This division includes establishments primarily engaged in construction. The term construction includes new work, additions, alterations, reconstruction, installations, and repairs. Construction activities are generally administered or managed from a relatively fixed place of business, but the actual construction work is performed at one or more different sites. If a company has more than one relatively fixed place of business from which it undertakes or manages construction activities and for which separate data on the number of employees, payroll, receipts, and other establishment-type records are maintained, each such place of business is considered a separate construction establishment.

Three broad types of construction activity are covered: (1) building construction by general contractors or by operative builders; (2) heavy construction other than building by general contractors and special trade contractors; and (3) construction activity by other special trade contractors. Special trade contractors are primarily engaged in specialized construction activities, such as plumbing, painting, and electrical work, and work for general contractors under subcontract or directly for property owners. General contractors usually assume responsibility for an entire construction project, but may subcontract to others all of the actual construction work or those portions of the project that require special skills or equipment. General contractors thus may or may not have construction workers on their payroll.

Building construction general contractors are primarily engaged in the construction of dwellings, office buildings, stores, farm buildings, and other building construction projects. Operative builders who build on their own account for resale are also included in this division. However, investment builders who build structures on their own account for rental are classified in Real Estate, Major Group 65, but separate establishments primarily engaged in construction for the investment builder are classified in this division.

General contractors and special trade contractors for heavy construction other than building are primarily engaged in the construction of highways; pipelines, communications and power lines, and sewer and water mains; and other heavy construction projects. Special trade contractors are classified in heavy construction other than building if they are primarily engaged in activities such as grading for highway and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs; asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets and public sidewalks; trenching; cable laying; conduit construction;underwater rock removal; pipeline wrapping; or land clearing and leveling.

Other special trade contractors undertake activities of a type that are either specialized to building construction or may be undertaken for building or nonbuilding projects. These activities include painting (including bridge painting and traffic lane painting) and electrical work (including work on bridges, power lines and power plants).

Establishments primarily engaged in managing construction projects for others on a contract or fee basis, but assuming no responsibility for completion of the construction project, are classified in Services, Industry 8741. Establishments primarily engaged in renting construction equipment, with or without an operator, are classified in Services, Industry Group 735.

Force account construction is construction work performed by an establishment primarily engaged in some business other than construction, for its own account and use, and by employees of the establishment. This activity is not included in this division, but is classified according to the primary activity which is or will be performed in the establishment. However, construction work performed as the primary activity of a separate establishment of an enterprise for the enterprise's own account is included in this division.

The installation of prefabricated building equipment and materials by general and special trade contractors is classified in this division. Similar installation work performed as a service incidental to sale by employees of an establishment manufacturing or selling prefabricated equipment and materials is classified according to the primary activity in the Manufacturing or Trade Divisions.

Establishments primarily engaged in the distribution and construction or installation of equipment often present classification problems. Since value added is not available for distinguishing the relative importance of sales versus installation or construction activities, payroll or employment may be used as measures yielding approximately the same results.

On this basis, separate establishments primarily engaged in the sale and installation of the following illustrative types of structures or integral parts of structures generally site assembled, are classified in construction rather than in trade:

a. Steel work on bridges or buildings; b. Elevators and escalators; c. Sprinkler systems; d. Central air-conditioning and heating equipment; e. Communications equipment; and f. Insulation materials.

On the other hand, establishments primarily engaged in the sale and installation of the following illustrative types of preassembled equipment are classified in trade rather than in construction:

a. Major household appliances, such as refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes washers and dryers, stoves and ranges; and b. Partitions for banks, stores, and restaurants.


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