<< Back to Dermal Exposure


Table 1
The Vapor Hazard Ratio (VHR) for pesticides and selected solvents (indented) using the TLV; VHR=Vapor P × 106/(TLV × 760). Comparison of this VHR to that using the PEL is on the right. Vapor pressures are at 25C unless otherwise indicated.
Compound TLV (ppm) Comment Vapor P (mm Hg) VHR Compared to PEL
chloropicrin .1   20 @20 263,160 same
      benzene .5 Skin, A1 95 250,000 proposed
hydrogen cyanide 4.7 C, Skin 620 @20 173,600 2 × PEL
      benzene 1 PEL 95 125,000 same
carbon disulfide 10 Skin 361 47,500 2 × PEL
dichloropropene 1 Skin, A2 36 47,400 no PEL
carbon tetrachloride 5 Skin, A2 113 29,700 2 × PEL
     benzene 10 A2 95 12,500 0.1 × PEL
     n-hexane 50   151 3,975 10 × PEL
     2-ethoxyethanol 5 Skin 5.3 1,395 40 × PEL
     perchloroethylene 25 A3 18 968 4 × PEL
     pentane 600   426 @20 934 1.6 × PEL
     toluene 50 Skin, A4 28 737 4 × PEL
ethylene dibromide (EDB) 20 PEL only 11 754 PEL only
     mercury .006   .00185 406 4 × PEL
     acetone 750   230 400 1.3 × PEL
phosdrin (Mevinphos) .01 Skin .003 @20 395 same
dichlorvos (DDVP) .1 skin, A4 .03 395 same
     n-heptane 400   40 @20 131 1.2 × PEL
     isopropyl alcohol (IPA) 400   33 @20 110 same
     o-xylene 100 A4 6.6 87 same
     m- & p- xylenes 100 A4 3.6 48 same
     2-ethoxyethanol 200 PEL 5.3 35 TLV is above
diazinon (0.1 mg/m3)a .008 Skin 2 × 10-4 33 no PEL
parathion (0.1 mg/m3)a .008 Skin, A4 6 × 10-5 10  
azinphos-methyl (Guthion) .2 Skin, A4 .0004 @20 206 same
dibrom (Naled) (3 mg/m3)a .19 Skin 3 × 10-4 201  
Lindane .042 C 3 × 10-5 0.9 same
chlorpyriphos (0.2 mg/m3)a .13 Skin 2 × 10-5 0.2 no PEL
Malathion (10 mg/m3)a .74 Skin 4 × 10-5 0.07 1.5 × PEL
Footnote a: value converted to ppm but listed in TLV publication only as mg/m3, meaning it is considered to be only an aerosol hazard.



Table 2
Example of the number and placement of dermal patch dosimeters and anatomic areas of the body.
Location # (size) Placement of Outer Dosimeters # (size) Placement of Inner Dosimeters Area (cm2)
Head 2
(3 × 3)
Right and left sides, in front of ears (taped to cap or hard hat) 0 (outer pair only; values assumed equal inside and out) 1300
Back 2
(4 × 4)
Right of center; 6" < collar
Left of center; 10" < collar
2
(4 × 4)
Left of center; 6" below collar
Right of center; 10" below collar
3660
Chest 2
(4 × 4)
Right of center; 6" < collar
Left of center; 10" < collar
2
(4 × 4)
Left of center; 6" below collar
Right of center; 10" below collar
3700
Upper arm 2
(3 × 3)
4" below shoulder seam.
Right on outside of biceps
Left on front of biceps
2
(3 × 3)
4" below shoulder seam.
Left on outside of biceps
Right on front of biceps
2910
Lower arm 2a
(3 × 3)
mid forearm
Right on inside of forearm
Left on outside of forearm
2
(3 × 3)
mid forearm
Left on inside of forearm
Right on outside of forearm
1210
Upper leg (thigh) 4
(3 × 3)
Right front 7" below waist
Left front 5" above knee
Right outside 5" above knee
Left outside 7" below waist
4
(3 × 3)
Right front 5" above knee
Left front 7" below waist
Right outside 7" below waist
Left outside 5" above knee
3820
Lower leg 2a
(3 × 3)
Right, front mid-calf
Left, outside, mid-calf
2
(3 × 3)
Right, outside mid-calf
Left, front mid-calf
2910
Hands 0 (inner pair only) 2 Glove on each hand 1640
Totals   12-16 Outer dosimeters a
0 Outer Gloves
  16 Inner dosimeters
2 Inner Gloves
21150
Footnote a: Inner dosimeter only is collected on lower arm if a short sleeved shirt is worn.



Table 3a
Example of dermal dosimeter calculations for a pesticide mixer-loader.
A

Dosimeter
Location
B
Chemical
mass
(g)
C
Dosimeter
Area
(cm2)
D
Anatomic
Area
(cm2)
E
Dose
Density
(g/cm2/hr)
F
Total
Dose
(mg)
G
Dose
Rate
(mg/hr)
H
Equivalent
Dose of Dust
(mg)
Head 22.2 56 1300 .099 .704 .176 .88
Chest 1.45 28 2190 .013 .112 .028 .14
Back 0.56 28 2190 .005 .044 .011 .055
Upper Leg 57.6 56 3460 .257 5.024 1.256 6.28
Lower Leg 5.15 56 2600 .023 .244 .061 .31
Upper Arm 4.70 56 1860 .021 .176 .044 .22
Lower Arm 17.2 56 1290 .077 .424 .106 .53
Hand 22.36 2150 2150 5.59 22.36 12.15 27.9
Totals         29.09 13.83 36.3
Source: Adapted from data reported for mixer-loader dermal doses to an 80% AI solid formulation (sprills) of captafol for 4 hours. (8)



Table 3b
Example of dermal dosimeter calculations for a pesticide applicator.
A

Dosimeter
Location
B
Chemical
mass
(g)
C
Dosimeter
Area
(cm2)
D
Anatomic
Area
(cm2)
E
Dose
Density
(g/cm2/hr)
F
Total
Dose
(mg)
G
Dose
Rate
(mg/hr)
H
Equivalent
Dose of Dust
(mg)
Head 19.2 56 1300 .215 1.59 .319 1.32
Chest 2.38 28 2190 .017 .185 .037 .154
Back 1.40 28 2190 .010 .135 .027 .112
Upper Leg 34.4 56 3460 .123 2.36 4.73 1.97
Lower Leg 4.20 56 2600 .015 .290 .058 .242
Upper Arm 12.9 56 1860 .046 .495 .099 .412
Lower Arm 44.5 56 1290 .159 1.55 .310 1.29
Hand 126. 2150 2150 11.6 126. 25.2 105.
Totals         132.6 25.31 110.4
Source: Adapted from data reported for spray applicator dermal doses to a 0.12% AI aqueous mixture of captafol for 5 hours. (8)



Table 4
Analytic sensitivities necessary to detect 1% of a 100 mg/kg deposited dermal dose which 70 κγ = 70 µγ.
  Patch Dosimeter Blood Sample Urine Sample
A 70 mg deposited dose 70 mg deposited dose 70 mg deposited dose
B       × 10 % absorption × 10 % absorption
C 1.92 mskin area 5 L whole blood 1.5 L 24-hr urine
D = 3.65 g/cm = 1.4 g/mL = 4.67 g/mL if 100%
E × 50 cmdosimeter × 10 mL sample × 100 mL aliquot
F = 182 g in sample = 14 g in sample = 467 g in sample
G 10 mL sample vol. 10 mL sample vol. 10 mL sample vol.
H = 18 ppm LOQ = 1.4 ppm LOQ = 47 ppm LOQ