Surface Contamination

Evaluating Exposure

Surface contamination may cause serious injury and permanent damage. Workers that may be exposed need to be aware of the evaluation methods for hazards in their work environment. The following references aid in evaluating surface contamination hazards in the workplace.

Evaluating Exposure
  • Lead Test Kits. OSHA. Includes the summary performance evaluation of commercially available kits for field testing lead in paint and other solid materials.
  • Field Operations Manual (FOM). OSHA Directive CPL 02-00-164, (April 14, 2020).
  • Ness, Shirley A. Surface and Dermal Monitoring for Toxic Exposure. New York: Wiley, 1994. Includes techniques and applications of wipe sampling for surface contamination and methods for estimating dermal exposure of workers.
  • Leung, H. W. and D. J. Paustenbach. "Techniques for Estimating Percutaneous Absorption of Chemicals Due to Occupational and Environmental Exposure." Applied Occupational Environmental Hygiene 9.3(1994): 187-97. Assists industrial hygienists in assessing the risks of dermal uptake of chemicals in workplaces, lists of absorption rates and example calculations including the use of wipe sampling to estimate skin exposure are presented.
  • "Occupational Skin Exposure to Chemical Substances." Applied Occupational Environmental Hygiene 9.1(January 1994).
  • Caplan, K. J. "The Significance of Wipe Samples." American Industrial Hygiene Association 54.2(February 1993): 70-75. Indicates that there is no correlation between surface contamination levels as determined by wipe sampling and air concentration levels. Wipe sample levels can be useful in estimating dermal exposure if skin absorption data is available.
  • Lioy, P. J., T. Wainman, and C. Weisel. "A Wipe Sampler for the Quantitative Measurement of Dust on Smooth Surfaces: Laboratory Performance Studies." Journal or Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 3(1993): 315-330.
  • Stopa, P. J., et. al. "Recovery of Biological Materials from Surfaces, Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals." Air and Waste Management Association, Proceedings of the 1993 Environmental Protection Agency/Air and Waste Management Association (EPA/A&WMA) International Symposium, 2(1993): 1076-1081.
  • Lichtenwalner, C. P. "Evaluation of Wipe Sampling Procedures and Elemental Surface Contamination." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 53(1992): 657-9.
  • McArthur, B. "Dermal Measurement and Wipe Sampling Methods: A Review." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7.9(September 1992): 599-606. Provides a summary of several direct and indirect methods which may be used to assess dermal exposure.
Sampling and Analysis