- Safety and Health Topics
Mold growth is encouraged by warm and humid conditions. It is likely to grow and become a problem where there is water damage, high humidity, or dampness. It is estimated that about 50 to 100 common indoor mold types have the potential for creating health problems. Exposure to molds can cause symptoms such as nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, or wheezing. Some people, such as those with serious allergies to molds, may have more severe reactions. The following references aid in recognizing workplace hazards and health effects associated with mold hazards.
- Preventing Mold-Related Problems in the Indoor Workplace. OSHA Publication 3304, (2006). Provides building owners, managers and occupants with basic information about mold, mold sources, and building-related illnesses.
- Mold. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- Molds in the Environment. Provides basic facts about molds.
- Facts about Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds. Provides answers related to health concerns with Stachybotrys chartarum and other molds.
- An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Identifies biological contaminants including bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches, and pollen. It describes their health effects, presents measures for reducing exposure, and lists additional resources on the topic.
- Mold. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Provides general information and links about molds and mold-related issues such as moisture control, flooding, and asthma.
- A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture and Your Home. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Publication No. 402-K-02-003, (September 2010). Covers basic mold facts, cleanup concerns and recommendations, and moisture-control tips.
- Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings Guide (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Publication No. 402-K-01-001, (September 2008). Contains instructions for cleanup and remediation of molds and moisture-related problems in schools and commercial buildings.
- Facts About Mold. American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), (December 2011). A consensus statement by a group of experts about important aspects of the "state of the science". Presents a variety of mold facts, including health effects, cleanup, and recommended methods for prevention of mold growth and mold exposure.
- Fungi in Buildings. University of Minnesota, Department of Environmental Health & Safety. Provides links to "Indoor Fungal Resources" that contain information on investigation of indoor fungi, water infiltration control, a fungal abatement protocol, and a glossary of fungi-related terms.
- Mold. OSHA QuickCard™, (2013). Also available in Spanish.
- Fact Sheet on Natural Disaster Recovery: Fungi. OSHA. Discusses the hazards and health risks to clean-up workers. Provides information on what should be done if symptoms occur and tips to remember.
- Histoplasmosis - Protecting Workers at Risk. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-109, (December 2004). Introduces the fungal disease histoplasmosis and includes information about exposure, diagnosis, and prevention.
- State of Science on Molds and Human Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (July 18, 2002). Identifies a variety of illnesses that people exposed to molds may experience. Fungi account for 9% of nosocomial infections, that is, infections originating or taking place in a hospital. Ingestion of foods contaminated with certain toxins produced by molds is associated with development of human cancer. Many respiratory illnesses among workers may be attributed to mold exposures. Linkages between indoor airborne exposures to molds and other health effects, such as bleeding from the lung, or memory loss, have not yet been scientifically substantiated.
- Update: Pulmonary Hemorrhage/Hemosiderosis Among Infants --- Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 49(09);180-4, (March 10, 2000). Reports on its review and reanalysis of the 1993-1996 Cleveland, Ohio infant lung bleeding cases that brought Stachybotrys chartarum mold to national attention. CDC concludes that exposure to this or other molds was not proven to be associated with lung bleeding in these cases.
- Molds, Toxic Molds and Indoor Air Quality. California Research Bureau, California State Library, (March 2001). Provides background information on molds, their potential health effects, and how they relate to indoor air quality.
- Molds in Indoor Workplaces. Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service (HESIS), California Department of Health and California Department of Industrial Relations, (November 2005). Describes allergic reactions, fungal infections and other health effects that molds cause. Most workers will have no reaction when exposed to mold, however, some workers have underlying health conditions that make them more sensitive to mold exposure.
- Health Effects of Toxin-Producing Molds in California. California Department of Health Services, California Morbidity (Monthly Report), (April 1998). Describes what is known about health effects of toxin-producing molds in the indoor environment, especially Stachybotrys chartarum. This article discusses mechanism of action, route of exposure and summarizes cases from the medical literature.
- McNeel, S.V. and R.A. Kreutzer. "Fungi & Indoor Air Quality." Health & Environment Digest 10.2(May-June 1996): 9-12. California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Investigations Branch. Discusses mold species commonly associated with indoor air. It also provides information on mycotoxins, including their origins and effects on humans.
- Barrett, J.R. "Mycotoxins: Of Molds and Maladies." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.1(January 2000). Provides an overview of mycotoxins, mold species commonly associated with human disease, health effects, exposure risks, and current research topics.
- Mold Allergy. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Provides information on mold allergies including prevalence, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures.
- Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness. National Agriculture Safety Database (NASD) Publication No. 442-602, (2005). Presents information on the respiratory illness caused by inhalation of mold spores known as Farmer's Lung. Includes descriptions of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventative measures.
- Ampel, N.M. "Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection." Emerging Infectious Diseases 2.2 (April-June 1996). Discusses fungal diseases associated with HIV patients.
- Kirkland, T.N. and J.F. Fierer. "Coccidioidomycosis: A Reemerging Infectious Disease." Emerging Infectious Diseases 2.3 (July-September 1996). Provides an overview of coccidioidomycosis, including its epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment, and prevention.