Additional Resources

This section provides useful resources and guidance materials for both employers and employees.

  • Potential Hazards Associated With The Refurbishing of Gas Meters. OSHA Health Information Bulletin (HIB), (December 21, 2001). Warns of potential cadmium dust exposure to employees who repair or refurbish gas meters. Cleaning the threaded male gas inlet and outlet fittings on gas meters, called "ferrules" or "spuds," with high-speed rotating wire brushes may release cadmium dust. Employers at gas-meter repair shops should determine whether meters being worked on are plated with cadmium and, if so, determine if workers are exposed.
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - NIOSH Pocket Guide This pocket guide serves as a valuable resource for industrial hygienists and scientists who need information on occupational exposure levels, physical properties, and general health effects of chemicals.
  • Worker Notification Program - Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (August 17, 2004). Includes sections on the following subjects: NIOSH Kidney Study, NIOSH Mortality Study, charts that show the risk of dying from lung cancer for cadmium workers at the plant, Steps to Protect Your Health, Estimated "Relative" Risk of Dying from Lung Cancer and Additional Resources.
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). (May 1994). Documents the criteria and information sources used by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations, including cadmium.
  • Cadmium (Cd). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 84-116 (Current Intelligence Bulletin 42), (September 27, 1984).
  • Cadmium. U.S. Geological Survey, (2003). Compares estimated cadmium metal production in the United States in 2002 with 2003, and reports production declined by about 4% in 2003 and apparent domestic consumption declined by about 5% compared with consumption in 2002. Sales from the National Defense Stockpile, operated by the Defense Logistics Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, ceased at the beginning of 2003 owing to depletion of its inventory. In the United States, only two companies produced cadmium in 2003 - Pasminco Ltd. produced primary cadmium as a byproduct of the smelting and refining of zinc concentrates, and the International Metals Reclamation Company Inc. (INMETCO) produced secondary cadmium from scrap, almost entirely from spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries.
  • Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB). This databank is maintained by the National Library of Medicine. Contains information on physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, human health effects, animal toxicity, emergency medical treatment, pharmacology, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, environmental standards and regulations, chemical safety and handling, uses and manufacturing, occupational standards, and synonyms.