3. The barrier in this diagram shows one method that may be used to close a shoulder of a long-term project. The use of a barrier should be based on the need determined by an engineering analysis. The warning lights shown on the barrier are optional.

  4. Barriers should be flared beyond the clear zone to prevent vehicles from impacting their leading ends. An alternative procedure is to place an impact attenuator to protect traffic from the end of the barrier.
Figure TA-5. Shoulder closed on freeway.

Figure TA-5. Shoulder closed on freeway.

Shoulder Work with Minor Encroachment

  1. The treatment shown may be used on a minor road having low speeds. For higher speed traffic conditions, a lane closure should be considered.

  2. The procedure shown should be adequate to carry bi-directional traffic at reduced speed through the activity area, provided the lanes are at least 10 feet wide.

  3. Where the opposite shoulder is suitable for carrying traffic and of adequate width, traffic lanes may be shifted by use of closely spaced channelizing devices, provided 10-foot-wide lanes are maintained.

  4. Additional advance warning may be appropriate, such as a Road NARROWS sign.

  5. Portable concrete barriers may be used along the work space.

  6. The protection vehicle is optional if a taper and channelizing devices are used. For short-duration work, the taper and channelizing devices are optional if the protection vehicle with an activated flashing yellow light is used.
Figure TA-6. Shoulder work with minor encroachment.

Figure TA-6. Shoulder work with minor encroachment.

Road Closed with Diversion

  1. Signs shown are for one direction of travel only.

  2. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the initial warning signs.

  3. Where the temporary pavement and old pavement are different colors, the temporary pavement should start on the tangent of the existing pavement and end on the tangent of the existing pavement.

  4. Pavement markings that are no longer applicable shall be removed or obliterated as soon as practicable.

  5. Delineators or channelizing devices may be needed along the bypass roadway.

  6. If the detour is short and has sharp curves (30 mph or less), REVERSE TURN signs should be used. In addition, LARGE ARROW signs may be desirable on sharp curves.

  7. For the second reverse curve, when there is insufficient advance warning distance to place a Reverse Curve or Turn sign, Large Arrow signs should be used on both curves.

  8. If the tangent distance along the temporary bypass roadway is short and the curvature is sharp, two LARGE ARROW signs may be required for the second reverse curve.
Figure TA-7. Road closed with diversion.

Figure TA-7. Road closed with diversion.

Road Closed with Off-Site Detour

  1. Regulatory traffic control devices are to be modified as needed for the duration of the detour.

  2. If the road is opened for some distance beyond the intersection and/or there are significant origin/destination points beyond the intersection, place the ROAD CLOSED and DETOUR signs on Type III barricades located at the edge of the traveled way.

  3. If the road is closed a short distance beyond the intersection and there are few origin/destination points beyond (e.g., a few residences), the ROAD CLOSED and DETOUR sign may be placed on a Type III barricade placed in the center of the roadway.

  4. A route marker directional assembly may be placed on the far left corner of the intersection to augment or replace the one shown on the near right corner.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-8. Roads closed with off-site detour.

Figure TA-8. Roads closed with off-site detour.

Roads Opened and Closed with Detour

  1. Similar signs and devices shall be erected for the opposite direction.

  2. STOP signs displayed to side roads should be erected along the, temporary route.

  3. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.

  4. Flashing warning lights may be used on Type III barricades.
Figure TA-9. Roads open and closed with detour.

Figure TA-9. Roads open and closed with detour.

Lane Closure on Two-Lane Road Using Flaggers

  1. Floodlights should be provided to mark flagger stations at night as needed.

  2. For low-volume applications, a single flagger may be adequate. Where one flagger can be used, such as for short work areas or straight roadways, the flagger must be visible to approaching traffic from both directions.

  3. Channelizing devices are to be extended to a point where they are visible to approaching traffic.

  4. The ROAD WORK AHEAD and the END ROAD WORK signs may be omitted for short-duration operations.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-10. Lane closure for one lane-two way traffic control.

Figure TA-10. Lane closure for one lane-two way traffic control.

Lane Closure on Low-Volume, Two-Lane Road

  1. This temporary traffic control zone traffic control application may be used as an alternate traffic control plan to the lane closure with flaggers (figure TA-10), when the following conditions exist.

    1. Traffic volume is such that sufficient gaps exist for traffic that must yield.

    2. Drivers from both directions must be able to see approaching traffic through and beyond the work site.

  2. The YIELD signs and YIELD AHEAD signs may be covered and flaggers used, as needed, during daylight working hours to control the flow of traffic through the work space. When flaggers are used, the ADVANCE FLAGGER sign shall be used in place of the YIELD AHEAD sign.

  3. The Type A flashing warning lights may be placed on the ROAD WORK AHEAD and the ONE LANE ROAD AHEAD signs, whenever a night lane closure is necessary.
Figure TA-11. Lane closure on low-volume two-lane road.

Figure TA-11. Lane closure on low-volume two-lane road.

Lane Closure on Two-Lane Road Using Traffic Signals

  1. Temporary traffic signals are preferable to flaggers for long term projects and other activities that would require flagging at night.

  2. The maximum length of activity area for one-way traffic signal control is determined by the capacity required to handle the peak hour demand. Practical maximum length is 400 feet. Signal timing shall be established by qualified personnel.

  3. Signals shall be installed and operated in accordance with the requirements of part IV of this manual. Temporary traffic control signals shall meet the physical display and operational requirements of conventional traffic signals.

  4. Adequate area illumination to clearly identify both ends of the work space at night for long-term operations should be provided.

  5. Stop lines 24 inches wide shall be installed. Add "no-passing" lines when necessary. Removable pavement markings may be used. Conflicting pavement markings and raised pavement marker reflectors between the activity area and the stop line shall be removed. After completion of the work, the stop lines and other temporary inapplicable pavement markings shall be removed.

  6. The Type A flashing warning lights shown on the ROAD WORK AHEAD and the ONE LANE ROAD AHEAD signs may be used whenever night lane closure is necessary. Type B lights may be used to also increase the daytime target value of the signs.

  7. The horizontal or vertical alignment of the roadway may require adjustments in the location of the advance warning signs (the distances shown for advance warning sign spacings are minimums). The vertical alignment of the roadway may require adjustments in the height of the signal heads.

  8. When the signal is changed to a flash condition either manually or automatically, red shall be flashed to both approaches.
Figure TA-12. Lane closure an two-lane road using traffic signals.

Figure TA-12. Lane closure an two-lane road using traffic signals.

Temporary Road Closure

  1. Conditions represented are for work that requires closings during daytime hours only.

  2. This application is intended for a planned temporary closing not to exceed 15-20 minutes.

  3. The flaggers shall stop the first vehicle from the position shown, then move to the centerline to stop approaching traffic.

  4. For high-volume roads, a police patrol car and/or a changeable message sign may be added.

  5. A changeable message sign may be used in place of the initial warning sign.
Figure TA-13. Temporary road closure.

Figure TA-13. Temporary road closure.

Haul Road Crossing

This diagram shows two different methods of traffic control-flagging and a temporary traffic signal. The method selected is to be used in both directions.

Unsignalized Crossing

  1. This typical application diagram as shown is intended for short-term use during daylight hours.

  2. When the haul road is not in use, Type III barricades shall be in place. ADVANCE FLAGGER signs shall be covered.

  3. The flagger shall stop the first vehicle from the position shown, then move to the centerline to stop approaching traffic.

Signalized Crossing

  1. Dashed yellow centerline, if existing, between the stop lines shall be removed before the beginning of roadwork and replaced before opening to normal traffic.

  2. When the haul road is not in use, Type III barricades shall be in place. The SIGNAL AHEAD and STOP HERE ON RED signs and traffic signals shall be covered or hidden from view.

  3. Traffic signals shall be two-direction type with push-button activation. The temporary traffic control signals shall meet the physical display and operational requirements of conventional traffic signals as described in part IV of this manual.

Floodlighting

  1. Floodlights should be used to illuminate haul road crossings where existing light is inadequate.
Figure TA-14. Haul road crossing.

Figure TA-14. Haul road crossing.

Work in Center of Low-Volume Road

  1. The lanes on either side of the center work space should have a minimum width of 10 feet, as measured from the near edge of the channelizing devices to the edge of pavement, or the outside edge of paved shoulder.

  2. A minimum of six channelizing devices should be used for each taper. However, a work vehicle displaying a flashing or revolving yellow light may be used instead of the tapers.

  3. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.

  4. If the closure continues overnight, warning lights may be used to mark channelizing devices.
Figure TA-15. Work in center Of low-volume road.

Figure TA-15. Work in center Of low-volume road.

Surveying Along Centerline of Low-Volume Road

  1. The same treatment is required in both directions.

  2. Cones should be placed 6 inches to 12 inches on either side of the center line.

  3. Maximum spacing between cones is 100 feet.

  4. For a survey along the edge of the road or along the shoulder, the advance signing remains the same. For this situation, place cones along the edge line. A flagger is not required for work along the shoulder.

  5. Cones may be omitted for a cross-section survey.

  6. For surveying on the centerline of a high-volume road, close one lane, using the procedure illustrated in figure TA-10.

  7. ROAD WORK AHEAD signs may be used in place of SURVEY CREW AHEAD signs.

  8. A flagger should be used to protect people who must work with their backs to traffic. A high-level warning device may be used to protect a surveying device, such as a target on a tripod. Workers in the roadway should wear high-visibility clothing.

  9. Flags may be used to call attention to the advance warning signs.
Figure TA-16. Surveying along centerline of low-volume road.

Figure TA-16. Surveying along centerline of low-volume road.

Mobile Operations on Two-Lane Road

  1. Where practicable and when needed, the work and protection vehicles should pull over periodically to allow traffic to pass. If this can not be done frequently, as an alternative, a DO NOT PASS sign may be placed on the rear of the vehicle blocking the lane.

  2. The distance between the work and protection vehicles may vary according to terrain, paint drying time, and other factors. Protection vehicles are used to warn traffic of the operation ahead. Whenever adequate stopping sight distance exists to the rear, the protection vehicle should maintain the minimum distance and proceed at the same speed as the work vehicle. The protection vehicle should slow down in advance of vertical or horizontal curves that restrict sight distance.

  3. Additional protection vehicles to warn and reduce the speed of oncoming or opposing traffic may be used. Police patrol cars may be used for this purpose.

  4. A truck-mounted attenuator (TMA) shall be used on the protection vehicle and should be considered on the work vehicle.

  5. The work vehicle shall be equipped with beacons, and the protection vehicles shall be equipped with a TMA and two high-intensity flashing lights mounted on the rear, adjacent to the sign. Protection and work vehicles should display flashing or rotating beacons both forward and to the rear.

  6. Vehicle-mounted signs shall be mounted with the bottom of the sign, at a minimum height of 4 feet above the pavement. Sign legends shall be covered or turned from view when work is not in progress.

  7. Arrow displays are optional and should be Type B, 60 inches by 30 inches.
Figure TA-17. Mobile operations on two-lane road.

Figure TA-17. Mobile operations on two-lane road.

Lane Closure on Minor Street

  1. The traffic control procedure shown is appropriate only for low-volume, low-speed facilities, such as local residential streets. With few exceptions, this procedure is not to be used in rural areas. Typical applications of traffic control devices on other roadways are shown in figures TA-21, TA-22, and TA-23.

  2. Traffic can regulate itself when volumes are low and the length of the work space is short, thus enabling drivers to readily see the roadway beyond.

  3. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advance warning signs.
Figure TA-18. Lane closure on minor street.

Figure TA-18. Lane closure on minor street.

Detour for One Travel Direction

  1. The STREET CLOSED sign may be used in place of ROAD CLOSED.

  2. The use of a street name sign mounted with the M4-9 DETOUR sign is optional. When used, the Street Name plate is placed above the Detour sign. The plate may have either a white-on-green or a black-on-orange legend.

  3. Additional DO NOT ENTER signs may be desirable at intersections with intervening streets.

  4. Warning lights may be used on Type III barricades.

  5. M4-9 DETOUR signs may be located on the far side of intersections.
Figure TA-19. Detour for one travel direction.

Figure TA-19. Detour for one travel direction.

Detour for Closed Street

  1. Display similar signs and devices for the opposite movement.

  2. Use this plan for city streets and for county or township roads. See figure TA-9 for the procedure for detouring a numbered highway.

  3. The use of a street name sign mounted with the M4-9 DETOUR sign is optional. When used, the street name plate is placed above the DETOUR sign. The plate may have either a white-on-green or a black-on-orange legend.

  4. An M4-9 DETOUR sign with an advance turn arrow may be used in advance of a turn. On multilane streets, such signs should be used.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.

  6. Warning lights may be used on Type III barricades.

  7. M4-9 DETOUR signs may be located on the far side of the intersections.
Figure TA-20. Detour for closed street.

Figure TA-20. Detour for closed street.

Lane Closure Near Side of Intersection

  1. If the work space extends across the crosswalk, then close the crosswalk using the procedure and devices shown in figure TA-29.

  2. The merging taper may direct traffic into either the right or left lane but not both. In this typical, a left taper should be used so that right-turn movements will not impede traffic.

  3. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advance warning signs.
Figure TA-21. Lane closure near side of intersection.

Figure TA-21. Lane closure near side of intersection.

Right Lane Closure Far Side of Intersection

  1. For intersection approaches reduced to a single lane, left-turning movements may be prohibited to maintain capacity for through traffic.

  2. The standard procedure is to close on the near side of the intersection any lane that is not carried through the intersection. However, when this results in the closing of a right lane having significant right-turning movements, then the right lane may be restricted to right turns only, as shown. This procedure increases the through capacity by eliminating right turns from the open through lane.

  3. Where the turning radius is large, it may be possible to create a right turn island using channelizing devices, as shown. This procedure reinforces the nature of the temporary exclusive right-turn lane and enables a second RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT sign to be placed in the island.

  4. If the work space extends across a crosswalk, then close the crosswalk using the procedure and devices shown in figure TA-29.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-22. Right lane closure far side of intersection.

Figure TA-22. Right lane closure far side of intersection.

Left Lane Closure Far Side of Intersection

  1. The standard procedure is to close, on the near side of the intersection any lane that is not carried through the intersection. However, when this results in the closure of a left lane having significant left-turning movements, then the left lane may be converted to a turn bay for left turns only, as shown. By first closing off the left lane and then reopening it as a turn bay, an island is created with channelizing devices that allow the LEFT LANE MUST TURN LEFT sign to be repeated on the left, adjacent to the lane that it controls.

  2. If the work space extends across a crosswalk, then close the crosswalk using the procedure and devices shown in figure TA-29.

  3. Care should be taken to warn drivers of vision obstructions for left-turning vehicles caused by equipment, material, and work operations in the work area.

  4. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-23. Left lane closure far side of intersection.

Figure TA-23. Left lane closure far side of intersection.

Half Road Closure Far Side of Intersection

  1. For intersection approaches reduced to a single lane, left-turning movements may be prohibited to maintain capacity for through traffic.

  2. The standard procedure is to close on the near side of the intersection any lane that is not carried through the intersection. Therefore, the right lane should be closed on the near-side approach. However, if there is a significant right-turning movement, then the right lane may be restricted to right turns only, as shown. This procedure increases the through capacity by eliminating right turns from the open through lane.

  3. Where the turning radius is large, it may be possible to create a right-turn island using channelizing devices, as shown. This procedure reinforces the nature of the temporary exclusive right-turn lane and enables a second RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT sign to be placed in the island.

  4. If the work space extends across a crosswalk, then close the crosswalk using the procedure and devices shown in figure TA-29.

  5. A buffer space should be used between opposing directions of traffic as shown in this application.

  6. There may be insufficient space to place the back-to-back KEEP RIGHT sign and NO LEFT TURN symbol signs at the end of the row of channelizing devices separating opposing traffic flows. If this situation, place the NO LEFT TURN symbol sign on the right and omit the KEEP RIGHT sign.

  7. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-24. Half road closure far side of intersection.

Figure TA-24. Half road closure far side of intersection.

Multiple Lane Closures at Intersection

  1. The standard procedure is to close on the near side of the intersection any lane that is not carried through the intersection. Therefore, the left through lane is closed on the near-side approach. The LEFT LANE MUST TURN LEFT sign is placed in the median to deter through traffic from entering the left turn bay.

  2. If the work space extends across a crosswalk, then close the crosswalk using the procedure and devices shown in figure TA- 29.

  3. If the left-turning movement that normally uses the closed turn bay is small and/or the gaps in opposing traffic are frequent, left turns need not be prohibited on that approach.

  4. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advance warning signs.
Figure TA-25. Multiple lane closures at intersection.

Figure TA-25. Multiple lane closures at intersection.

Closure in Center of Intersection

  1. Prohibit left turns as required by traffic conditions. Unless the streets are wide, it may be physically impossible to turn left, especially for large vehicles.

  2. A minimum of six channelizing devices shall be used for each taper.

  3. For short-duration work operations, the channelizing devices may be eliminated if a flashing or revolving yellow light is displayed in the work space.

  4. A high-level flag tree should be placed in the work space if there is sufficient room.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-26. Closure in center of intersection.

Figure TA-26. Closure in center of intersection.

Closure at Side of Intersection

  1. For low traffic volumes and intersecting two-lane streets, or flagger positioned in the center of the intersection may suffice.

  2. For high traffic volumes or when a four-lane street is involved, additional flaggers or law enforcement personnel may be used.

  3. A ONE-LANE ROAD AHEAD sign may also be necessary to provide adequate advance warning.

  4. The situation depicted can be simplified by closing one or more of the intersection approaches. If this cannot be done, and/or when capacity is a problem, consideration should be given to diverting through traffic to other roads or streets.

  5. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the advanced warning signs.
Figure TA-27. Closure at side of intersection.

Figure TA-27. Closure at side of intersection.
*See note 1 and 2 location of flagger.

Sidewalk Closures and Bypass Walkway

  1. Additional advance warning may be necessary.

  2. Only the traffic control devices controlling pedestrian flows are shown. Other devices may be needed to control traffic on the streets. Use lane closure signing or ROAD NARROWS signs, as needed.

  3. Street lighting should be considered.

  4. For nighttime closures, Type A flashing warning lights may be used on barricades supporting signs and closing walkways.
    Type C steady-burn lights may be used on channelizing devices separating the temporary walkway from vehicular traffic.

  5. Where high speeds may be anticipated, use a barrier to separate the temporary walkway from vehicular traffic.

  6. Signs may be placed along a temporary walkway to guide or direct pedestrians. Examples include KEEP RIGHT and KEEP LEFT signs.
Figure TA-28. Sidewalk closures and bypass walkway.

Figure TA-28. Sidewalk closures and bypass walkway.

Crosswalk Closures and Pedestrian Detours

  1. Only the traffic control devices controlling pedestrian flows are shown. Other devices may be needed to control traffic on the streets. Use lane closure signing or ROAD NARROWS signs, as needed.

  2. Street lighting should be considered.

  3. For nighttime closures, Type A flashing warning lights may be used on barricades supporting signs and closing walkways. Use Type C steady-burn lights on channelizing devices separating the work space from vehicular traffic.

  4. Pedestrian traffic signal displays controlling closed crosswalks should be covered or deactivated.
Figure TA-29. Crosswalk closures and pedestrian detours.

Figure TA-29. Crosswalk closures and pedestrian detours.

Interior Lane Closure on Multilane Road

  1. The closure of the adjacent interior lane in the opposing direction may not be necessary, depending upon the activity being performed and the work space needed for the operation.

  2. Additional advance warning may be necessary.

  3. This procedure applies to low-speed, low-volume urban streets.
Figure TA-30. Interior lane closure on multilane street.

Figure TA-30. Interior lane closure on multilane street.

Lane Closure on Streets With Uneven Directional Volumes

  1. The illustrated procedure would be used only when the traffic volume is such that two lanes of traffic must be maintained in the direction of travel for which one lane is closed. The procedure may be used during a peak period of traffic and then changed to provide two lanes in the other direction for the other peak.

  2. The traffic control devices shown are appropriate for an urban street. Additional advance warning may be necessary.

  3. A buffer space should be used in the activity area and to separate opposing traffic.

  4. Conflicting pavement markings should be removed for long-term projects. (See section 6G-2.) For shorter-term projects when this is not practicable, the channelizing devices in the area of conflict should be placed at a maximum spacing of 10 feet. Interim markings should be installed where needed.

  5. For higher speeds, add a W20-5 LEFT LANE CLOSED [distance] sign for traffic approaching the lane closure, as shown in figure TA-32.

  6. If the lane shift is short and has sharp curves (30 mph or less), REVERSE TURN signs should be used.

  7. Where the shifted section is long, use a REVERSE CURVE sign to show the initial shift and a second one to show the return to the normal alignment. If the shift involves a short -to-back reverse curves may be runaround, a symbol showing back used. As an alternative side-by-side arrows may be used displaying one arrow for each lane. A supplementary plate stating ALL LANES THRU may be used to emphasize the point that no lanes are closed.
Figure TA-31. Lane closure on streets with uneven directional volumes.

Figure TA-31. Lane closure on streets with uneven directional volumes.

Half Road Closure on Multilane High-Speed Highways

  1. The traffic control devices shown are appropriate for a high- speed highway.

  2. Pavement markings no longer applicable shall be removed or obliterated as soon as practicable. Interim markings shall be used as necessary.

  3. Warning lights may be used to mark channelizing devices at night as needed.

  4. For intermediate-term situations, when it is not feasible to remove and restore pavement markings, the channelization must be made dominant by using a very close device spacing. This is especially important in locations of conflicting information, such as where traffic is directed over a double yellow centerline. In such locations a maximum channelizing device spacing of 10 feet is recommended.
Figure TA-32. Half road closure on multilane high speed highways.

Figure TA-32. Half road closure on multilane high speed highways.

Lane Closure on Divided Highway

  1. This procedure also applies when work is being performed in the lane adjacent to the median on a divided highway. Under these conditions, LEFT LANE CLOSED signs and the corresponding LANE REDUCTION symbol signs shall be used.

  2. When a side road intersects the highway within the temporary traffic control zone, additional traffic control devices shall be erected, as needed.

  3. Longitudinal dimensions may be adjusted slightly to fit field conditions.

  4. All vehicles, equipment, workers, and their activities should be restricted to one side of the pavement.
Figure TA-33. Lane closure on divided highway.

Figure TA-33. Lane closure on divided highway.

Lane Closure with Barrier

  1. Additional advance warning may be necessary.

  2. The use of a barrier should be based on the need determined by an engineering analysis.

  3. The layout of the barrier should prevent vehicles from impacting the ends of the barrier. To accomplish this, the taper and end should be treated as given in Chapter 9 of the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (RDG). Example treatments are connecting to an existing barrier, attaching a crashworthy terminal such as a crash cushion or flaring away to the edge of the clear zone.

  4. An interim white edge line should be installed from the start of the taper to a point beyond the work area, rejoining the permanent edge line.

  5. The barrier shall not be placed along the merging taper. The lane shall first be closed using channelizing devices and pavement markings. The barrier is then placed on a flare beginning beyond the downstream end of the merging taper.

    Figure TA-34. Lane closure with barrier.

    Figure TA-34. Lane closure with barrier.

Mobile Operation on Multilane Road

  1. Vehicles used for these operations should be made highly visible with appropriate equipment, such as flashing lights, rotating beacons, flags, signs, or arrow displays.

  2. Protection vehicle #1 should be equipped with an arrow display. An appropriate lane closure sign should be placed on protection vehicle #1 so as not to obscure the arrow display.

  3. Protection vehicle #2 should be equipped with an arrow display and truck-mounted attenuator.

  4. Protection vehicle #1 should travel at a varying distance from the work operation so as to provide adequate sight distance for traffic approaching from the rear.

  5. When adequate shoulder width is not available, protection vehicle #1 should be eliminated.

  6. On high-speed roadways, a third protection vehicle should be used-vehicle #1 on the shoulder (if possible), vehicle #2 in the closed lane, and vehicle #3 in the closed lane.

  7. Arrow displays shall be as a minimum Type B, 60 inches by 30 inches (figure VI-9 section 6F-3).

  8. Work should normally be done during off-peak hours.
Figure TA-35. Mobile operation on multilane road.

Figure TA-35. Mobile operation on multilane road.

Lane Shift on Freeway

  1. The lane shift should be used when the work space extends into either the right or left lane of a divided highway and it is not practicable, for capacity reasons, to reduce the number of available lanes. The minimum width of the shoulder lane is 10 feet.

  2. The best way to handle lane shifting is to use: (1) a geometry which meets that design speed at which the permanent highway was designed, (2) full normal cross-section (full lane width and full shoulders), and (3) complete pavement markings. If this can be done, then no temporary traffic control devices may be needed other than the initial general work-zone warning sign. If a lesser alignment is used, then for long-term use the lane lines should be changed to solid white, and a warning sign that shows the changed alignment is needed.

  3. Where the shifted section is long, one set of REVERSE CURVE signs shows the initial shift and a second set show the return to the normal alignment. If the shift involves a short runaround, a symbol showing back-to-back reverse curves may be used. As an alternative side-by-side arrows may be used displaying one arrow for each lane. A supplementary plate stating ALL LANES THRU may be used to emphasize the point that no lanes are closed.

  4. If the STAY IN LANE sign is used, then a solid, white lane line should be used.

  5. The barrier shown in this diagram is one method that may be used to close a lane for a long-term project. Use of a barrier should be based on the need determined by an engineering analysis. The layout of the barrier should prevent vehicles from impacting the ends of the barrier. According to the Roadside Design Guide (RDS), the barrier should be flared beyond the clear zone. An alternative procedure is to place an impact attenuator to protect traffic from the end of the barrier.

  6. Type C steady-burning warning lights may be placed on channelizing devices and the barrier parallel to the edge of pavement for nighttime lane closures. The maximum spacing should be identical to the channelizing device spacing.

  7. Existing conflicting pavement markings shall be removed and temporary markings shall be installed before traffic patterns are changed. Removable pavement markings may be used. After completion of the work temporary markings shall be removed. When a lane closure is limited to daylight hours, lanes may be delineated by channelizing devices in lieu of temporary markings.
Figure TA-36. Lane shift on freeway.

Figure TA-36. Lane shift on freeway.

Double Lane Closure on Freeway

  1. Flashing warning lights and/or flags may be used to call attention to the initial warning signs.

  2. Ordinarily, the preferred position for the second arrow display is in the closed interior lane at the beginning of the second merging taper. In the following situations, however, the second arrow display should be placed in the closed exterior lane at the end of the second merging taper.

    (a) When a protection vehicle is used in the interior closed lane, and the second arrow display is mounted on the protection vehicle.

    (b) If alignment or other conditions create any confusion as to which lane is closed by the second arrow display.

    (c) When the first arrow display is placed in the closed exterior lane at the end of the first merging taper (the alternative position when the shoulder is narrow).
Figure TA-37. Double lane closure on freeway.

Figure TA-37. Double lane closure on freeway.

Interior Lane Closure on Freeway

  1. Additional advance warning may be necessary.

  2. A buffer space should be used at the upstream end of the closed interior lane. For long-term operation a barrier should be used to protect the operation in the closed interior lane.

  3. Traffic operations may be improved by adding a short, single row of channelizing devices in advance of the traffic split to restrict traffic to their respective lanes.

  4. This operation involves an initial exterior lane closure followed by a lane shift. The right lane should continue, and the center lane must shift to the left. This is best handled with a special sign showing the situation symbolically.

  5. For long-term use, the dashed lane lines should be made solid white in the two-lane section. DO NOT PASS signs may be used.

  6. The first arrow display with a right arrow should be on the left shoulder at the beginning of the taper. This arrow display may be omitted if the alignment is such that the two panels create confusion. The arrow display with a double-headed arrow is the key one. It should be fully centered in the closed interior lane and placed at the downstream end of the shifting taper.
Figure TA-38. Interior lane closure on freeway.

Figure TA-38. Interior lane closure on freeway.

Median Crossover on Freeway

  1. The sign legends for the four pairs of signs approaching the lane closure for the non-crossover direction of travel are not shown. They are similar to the series shown for the crossover direction, except that the left lane is closed.

  2. The alignment of the crossover may be designed as a reverse curve using design criteria contained in the AASHTO Policy on the Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.

  3. Channelizing devices should be used to separate opposing traffic between the two median crossovers. When the distance is sufficiently short that motorists entering the section can see the far end of the section, they are less likely to forget that there is opposing traffic. On long-term projects on high-speed highways, consideration should be given to the use of barriers for this function.
Figure TA-39. Median crossover on freeway.

Figure TA-39. Median crossover on freeway.

Median Crossover for Entrance Ramp

A temporary stop line should be placed across the ramp at the desired stop location. Consideration should be given to placing a Type B high-intensity flasher with a red lens above the stop sign.

Figure TA-40. Median crossover for entrance ramp.

Figure TA-40. Median crossover for entrance ramp.

Median Crossover for Exit Ramp

  1. This diagram illustrates the procedure for carrying an exit ramp across a closed directional roadway of a divided highway. Guide signs referring to the exit may need to be relocated to the median. The guide signing should indicate that the ramp is open, and where the temporary ramp is located. Conversely, if the ramp is closed, the guide signing should also provide this information.

  2. A temporary EXIT sign with a diagonal arrow to the right shall be located in the temporary gore adjacent to the mainline roadway. Typically, a black-on-orange sign is used, but the standard white-on-green sign may be used. The mounting height for this sign shall be a minimum of 3 feet from the pavement surface to the bottom of the sign.

  3. In the situation (not shown) where channelizing devices are placed along the mainline roadway, the devices, spacing should be reduced in the vicinity of the off ramp to emphasize the opening at the ramp itself. Channelizing devices and/or temporary pavement markings should be placed on both sides of the temporary ramp where it crosses the median and the closed roadway.

  4. Where possible, a temporary deceleration lane may be useful in facilitating the exiting maneuver.

  5. Advance guide signs providing information related to the temporary exit should be relocated or duplicated adjacent to the temporary roadway.

    Figure TA-41. Median crossover for exit ramp.

    Figure TA-41. Median crossover for exit ramp.

Work in Vicinity of Exit Ramp

  1. Additional advance warning may be necessary. The guide signing should indicate that the ramp is open, and where the temporary exit terminal is located. Conversely, if the ramp is closed the guide signing should also provide this information.

  2. A buffer may be used.

  3. An alternative is to channelize exiting traffic onto the right shoulder, and close the lane as necessary. The shoulder should be used only if it has sufficient width and structural capacity.

  4. The temporary EXIT sign mounted in the temporary gore shall be clearly visible. It must be mounted high enough so that it can be seen over the channelizing devices. The mounting height for this sign shall be a minimum of 3 feet from the pavement surface to the bottom of the sign.

  5. If the exit is closed, this information should be clearly provided. An effective method is to place a black-on-orange plate reading EXIT CLOSED diagonally across the interchange/intersection guide signs.
Figure TA-42. Work in vicinity of exit ramp.

Figure TA-42. Work in vicinity of exit ramp.

Partial Exit Ramp Closure

  1. As an alternative to remove supplementary plate reading ON RAMP, a RAMP WORK [XXX] FT sign may be used.

  2. Truck Off-tracking should be considered when determining whether the 10-foot minimum lane width is adequate.
Figure TA-43. Partial exit ramp closure.

Figure TA-43. Partial exit ramp closure.

Work in Vicinity of Entrance Ramp

  1. The right lane needs to be closed sufficiently far in advance to stabilize traffic flow before encountering the merge.

  2. For the procedure shown on the right side of the diagram, the YIELD sign shall be replaced with STOP signs (one on each side of the approach), if no adequate acceleration lane exists for the temporary entrance. The STOP or YIELD sign should be located sufficiently far forward to provide adequate sight distance of oncoming mainline traffic in order to select a safe gap. Also, acceleration distance should be provided beyond the sign to reduce the gap size needed. If insufficient gaps are available, consideration should be given to closing t he ramp.

  3. Where STOP signs are used, a temporary stop line should be placed across the ramp at the desired stop location. Consideration should be given to placing a Type B high-intensity flasher with a red lens above the stop sign.

  4. The mainline merging taper with the arrow display at its starting point should be located sufficiently far upstream so that the arrow display is not confusing to motorists on the entrance ramp.

  5. If the ramp curves sharply to the right, place pairs of signs (one on each side of the ramp) for warning signs located before the entrance terminal.

  6. Where the acceleration distance is significantly reduced, a supplemental plate may be placed below the YIELD AHEAD sign, reading NO MERGE AREA.
Figure TA-44. Work in vicinity of entrance ramp.

Figure TA-44. Work in vicinity of entrance ramp.