Confined spaces may be encountered in virtually any occupation; therefore, their recognition is the first step in preventing fatalities. Since deaths in confined spaces often occur because the atmosphere is oxygen-deficient, toxic or combustible, confined spaces that contain or have the potential to contain a serious atmospheric hazard should be classified as Permit-required confined spaces and should be tested prior to entry and continually monitored. The following references aid in recognizing and evaluating hazards and possible solutions related to confined spaces.
Confined Spaces Advisor. OSHA. Provides an interactive expert help for the Permit-Required Confined Spaces Standard (29 CFR 1910.146). Assists users in identifying confined spaces and deal with permit-required confined spaces.
Confined Spaces. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic.
NIOSH Warns Farmers of Deadly Risk of Grain Suffocation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 93-116, (April 28, 1993). Discusses cases of nine farmers that suffocated to death in stored grain after being buried alive.
Preventing Deaths of Farm Workers in Manure Pits. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 90-103, (May 1990). Describes seven deaths from asphyxiation (suffocation) that occurred during two incidents involving entry into manure pits.
Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Concentrates on investigations of fatal occupational injuries, causes of death and recommendations for accident prevention. The following worker fatal injury facts were found in occupational confined space:
Confined Space Hazards a Threat to Farmers. National Ag Safety Database (NASD), (April 2002). Discusses modern farming methods that have brought new dangers that arise from farmers entering confined areas where oxygen levels may be inadequate or where toxic gases are present.
Beware of Manure Pit Hazards. National Ag Safety Database (NASD), (April 2002). Discusses cases that have been reported where several individuals have died while attempting to rescue a coworker or family member from a manure pit.
Confined Space Entry Policy and Procedures Manual. St. Olaf College.
All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.
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