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Ammonia Refrigeration

References >> IIAR Ammonia Data Book


IIAR Ammonia Data Book. Features resource data essential for the safe and efficient operation of any ammonia refrigeration facility. Contains a revised chapter on US regulatory requirements for ammonia and other valuable compliance information about federal regulations, such as the Community Right to Know Act.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 - General Information

  • A. Ammonia (NH3)
    • 1-1, Uses of Ammonia
    • 1-3, Production of Ammonia
      • 1-5, U.S. Production
      • 1-6, U.S. Distribution
    • 1-7, World Production and Consumption

Chapter 2 - Properties of Ammonia

  • 2-1, Physical Properties
    • 2-1, General
  • 2-2, Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia
    • 2-2, Thermodynamic Property Tables
    • 2-2, Ammonia and the Ideal Gas Relationship
  • 2-3, Chemical Properties
    • 2-4, Hazardous Reactions
    • 2-5, Compatibility
    • 2-6, Common Reactions Involving Ammonia
    • 2-7, Flammability
    • 2-8, Explosion Venting
  • 2-9, Transport/Thermophysical Properties
    • 2-10, General
    • 2-11, Thermal Conductivity (k)
    • 2-12, Specific Heat (Heat Capacity-cp)
    • 2-13, Viscocity ()
    • 2-13, Heat Capacity Ratio (k)
    • 2-13, Velocity of Sound in Ammonia
    • 2-13, Critical Pressure Ratio (rc)
    • 2-13, Surface Tension
    • 2-13, Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ()
    • 2-14, Isothermal Compressibility (Kt)
  • 2-15, Heat Transfer Involving Ammonia
    • 2-16, Free and Forced Convection with Phase Change
  • 2-17, Mass Transfer Involving Ammonia
    • 2-17, Gas Diffusion
    • 2-19, Gas Absorption in an Ammonia-Air-Water-System
    • 2-20, Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia Into Air
  • 2-21, Frictional Losses (Momentum Transfer) for Ammonia
    • 2-21, Derivation of Simplified Pressure Loss Expressions
  • 2-25, Aqueous Solution Properties

Chapter 3 - Ammonia and the Environment

  • 3-1, General Environmental Information
  • 3-4, Releases to the Environment
  • 3-11, Detection of Ammonia Vapor in Air
    • 3-12, Length-of-Stain Tubes
    • 3-12, Indophenol
    • 3-12, Ion Chromatography
    • 3-12, Infrared Spectrometry
    • 3-13, Gas-Specific Electrodes
    • 3-13, Electrochemical
    • 3-13, Semiconductor (Solid State)
    • 3-13, Ultraviolet Absorption
  • 3-14, Detection of Ammonia in Aqueous Solution
    • 3-14, Background
    • 3-15, Detecting Ammonia by Measuring pH
  • 3-17, Environmental Sampling
  • 3-18, Concentration in Vicinity of Vapor Release
  • 3-20, U.S. EPA 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Data
  • 3-21, Effects of Ammonia on Food Products and Seeds
  • 3-28, Effects of Ammonia on Aquatic Life

Chapter 4 - Ammonia Safety Data

  • 4-1, Safety Classifications
    • 4-1, International Classification System
    • 4-2, NFPA
    • 4-2, Underwriter's Laboratories
    • 4-3, EPA
    • 4-3, API
    • 4-3, ASHRAE
    • 4-3, NIOSH
    • 4-3, ACGIH
    • 4-3, National Research Council
  • 4-4, MSDS Information
    • 4-4, Identification
    • 4-4, Ingredients and Occupational Exposure Limits
    • 4-5, Physical Data
    • 4-5, Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
    • 4-5, Reactivity Data
    • 4-6, Spill or Leak Procedures
    • 4-6, Health Hazard Data
    • 4-8, Special Protection Information
    • 4-8, Special Precautions
  • 4-9, Human Exposure to Ammonia
    • 4-9, General
    • 4-10, Burns to the Eye
    • 4-10, Effects on Skin
    • 4-11, Effects on Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs
    • 4-12, Carcinogenicity
  • 4-13, Public Health Statement

Chapter 5 - U.S. Regulatory Requirements

  • 5-1, Transportation
  • 5-3, Occupational Safety
    • 5-3, 29 CFR 1910.38
    • 5-3, 29 CFR 1910.111
    • 5-3, 29 CFR 1910.119
    • 5-3, 29 CFR 1910.120
    • 5-8, 29 CFR 1910.132, 133, 134
    • 5-9, 29 CFR 1910.1200
  • 5-9, Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA)
  • 5-12, Process Safety Management (OSHA 1910.119)
    • 5-12, Process Safety Information
    • 5-13, Compliance With Industry Codes and Standards
    • 5-13, Hazard Analysis
    • 5-14, Operating and Maintenance Procedures
    • 5-14, Operator and Contractor Training
    • 5-14, Incident Investigations
    • 5-14, Emergency Response Procedures
    • 5-15, Audit Programs
    • 5-15, Risk Reduction Plan

Appendix A - Thermodynamic Property Tables


  • A-1, General
  • A-3, Saturation Properties of Ammonia - IP Units
  • A-10, Superheated Vapor Properties of Ammonia - IP Units
  • A-15, Ammonia Liquid and Vapor Properties - IP Units
  • A-32, Saturation Properties of Ammonia - SI Units
  • A-36, Superheated Vapor Properties of Ammonia - SI Units
  • A-41, Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram - IP Units
  • A-42, Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram - SI Units

Appendix B - Ammonia Refrigeration Application Data

  • B-1, General
  • B-1, Compressor Displacement
  • B-2, Compressor Power
  • B-3, Refrigerant Mass Flow
  • B-3, Liquid Overfeed System Pump Rates

Appendix C - Miscellaneous

  • C-1, U.S. EPA Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Advisory
  • C-3, State Emergency Response Commission Contacts


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