- Part Number:1926
- Part Number Title:Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
- Subpart:1926 Subpart Z
- Subpart Title:Toxic and Hazardous Substances
- Standard Number:
- GPO Source:
Scope. This standard applies to all occupational exposures to cadmium and cadmium compounds, in all forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium. Construction work is defined as work involving construction, alteration and/or repair, including but not limited to the following:
Action level (AL) is defined as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.
Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas or any person authorized by the OSH Act or regulations issued under it to be in regulated areas.
Competent person, in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.32(f), means a person designated by the employer to act on the employer's behalf who is capable of identifying existing and potential cadmium hazards in the workplace and the proper methods to control them in order to protect workers, and has the authority necessary to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control such hazards. The duties of a competent person include at least the following: Determining prior to the performance of work whether cadmium is present in the workplace; establishing, where necessary, regulated areas and assuring that access to and from those areas is limited to authorized employees; assuring the adequacy of any employee exposure monitoring required by this standard; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in the use of appropriate methods of exposure control; assuring that proper hygiene facilities are provided and that workers are trained to use those facilities; and assuring that the engineering controls required by this standard are implemented, maintained in proper operating condition, and functioning properly.
Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.
Employee exposure and similar language referring to the air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
Final medical determination is the written medical opinion of the employee's health status by the examining physician under paragraphs (l)(3)-(12) of this section or, if multiple physician review under paragraph (l)(13) of this section or the alternative physician determination under paragraph (l)(14) of this section is invoked, it is the final, written medical finding, recommendation or determination that emerges from that process.
High-efficiency Particulate Air [HEPA] filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.
Regulated area means an area demarcated by the employer where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
This section means this cadmium standard.
ermissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of cadmium in excess of five micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3), calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA).
Where a determination conducted under paragraphs (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section is made that a potentially exposed employee is not exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the monitoring data developed under paragraphs (d)(2)(i)-(iii) of this section, where applicable, and shall also include the date of determination, and the name of each employee.
Additional monitoring. The employer also shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or finished products that may result in additional employees being exposed to cadmium at or above the action level or in employees already exposed to cadmium at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, or whenever the employer or competent person has any reason to suspect that any other change might result in such further exposure.
Employee notification of monitoring results.
Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis that has an accuracy of not less than plus or minus 25 percent (±25%), with a confidence level of 95 percent, for airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level and the permissible exposure limit.
Establishment. The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium is, or can reasonably be expected to be in excess of the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees of the boundaries of the regulated area, including employees who are or may be incidentally in the regulated areas, and that protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium in excess of the PEL.
Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.
Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section.
Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas, or carry the products associated with any of these activities into regulated areas or store such products in those areas.
Methods of compliance—
Abrasive blasting. Abrasive blasting on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in a manner that will provide adequate protection.
Heating cadmium and cadmium-containing materials. Welding, cutting, and other forms of heating of cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.353 and 29 CFR 1926.354, where applicable.
General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:
The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with §1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
The employer must provide a powered air-purifying respirator instead of a negative-pressure respirator when an employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator and such a respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.
Emergency situations. The employer shall develop and implement a written plan for dealing with emergency situations involving substantial releases of airborne cadmium. The plan shall include provisions for the use of appropriate respirators and personal protective equipment. In addition, employees not essential to correcting the emergency situation shall be restricted from the area and normal operations halted in that area until the emergency is abated.
Protective work clothing and equipment—
Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to airborne cadmium above the PEL or where skin or eye irritation is associated with cadmium exposure at any level, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments. Protective work clothing and equipment includes, but is not limited to:
Removal and storage.
Cleaning, replacement, and disposal.
Hygiene areas and practices—
General. For employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL, the employer shall provide clean change rooms, handwashing facilities, showers, and lunchroom facilities that comply with 29 CFR 1926.51.
Change rooms. The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment, which are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium and contamination of the employee's street clothes.
Showers and handwashing facilities.
The employer shall assure that the lunchroom facilities are readily accessible to employees, that tables for eating are maintained free of cadmium, and that no employee in a lunchroom facility is exposed at any time to cadmium at or above a concentration of 2.5 µg/m3.
Currently exposed—The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level and all employees who perform the following tasks, operations or jobs: Electrical grounding with cadmium welding; cutting, brazing, burning, grinding or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints; electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit; use of cadmium containing paints; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys; fusing of reinforced steel by cadmium welding; maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment; and, wrecking and demolition where cadmium is present. A medical surveillance program will not be required if the employer demonstrates that the employee:
Previously exposed— The employer shall also institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who might previously have been exposed to cadmium by the employer prior to the effective date of this standard in tasks specified under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(A) of this section, unless the employer demonstrates that the employee did not in the years prior to the effective date of this section work in those tasks for the employer with exposure to cadmium for an aggregated total of more than 12 months.
The employer shall assure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is done in a manner that assures their reliability and that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency to perform the particular analysis. (See appendix F to this section.)
Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in appendix F to this section; and
Actions triggered by initial biological monitoring.
If the results of the biological monitoring tests in the initial examination show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level to be at or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 µg/lwb, then:
For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i)(B) of this section because of prior but not current exposure, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, B2-M, and CdB one year after the initial biological monitoring and then the employer shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(vi) of this section.
For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 µg/g Cr, the level of β2-M to be in excess of 300 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:
Within 30 days after the exposure reassessment, specified in paragraph (l)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, take reasonable steps to correct any deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium; and,
Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. If the physician determines that medical removal is not necessary, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:
For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 15 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 15 µg/lwb, or the level of β2-M to be in excess of 1,500 µg/g Cr, the employer shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (l)(3)(ii)(A)-(B) of this section. Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 15 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 15 µg/lwb; or β2-M exceeds 1500 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician shall medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this paragraph or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer shall:
Periodic medical surveillance.
A 14 inch by 17 inch or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray (after the initial X-ray, the frequency of chest X-rays is to be determined by the examining physician);
If the results of periodic biological monitoring or the results of biological monitoring performed as part of the periodic medical examination show the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB to be in excess of the levels specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section; or beginning on January 1, 1999, in excess of the levels specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii) or (iv), the employer shall take the appropriate actions specified in paragraphs (l)(3)(ii)-(iv) of this section, respectively.
If the employee's levels of CdU did not exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB did not exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M did not exceed 300 µg/g Cr in the initial biological monitoring tests, and if the results of the followup biological monitoring required by paragraph (l)(3)(i)(B) of this section one year after the initial examination confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
If the initial biological monitoring results for CdU, CdB, or β2-M were in excess of the levels specified in paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, but subsequent biological monitoring results required by paragraph (l)(3)(ii)-(iv) of this section show that the employee's CdU levels no longer exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB levels no longer exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M levels no longer exceed 300 µg/g Cr, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, CdB, and β2-M one year after these most recent biological monitoring results. If the results of the followup biological monitoring specified in this paragraph, confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
However, if the results of the follow-up tests specified in paragraph (l)(4)(v)(A) or (B) of this section indicate that the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB exceeds these same levels, the employer is required to provide annual medical examinations in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section until the results of biological monitoring are consistently below these levels or the examining physician determines in a written medical opinion that further medical surveillance is not required to protect the employee's health.
Actions triggered by medical examinations.
Examination for respirator use.
To determine an employee's fitness for respirator use, the employer shall provide a medical examination that includes the elements specified in paragraph (l)(6)(i)(A)-(D) of this section. This examination shall be provided prior to the employee's being assigned to a job that requires the use of a respirator or no later than 90 days after this section goes into effect, whichever date is later, to any employee without a medical examination within the preceding 12 months that satisfies the requirements of this paragraph.
Any other test or precedure that the examining physician deems appropriate.
Where the results of the examination required under paragraphs (l)(6)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section are abnormal, medical limitation or prohibition of respirator use shall be considered. If the employee is allowed to wear a respirator, the employee's ability to continue to do so shall be periodically evaluated by a physician.
The examination shall include the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii), of this section, with emphasis on the respiratory system, other organ systems considered appropriate by the examining physician, and symptoms of acute overexposure, as identified in paragraphs II(B)(1)-(2) and IV of appendix A of this section.
Termination of employment examination.
At termination of employment, the employer shall provide a medical examination in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section, including a chest X-ray where necessary, to any employee to whom at any prior time the employer was required to provide medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(1)(i) or (l)(7) of this section. However, if the last examination satisfied the requirements of paragraph (l)(4)(ii) of this section and was less than six months prior to the date of termination, no further examination is required unless otherwise specified in paragraph (l)(3) or (l)(5) of this section;
In addition, if the employer has discontinued all periodic medical surveillance under paragraph (l)(4)(v) of this section, no termination of employment medical examination is required.
Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
Relevant results of previous biological monitoring and medical examinations.
Physician's written medical opinion.
Medical Removal Protection (MRP)—
Except as specified in paragraph (l)(11)(v) of this section, no employee who was removed because his/her level of CdU, CdB and/or β2-M exceeded the trigger levels in paragraph (l)(3) or (l)(4) of this section may be returned to work with exposure to cadmium at or above the action level until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 µg/g Cr, CdB fall to or below 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M fall to or below 300 µg/g Cr.
Medical removal protection benefits.
Multiple physician review.
Alternate physician determination. The employer and an employee or designated employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate form of physician determination in lieu of the multiple physician review provided by paragraph (l)(13) of this section, so long as the alternative is expeditious and at least as protective of the employee.
Information the employer must provide the employee.
Reporting. In addition to other medical events that are required to be reported on the OSHA Form No. 200, the employer shall report any abnormal condition or disorder caused by occupational exposure to cadmium associated with employment as specified in Chapter (V)(E) of the Reporting Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.
Communication of cadmium hazards to employees—
Hazard communication. The employer shall include cadmium in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of cadmium and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (m)(4) of this section. The employer shall provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer; lung effects; kidney effects; and acute toxicity effects.
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
AVOID CREATING DUST
AVOID CREATING DUST
CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE
Employee information and training.
The employee's rights of access to records under §1926.33(g) (1) and (2).
Multi-employer workplace. In a multi-employer workplace, an employer who produces, uses, or stores cadmium in a manner that may expose employees of other employers to cadmium shall notify those employers of the potential hazard in accordance with paragraph (e) of the hazard communication standard for construction, 29 CFR 1926.59.
The name and job classification of all employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposures the monitoring result is intended to represent, including, where applicable, a description of how it was determined that the employee's monitoring result could be taken to represent other employee's exposures;
The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1926.33 of this part.
The employer shall also provide a copy of the results of an employee's air monitoring prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section to an industry trade association and to the employee's union, if any, or, if either of such associations or unions do not exist, to another comparable organization that is competent to maintain such records and is reasonably accessible to employers and employees in the industry.
Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring.
Name and description of duties;
The employer shall assure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with §1926.33 of this part.
Transfer of records. Whenever an employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer or designated organization to receive and retain records for the prescribed period, the employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in §1926.33 (h) of this part.
Observation of monitoring—
Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to cadmium.
Observation procedures. When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with that clothing and equipment and shall assure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
Appendices. Except where portions of appendices A, B, D, E, and F to this section are expressly incorporated in requirements of this section, these appendices are purely informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.
[57 FR 42452, Sept. 14, 1992, as amended at 57 FR 49272, Oct. 30, 1992; 58 FR 21787, Apr. 23, 1993. Redesignated and amended at 59 FR 215, Jan. 3, 1994; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31433, 31434, June 20, 1996; 63 FR 1298, Jan. 8, 1998; 70 FR 1144, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16675, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 50192, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75589, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33612, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17895, Mar. 26, 2012; 84 FR 21597, May 14, 2019]