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Ammonia Refrigeration

References >> IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook


IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook. Provides is a tutorial and reference book that represents the collective efforts of the most knowledgeable specialists in the ammonia refrigeration industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 - Piping Size

  • 1-1, Introduction
    • Recommended Method (Based on an economic analysis)
    • Conventional Method (Based on pressure loss)
  • 1-2, Tables of Recommended Capacities
    • 1-4, Vapor Flow Capacity Tables
    • 1-6, Liquid Flow Capacity Tables
    • 1-6, Hot Gas Defrost and Receiver Equalizer Lines
    • 1-7, Flooded Evaporators
    • 1-7, Pumped Overfeed Risers
  • 1-8, Estimating Pressure Loss in Piping
    • 1-8, Pressure Loss in Vapor Piping
    • 1-8, Pressure Loss in Liquid Piping
  • 1-9, Valve Selection
    • 1-10, Hand Stop Valves
    • 1-10, Flow-Regulating Hand Valves
    • 1-10, Solenoid Valves
    • 1-10, Pressure Regulators
    • 1-11, Check Valves
  • 1-11, Velocity Guidelines
    • 1-11, Vapor Velocities
    • 1-11, Liquid Velocities
    • 1-12, Calculating Velocities
  • 1-13, Liquid Flow Formulas
    • 1-14, Sample Ammonia Vapor Flow Calculations
  • 1-15, Vapor Flow Formulas
    • 1-16, Sample Ammonia Vapor Flow Calculations
  • 1-17, References
  • 1-19, Appendix: Piping Sizing Example Using Tables
    • 1-19, Specifications
    • 1-20, Low Stage (Booster) Suction (LSS)
    • 1-20, Low Stage Booster Discharge (BD)
    • 1-21, Compressor High Stage Suction (HSS)
    • 1-21, Compressor High Stage Discharge (HSD)
    • 1-21, Condenser Drain (CD)
    • 1-21, Equalizer (EQ) for High Pressure Receiver
    • 1-22, High Pressure Liquid (HPL)
    • 1-22, Accumulator Low Pressure Liquid (LPL)
    • 1-22, Circulating Pump Suction (LTRL)
    • 1-22, Circulating Pump Discharge (LTRL)
    • 1-23, Overfeed Return (LTRS)
    • 1-23, Overfeed Riser
  • 1-25, Tables
  • 1-46, Figures

Chapter 2 - Pipe Installation Procedures

  • 2-1, Pipe Specifications
    • 2-1, Materials
    • 2-1, Impact Testing for Low-Temperature Piping
    • 2-1, Minimum Pipe Wall Thicknesses
  • 2-2, Pipe Connections
    • 2-2, Carbon Steel Piping
    • 2-2, Stainless Steel Piping
  • 2-2, Pipe End Preparation
  • 2-2, Welding Standards
  • 2-3, Cleanliness
  • 2-4, Pipe Hangers and Supports
    • 2-4, ANSI/IIAR-2 Requirements
    • 2-5, Sway Loads
    • 2-5, Rooftop Piping System
  • 2-7, Pipe Arrangements
  • 2-7, Branch Lines
  • 2-7, Penetrations
  • 2-7, Thermal Expansion/Contraction
  • 2-8, Joint Alignment
  • 2-9, Figures

Chapter 3 - Evaporator Piping

  • 3-1, Introduction
    • 3-1, Evaporator Performance
    • 3-2, Safety Considerations in Piping Systems
  • 3-3, Evaporator Piping
    • 3-3, Liquid Supply Lines
    • 3-6, Return Lines
    • 3-8, Hot Gas Defrost and Piping
  • 3-12, Detailed Piping Recommendations for the Installation of Air-Cooling Units
    • 3-13, Direct Expansion (DX) Air Coolers
    • 3-14, Flooded Air Cooling Units
    • 3-17, Liquid Recirculation Air Cooling Units
    • 3-19, Suction Shutoff/Defrost Pressure Control Arrangements
    • 3-21, Defrosting Air-Cooling Units Using Liquid Drainers
    • 3-22, Multiple Evaporators Controlled by a Single Group of Control Valves
    • 3-23, Detailed Piping Recommendations for the Installation of Liquid Chillers
      • 3-23, Shell-and-Tube Chillers
      • 3-25, Plate-and-Frame Chillers
    • 3-25, Special-Purpose Evaporators
    • 3-26, Piping and Valve Installation Detail
    • 3-26, References
    • 3-26, Figures

Chapter 4 - Condenser Piping

  • 4-1, Condenser Performance
  • 4-1, High Pressure Refrigerant Receivers
  • 4-2, Condenser Liquid Drain Piping
  • 4-3, Multiple Condensers
  • 4-4, Equalizing Lines
  • 4-6, Fundamentals of Condenser Piping Design
    • 4-6, Condenser Piping Design Procedure
    • 4-9, Large Systems with Multiple Evaporative Condensers
    • 4-10, Multiple Shell-and-Tube Condensers
    • 4-11, Multiple Evaporative Condensers with Shell-and-Tube Condenser(s) Operating in Parallel
    • 4-11, Multiple Evaporative Condensers at Different Elevations
    • 4-12, Constant Pressure Receivers and Pilot Receiver/Balance Tanks
    • 4-17, Systems with Heat Recovery
    • 4-17, Evaporative Condenser Water Piping
  • 4-19, Multiple Receivers
  • 4-20, Purging
    • 4-20, Purging Evaporative Condensers
    • 4-20, Purging Shell-and-Tube Condensers
    • 4-20, Piping for Manual and Automatic Piping
  • 4-21, Detailed Design and Installation Recommendations
    • 4-21, Compressor Discharge/Condenser-Inlet Piping
    • 4-21, Liquid Piping at Evaporative Condenser Outlets
    • 4-21, Definition of Trap Height
    • 4-22, Pipe Size Changes in Condenser Piping Networks
  • 4-22, References
  • 4-24, Figures

Chapter 5 - Equipment Room Piping

  • 5-1, Introduction
  • 5-1, Suction Piping
  • 5-2, Discharge Piping (High Stage and Booster)
  • 5-2, Lubricant Piping
  • 5-3, Oil Pot Piping
  • 5-4, Liquid Piping
  • 5-4, Thermosyphon Piping
  • 5-5, Recircular Piping
  • 5-6, Interstage Gas and Liquid Cooling
    • 5-6, Gas Cooling
    • 5-7, Liquid Subcooling and Flash Cooling
  • 5-8, Manual Emergency Discharge of Ammonia Refrigerant (When Required)
  • 5-9, Figures

Chapter 6 - Piping for Pressure Relief Devices

  • 6-1, Introduction
  • 6-1, Definitions
  • 6-3, Vapor Relief Device Sizing
  • 6-4, Size and Length of Discharge Line Serving One Relief Valve
  • 6-6, Discharge Lines for Combined Vapor Flow from Valves with Different Set Points
  • 6-6, Sizing Combined Discharge Lines for Non-simultaneous Releases
  • 6-6, When are Releases Expected to be Simultaneous Releases
  • 6-6, Sizing the Diameter of Discharge Lines
  • 6-7, Size a Common Discharge Line for Two or More Relief Valves
  • 6-9, Discharging Relief Valves Into the Lowside
  • 6-9, Replacement in Kind
  • 6-9, Use of Rupture Discs with Safety Relief Valves
  • 6-10, Vent Lines for Relief Valves on Compressors
  • 6-10, Liquid Relief Valves, Hydrostatic Relief Valves, and Liquid Relief Regulators
  • 6-10, Application of ASME Liquid Relief Valves
  • 6-11, Application of Hydrostatic Relief Valves
  • 6-12, Dispersion to the Atmosphere
  • 6-12, Dispersion to Water
  • 6-12, Appendix A: Effect of Inlet Piping on Relief Valve Capacity
  • 6-13, Appendix B: Application of Balanced Relief Valves, Pilot Operated Relief Valves and Rupture Discs
  • 6-13, References
  • 6-15, Tables
  • 6-19, Figures

Chapter 7 - Insulation for Refrigeration Systems

  • 7-1, Introduction
  • 7-1, Fundamentals of Insulation
  • 7-2, Design Considerations
  • 7-3, Insulation Physical Properties
  • 7-5, Effect of Water/Ice/Moisture on Insulation Value
  • 7-5, Insulation Material Selection
  • 7-6, Corrosion Concerns
    • 7-7, Carbon Steel
    • 7-7, Stainless Steel
    • 7-7, Pipe Preparation
  • 7-8, Insulation System Components
    • 7-8, Insulation
    • 7-10, Insulation Joint Sealant
    • 7-10, Vapor Retarders
    • 7-11, Jacketing (Weather Barrier or Primary Moisture Retarder)
    • 7-12, Weather Barrier Joint Sealant
  • 7-12, Recommended Practices for Insulation Applications
  • 7-13, Insulation Installation Guidelines
    • 7-16, Additional Considerations for Vessels
    • 7-19, Vapor Retarder-Mastic System (Indoor Service)
    • 7-20, Vapor Retarder Mastic (Indoor and Outdoor Service)
    • 7-20, PVC Cladding/Jacket (Indoor Service)
    • 7-21, Vapor Retarder and Cladding/Jacket (Outdoor Service)
    • 7-22, Vapor Retarder-Mastic System (Outdoor Service)
  • 7-23, References
  • 7-25, Figures
  • 7-52, Recommended Thickness Tables

Chapter 8 - Welding Procedures

  • 8-1, Introduction
  • 8-1, Pertinent ANSI Codes and Standards for Welding
  • 8-2, Jurisdictional Acceptance of Standards
  • 8-2, Definitions of Terms
  • 8-3, Welding Processes
    • 8-3, Typical Welding Machines
    • 8-3, Typical Pipe Welding Procedures
    • 8-3, Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, or Stick Welding)
    • 8-3, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, or MIG Welding)
    • 8-4, Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
    • 8-4, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
    • 8-4, Gas Welding (FGW)
  • 8-4, Sample Specifications for Welding of Ammonia Piping
    • 8-4, Scope
    • 8-5, Documentation
    • 8-5, Base Metals and Backing Strips
    • 8-6, Welding Processes
    • 8-6, Filler Metals
    • 8-7, Shielding and Purging Gases
    • 8-7, Welding Positions and Applications
    • 8-8, Preheating
    • 8-8, Cleaning
    • 8-8, Special Applications and Testing
  • 8-8, Sample WPSs and PQRs
  • 8-11, Forms

Chapter 9 - Codes and Standards

  • 9-1, 1987 Pressure Vessels
  • 9-1, 1987 Refrigeration Piping
  • 9-1, 1992 Safety Code
  • 9-2, 1997 International Mechanical Code
  • 9-2, Titles and Sources of Codes, Standards, and Guidelines

Appendix A - Legend and Symbols

  • A-1, Legend
  • A-2, Symbols

Appendix B - Lists of Figures, Tables and Equations

  • B-2, List of Figures
  • B-10, List of Tables
  • B-13, List of Equations


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