The Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) reported 54 fatalities occurred in the year 2009 from scaffolds, staging. More... [143 KB PDF, 5 pages]. In a Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS) study, 72% of workers injured in scaffold accidents attributed the accident either to the planking or support
giving way, or to the employee slipping or being struck by a falling object. All of these can be controlled by compliance with OSHA standards. More... [118 KB PDF, 4 pages]
Scaffolding is addressed in specific standards for the general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, and longshoring.
This section highlights OSHA standards, Regulatory Agenda (a list of actions being taken with regard to OSHA standards), preambles to final rules (background to final rules), and directives (instructions for
Note: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies.
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
- 1910 Subpart B, Adoption and extension of established federal standards
- 1910.16, Longshoring and marine terminals
- 1910 Subpart D, Walking-working surfaces [related topic page]
- 1910.25, Portable wood ladders
- 1910.28, Safety requirements for scaffolding
- 1910.29, Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers)
- 1910 Subpart Q, Welding, cutting, and brazing [related topic page]
- 1910 Subpart R, Special industries
Shipyard Employment (29 CFR 1915)
Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917)
Longshoring (29 CFR 1918)
Preambles to Final Rules
- Shipyard Employment "Tool Bag" Directive. CPL 02-00-156, (2014, February 6). Provides OSHA offices, interested industry representatives, State Plan programs and federal agencies with guidance concerning the application of occupational safety and health standards in shipyard employment. Also, this instruction provides current information and ensures the consistent enforcement of OSHA's shipyard employment standards (29 CFR Part 1915).
- Longshoring and Marine Terminal "Tool Shed" Directive. CPL 02-00-154, (2012, July 31). Provides consistent information and ensures consistent enforcement of OSHA's marine cargo handling industry standards.
- Search all available directives.
For information related to construction, see OSHA's Scaffolding - Construction page.
Hazards and Possible Solutions
The following references aid in recognizing scaffolds and the hazards associated with scaffolding in the workplace.
- Scaffolding. OSHA eTool. Includes FAQs, glossary, hazards and possible solutions for many types of scaffolding.
- Suspended Scaffolds. Indicates requirements for two-point (swing stage) scaffolds, as well as single-point adjustable, multi-point adjustable, catenary, interior hung, needle-beam, multi-level, and float (ship) scaffolds.
- Supported Scaffolds. Indicates requirements for frame scaffolds, as well as mobile, pump jack, ladder jack, tube coupler and pole scaffolds.
- Shipyard Employment. OSHA eTool. Describes common hazards and possible solutions for tasks performed during the ship repair process.
- Scaffolds (Staging). Provides general requirements for all scaffolds and also includes information on specific types of scaffolding.
- Aerial Lifts. Replaces traditional shipyard scaffolding.
- Key Switch Controlled Elevating and Rotating Aerial Lifts. OSHA Technical Information Bulletin (TIB), (2002, April 11). Also available as a 15 KB PDF, 3 pages. Alerts users that the subject lifts should only be operated when the operational mode switch key is inserted in the switch, unless the key is otherwise readily available and immediately accessible for use; and to provide recommendations for employers that own the subject aerial lifts.
- Using Aerial Lifts [21 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2005, October).
- Hurricane Preparedness and Response. OSHA. Includes information such as news releases, public service announcements, fact sheets, frequently asked questions, and more.
- Use of Aerial Lifts. Hurricane eMatrix.
- Aerial Lifts Safety Tips Quick Card. OSHA Publication 3267. Also available as a 19 KB PDF, 1 page. Includes a list of safe work practices for aerial lifts.
Selected Occupational Fatalities Related to Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms as Found in Reports of OSHA Fatality/Catastrophe Investigations. OSHA, (1991, July). Studies OSHA fatality/catastrophe investigation reports from 1986-1990 and includes summaries of individual reports, as well as analysis of data and recommended preventive measures.
- Mast Climbers Fundamentals of Safe Use - Ground Conditions Fact Sheet [80 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA and Scaffold Industry Association (SIA) Alliance, (2011, March). Provides information to ensure that the ground under the mast climber is solid and secure and that it remains safe during erection or dismantling of the structure.
- Mast Climbers Fundamentals of Safe Use - Tying to the Structure Fact Sheet [24 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA and Scaffold Industry Association (SIA) Alliance, (2011, March). Provides information to ensure that the method of tying the unit to the structure is properly planned and executed and that it remains safe during erection or dismantling of the structure.
- Transport Platform (TP) Safety Tips [101 KB PDF*, 1 page]. OSHA and Scaffold Industry Association (SIA) Alliance, (2010, February). Also available as a Portuguese version [58 KB PDF*, 1 page] and a Spanish version [103 KB PDF*, 1 page]. Addresses issues associated with the use of mast climbing work platforms such as fall hazards and stable erection.
- Protect Yourself: Aerial Devices - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating & Rotating Work Platforms [167 KB PDF* (English/Spanish), 2 pages]. OSHA and Altec Alliance. Provides information to help employers inform their employees about the hazards with working on aerial devices and identifies guidelines for employees to follow.
- Protect Yourself: Aerial Equipment - Electrical Hazards [165 KB PDF* (English/Spanish), 2 pages]. OSHA and Altec Alliance. Provides information to help employers inform their employees about the electrical hazards associated with working on aerial devices and identifies guidelines for employees to follow.
- Protect Yourself: Operator Training for Elevating Equipment - General Training Guidance [160 KB PDF* (English/Spanish), 2 pages]. OSHA and Altec Alliance. Provides information to help employers identify the training recommended for employees on the inspection and operation of elevating equipment.
Related Safety and Health Topics Pages
- Scaffolding. OSHA. Provides training and reference materials.
- Working Outdoors in Warm Climates [74 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2005, September). Provides information on heat, sun exposure and other special hazards for outdoor workers in warm climates.
Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF and PPT materials.
*These files are provided for downloading.