- Part Number:1926
- Part Number Title:Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
- Subpart:1926 Subpart I
- Subpart Title:Tools - Hand and Power
- Standard Number:
- Title:Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
- GPO Source:
round belts 1⁄2 inch (1.27 cm) or less in diameter; and
single strand V-belts, the width of which is thirteen thirty-seconds (13⁄32) inch or less.
Vertical and inclined belts (paragraphs (e) (3) and (4) of this section) if not more than 2½ inches (6.35 cm) wide and running at a speed of less than one thousand (1,000) feet per minute, and if free from metal lacings or fastenings may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pulley guard.
For the Textile Industry, because of the presence of excessive deposits of lint, which constitute a serious fire hazard, the sides and face sections only of nip-point belt and pulley guards are required, provided the guard shall extend at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the rim of the pulley on the in-running and off-running sides of the belt and at least 2 inches (5.08 cm) away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.
Prime-mover guards -
Flywheels. Flywheels located so that any part is 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above floor or platform shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of this subparagraph:
For flywheels with smooth rims 5 feet (1.52 m) or less in diameter, where the preceding methods cannot be applied, the following may be used: A disk attached to the flywheel in such manner as to cover the spokes of the wheel on the exposed side and present a smooth surface and edge, at the same time providing means for periodic inspection. An open space, not exceeding 4 inches (10.16 cm) in width, may be left between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel if desired, to facilitate turning the wheel over. Where a disk is used, the keys or other dangerous projections not covered by disk shall be cut off or covered. This subdivision does not apply to flywheels with solid web centers.
Cranks and connecting rods. Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed to contact, shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section, or by a guardrail as described in paragraph (o)(5) of this section.
Tail rods or extension piston rods. Tail rods or extension piston rods shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section, or by a guardrail on sides and end, with a clearance of not less than 15 (38.1 cm) nor more than 20 inches (50.8 cm) when rod is fully extended.
Guarding horizontal shafting.
Guarding vertical and inclined shafting. Vertical and inclined shafting 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from floor or working platform, excepting maintenance runways, shall be enclosed with a stationary casing in accordance with requirements of paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.
Projecting shaft ends.
Power-transmission apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordance with this section, except that the requirements for safeguarding belts, pulleys, and shafting need not be complied with when the following requirements are met:
Guarding. Pulleys, any parts of which are 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded in accordance with the standards specified in paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976 m) from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.
Location of pulleys.
Broken pulleys. Pulleys with cracks, or pieces broken out of rims, shall not be used.
Pulley speeds. Pulleys intended to operate at rim speed in excess of manufacturers normal recommendations shall be specially designed and carefully balanced for the speed at which they are to operate.
Belt, rope, and chain drives -
Horizontal belts and ropes.
Overhead horizontal belts.
Vertical and inclined belts.
Vertical belts. Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor or platform shall be guarded at the bottom in the same manner as horizontal overhead belts, if conditions are as stated in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) (a) and (c) of this section.
Where suspended counterweights are used and not guarded by location, they shall be so encased as to prevent accident.
Gears, sprockets, and chains -
Gears. Gears shall be guarded in accordance with one of the following methods:
By a band guard covering the face of gear and having flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. Where any portion of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than 6 feet (1.824 m) from the floor a disk guard or a complete enclosure to the height of 6 feet (1.824 m) shall be required.
Hand-operated gears. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply to hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts and which do not continue to move after hand power is removed. However, the guarding of these gears is highly recommended.
Sprockets and chains. All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosed unless they are more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above the floor or platform. Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, protection against falling shall be provided. This subparagraph does not apply to manually operated sprockets.
Openings for oiling. When frequent oiling must be done, openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers shall be provided. All points not readily accessible shall have oil feed tubes if lubricant is to be added while machinery is in motion.
Guarding friction drives. The driving point of all friction drives when exposed to contact shall be guarded, all arm or spoke friction drives and all web friction drives with holes in the web shall be entirely enclosed, and all projecting belts on friction drives where exposed to contact shall be guarded.
Keys, setscrews, and other projections.
Collars and couplings -
Collars. All revolving collars, including split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws or bolts used in collars shall not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.
Couplings. Shaft couplings shall be so constructed as to present no hazard from bolts, nuts, setscrews, or revolving surfaces. Bolts, nuts, and setscrews will, however, be permitted where they are covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.
Bearings and facilities for oiling. All drip cups and pans shall be securely fastened.
Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys -
Guards. Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys having projecting parts, where such clutches are located 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above the floor or working platform, shall be enclosed by a stationary guard constructed in accordance with this section. A “U” type guard is permissible.
Engine rooms. In engine rooms a guardrail, preferably with toeboard, may be used instead of the guard required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section, provided such a room is occupied only by engine room attendants.
Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners -
Belt shifter and clutch handles shall be rounded and be located as far as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the operator. Where belt shifters are not directly located over a machine or bench, the handles shall be cut off 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976 m) above floor level.
Belt shippers and shipper poles. The use of belt poles as substitutes for mechanical shifters is not recommended.
Belt perches. Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practicable, belt perches in form of brackets, rollers, etc., shall be used to keep idle belts away from the shafts.
Belt fasteners. Belts which of necessity must be shifted by hand and belts within 7 feet (2.128 m) of the floor or working platform which are not guarded in accordance with this section shall not be fastened with metal in any case, nor with any other fastening which by construction or wear will constitute an accident hazard.
Standard guards - general requirements -
Standard conditions shall be secured by the use of the following materials. Expanded metal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron, or iron pipe securely fastened to floor or to frame of machine.
Methods of manufacture.
Approved materials -
Minimum requirements. The materials and dimensions specified in this paragraph shall apply to all guards, except horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor, or platform.
Guards for horizontal overhead belts.
Suitable reinforcement shall be provided for the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams, where such is necessary, to sustain safely the weight and stress likely to be imposed by the guard. The interior surface of all guards, by which is meant the surface of the guard with which a belt will come in contact, shall be smooth and free from all projections of any character, except where construction demands it; protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used. Overhead belt guards shall be at least one-quarter wider than belt which they protect, except that this clearance need not in any case exceed 6 inches (15.24 cm) on each side. Overhead rope drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards shall be not less than 6 inches (15.24 cm) wider than the drive on each side. In overhead silent chain-drive guards where the chain is held from lateral displacement on the sprockets, the side clearances required on drives of 20 inch (50.8 cm) centers or under shall be not less than 1⁄4 inch (0.635 cm) from the nearest moving chain part, and on drives of over 20 inch (50.8 cm) centers a minimum of 1⁄2 inch (1.27 cm) from the nearest moving chain part.
Guards for horizontal overhead rope and chain drives. Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction shall conform to the rules for overhead-belt guard.
Guardrails and toeboards.
Posts shall be not more than 8 feet (2.432 m) apart; they are to be permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and splinters. If made of pipe, the post shall be 1 1⁄4 inches (3.175 cm) inside diameter, or larger. If made of metal shapes or bars, their section shall be equal in strength to that of 1 1⁄2 (3.81 cm) by 1 1⁄2 (3.81 cm) by 3⁄16 inch angle iron. If made of wood, the posts shall be two by four (2 × 4) inches or larger. The upper rail shall be two by four (2 × 4) inches, or two one by four (1 × 4) strips, one at the top and one at the side of posts. The midrail may be one by four (1 × 4) inches or more. Where panels are fitted with expanded metal or wire mesh the middle rails may be omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment, additional strength may be necessary.
Care of equipment -
General. All power-transmission equipment shall be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days and be kept in good working condition at all times.
Bearings. Bearings shall be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.
Hangers. Hangers shall be inspected to make certain that all supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are adjusted properly.
Care of belts.
Lubrication. The regular oilers shall wear tight-fitting clothing. Machinery shall be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.
[58 FR 35176, June 30, 1993; 69 FR 31882, June 8, 2004]