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General Resources

This section provides useful resources and guidance materials for both employers and employees.

  • OSHA Alliances with Industry and Trades. OSHA (2004, November 2). Provides guidance to help protect workers' safety and health. One of the Alliance's education goals is to develop training programs under the broad categories of Training, Hazard Recognition, Management Systems, and Health Hazards.
  • Potential Hazards Associated With The Refurbishing of Gas Meters. OSHA Health Information Bulletin (HIB) (2001, December 21). Warns of potential cadmium dust exposure to employees who repair or refurbish gas meters. Cleaning the threaded male gas inlet and outlet fittings on gas meters, called "ferrules" or "spuds," with high-speed rotating wire brushes may release cadmium dust. Employers at gas-meter repair shops should determine whether meters being worked on are plated with cadmium and, if so, determine if workers are exposed.
  • Cadmium Overexposure in the Aircraft Repair Industry. OSHA Health Information Bulletin (HIB) (1989, February 21). Identifies a potential health hazard in the aircraft servicing, repairing, and maintenance industry resulting from exposure to cadmium dust. An inspection of a major carrier's landing gear shop revealed employee exposures to 85 times the ceiling limit (0.5 mg/m3) due to grinding activities on cadmium-plated landing gear components.
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - NIOSH Pocket Guide This pocket guide serves as a valuable resource for industrial hygienists and scientists who need information on occupational exposure levels, physical properties, and general health effects of chemicals.
  • Worker Notification Program - Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2004, August 17). Includes sections on the following subjects: NIOSH Kidney Study, NIOSH Mortality Study, charts that show the risk of dying from lung cancer for cadmium workers at the plant, Steps to Protect Your Health, Estimated "Relative" Risk of Dying from Lung Cancer and Additional Resources.
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). (1994, May). Documents the criteria and information sources used by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations, including cadmium.
  • Cadmium (Cd). US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 84-116 (Current Intelligence Bulletin 42) (1984, September 27).
  • Cadmium (PDF). US Geological Survey (2003). Compares estimated cadmium metal production in the United States in 2002 with 2003, and reports production declined by about 4% in 2003 and apparent domestic consumption declined by about 5% compared with consumption in 2002. Sales from the National Defense Stockpile, operated by the Defense Logistics Agency of the US Department of Defense, ceased at the beginning of 2003 owing to depletion of its inventory. In the United States, only two companies produced cadmium in 2003 - Pasminco Ltd. produced primary cadmium as a byproduct of the smelting and refining of zinc concentrates, and the International Metals Reclamation Company Inc. (INMETCO) produced secondary cadmium from scrap, almost entirely from spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries.
  • Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB). This databank is maintained by the National Library of Medicine. Contains information on physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, human health effects, animal toxicity, emergency medical treatment, pharmacology, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, environmental standards and regulations, chemical safety and handling, uses and manufacturing, occupational standards, and synonyms.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 639-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 639-2300.

**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.

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