• Part Number:
    1910
  • Part Number Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards
  • Subpart:
    1910 Subpart U
  • Subpart Title:
    COVID–19 Emergency Temporary Standard
  • Standard Number:
  • Title:
    Healthcare.
  • GPO Source:
1910.502(a)

Scope and application.

1910.502(a)(1)

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, this section applies to all settings where any employee provides healthcare services or healthcare support services.

1910.502(a)(2)

This section does not apply to the following:

1910.502(a)(2)(i)

The provision of first aid by an employee who is not a licensed healthcare provider;

1910.502(a)(2)(ii)

The dispensing of prescriptions by pharmacists in retail settings;

1910.502(a)(2)(iii)

Non-hospital ambulatory care settings where all non-employees are screened prior to entry and people with suspected or confirmed COVID–19 are not permitted to enter those settings;

1910.502(a)(2)(iv)

Well-defined hospital ambulatory care settings where all employees are fully vaccinated and all non-employees are screened prior to entry and people with suspected or confirmed COVID–19 are not permitted to enter those settings;

1910.502(a)(2)(v)

Home healthcare settings where all employees are fully vaccinated and all non-employees are screened prior to entry and people with suspected or confirmed COVID–19 are not present;

1910.502(a)(2)(vi)

Healthcare support services not performed in a healthcare setting (e.g., off-site laundry, off-site medical billing); or

1910.502(a)(2)(vii)

Telehealth services performed outside of a setting where direct patient care occurs.

Note to paragraph (a)(2). OSHA does not intend to preclude the employers of employees who are unable to be vaccinated from the scope exemption in paragraphs (a)(2)(iv) and (v) of this section. Under various anti-discrimination laws, workers who cannot be vaccinated because of medical conditions, such as allergies to vaccine ingredients, or certain religious beliefs may ask for a reasonable accommodation from their employer. Accordingly, where an employer reasonably accommodates an employee who is unable to be vaccinated in a manner that does not expose the employee to COVID–19 hazards (e.g., telework, working in isolation), that employer may be within the scope exemption in paragraphs (a)(2)(iv) and (v) of this section.

1910.502(a)(3)(i)

Where a healthcare setting is embedded within a non-healthcare setting (e.g., medical clinic in a manufacturing facility, walk-in clinic in a retail setting), this section applies only to the embedded healthcare setting and not to the remainder of the physical location.

1910.502(a)(3)(ii)

Where emergency responders or other licensed healthcare providers enter a non-healthcare setting to provide healthcare services, this section applies only to the provision of the healthcare services by that employee.

1910.502(a)(4)

In well-defined areas where there is no reasonable expectation that any person with suspected or confirmed COVID–19 will be present, paragraphs (f), (h), and (i) of this section do not apply to employees who are fully vaccinated.

Note 1 to paragraph (a). Nothing in this section is intended to limit state or local government mandates or guidance (e.g., executive order, health department order) that go beyond the requirements of and are not inconsistent with this section.

Note 2 to paragraph (a): Employers are encouraged to follow public health guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) even when not required by this section.

1910.502(b)

Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section:

Aerosol-generating procedure means a medical procedure that generates aerosols that can be infectious and are of respirable size. For the purposes of this section, only the following medical procedures are considered aerosol generating procedures: Open suctioning of airways; sputum induction; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; endotracheal intubation and extubation; non-invasive ventilation (e.g., BiPAP, CPAP); bronchoscopy; manual ventilation; medical/surgical/ postmortem procedures using oscillating bone saws; and dental procedures involving: Ultrasonic scalers; high-speed dental handpieces; air/water syringes; air polishing; and air abrasion.

Airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) means a dedicated negative pressure patient-care room, with special air handling capability, which is used to isolate persons with a suspected or confirmed airborne-transmissible infectious disease. AIIRs include both permanent rooms and temporary structures (e.g., a booth, tent or other enclosure designed to operate under negative pressure).

Ambulatory care means healthcare services performed on an outpatient basis, without admission to a hospital or other facility. It is provided in settings such as: Offices of physicians and other health care professionals; hospital outpatient departments; ambulatory surgical centers; specialty clinics or centers (e.g., dialysis, infusion, medical imaging); and urgent care clinics. Ambulatory care does not include home healthcare settings for the purposes of this section.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Clean/cleaning means the removal of dirt and impurities, including germs, from surfaces using soap and water or other cleaning agents. Cleaning alone reduces germs on surfaces by removing contaminants and may also weaken or damage some of the virus particles, which decreases risk of infection from surfaces.

Close contact means being within 6 feet of any other person for a cumulative total of 15 minutes or more over a 24-hour period during that person’s potential period of transmission. The potential transmission period runs from 2 days before the person felt sick (or, for asymptomatic people, 2 days prior to test specimen collection) until the time the person is isolated.

Common areas means indoor or outdoor locations under the control of the employer that more than one person may use or where people congregate (e.g., building lobbies, reception areas, waiting rooms, restrooms, break rooms, eating areas, conference rooms).

COVID–19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) means the respiratory disease caused by SARS–CoV–2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). For clarity and ease of reference, this section refers to ‘‘COVID–19’’ when describing exposures or potential exposures to SARS–CoV–2.

COVID–19 positive and confirmed COVID–19 refer to a person who has a confirmed positive test for, or who has been diagnosed by a licensed healthcare provider with, COVID–19.

COVID–19 symptoms mean the following: Fever or chills; cough; shortness of breath or difficulty breathing; fatigue; muscle or body aches; headache; new loss of taste or smell; sore throat; congestion or runny nose; nausea or vomiting; diarrhea.

COVID–19 test means a test for SARS–CoV–2 that is:

(i) Cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or is authorized by an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the FDA to diagnose current infection with the SARS–CoV–2 virus; and

(ii) Administered in accordance with the FDA clearance or approval or the FDA EUA as applicable

Direct patient care means hands-on, face-to-face contact with patients for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

Disinfect/disinfection means using an EPA-registered, hospital-grade disinfectant on EPA’s ‘‘List N’’ (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509), in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions to kill germs on surfaces.

Elastomeric respirator means a tightfitting respirator with a facepiece that is made of synthetic or rubber material that permits it to be disinfected, cleaned, and reused according to manufacturer’s instructions. It is equipped with a replaceable cartridge(s), canister(s), or filter(s).

Facemask means a surgical, medical procedure, dental, or isolation mask that is FDA-cleared, authorized by an FDA EUA, or offered or distributed as described in an FDA enforcement policy. Facemasks may also be referred to as ‘‘medical procedure masks.’’

Face shield means a device, typically made of clear plastic, that:

(i) Is certified to ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509); or

(ii) Covers the wearer’s eyes, nose, and mouth to protect from splashes, sprays, and spatter of body fluids, wraps around the sides of the wearer’s face (i.e., temple-to-temple), and extends below the wearer’s chin.

Filtering facepiece respirator means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a non-replaceable filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the nonreplaceable filtering medium.

Fully vaccinated means 2 weeks or more following the final dose of a COVID–19 vaccine.

Hand hygiene means the cleaning and/or disinfecting of one’s hands by using standard handwashing methods with soap and running water or an alcohol-based hand rub that is at least 60% alcohol.

Healthcare services mean services that are provided to individuals by professional healthcare practitioners (e.g., doctors, nurses, emergency medical personnel, oral health professionals) for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring, or restoring health. Healthcare services are delivered through various means including: Hospitalization, long-term care, ambulatory care, home health and hospice care, emergency medical response, and patient transport. For the purposes of this section, healthcare services include autopsies.

Healthcare support services mean services that facilitate the provision of healthcare services. Healthcare support services include patient intake/ admission, patient food services, equipment and facility maintenance, housekeeping services, healthcare laundry services, medical waste handling services, and medical equipment cleaning/reprocessing services.

High-touch surfaces and equipment means any surface or piece of equipment that is repeatedly touched by more than one person (e.g., doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, tables, phones, keyboards, tools, toilets, faucets, sinks, credit card terminals, touchscreen-enabled devices).

Physical location means a site (including outdoor and indoor areas, a structure, or a group of structures) or an area within a site where work or any work-related activity (e.g., taking breaks, going to the restroom, eating, entering, or exiting work) occurs. A physical location includes the entirety of any space associated with the site (e.g., workstations, hallways, stairwells, breakrooms, bathrooms, elevators) and any other space that an employee might occupy in arriving, working, or leaving.

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

Respirator means a type of personal protective equipment (PPE) that is certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 or is authorized under an EUA by the FDA. Respirators protect against airborne hazards by removing specific air contaminants from the ambient (surrounding) air or by supplying breathable air from a safe source. Common types of respirators include filtering facepiece respirators, elastomeric respirators, and PAPRs. Face coverings, facemasks, and face shields are not respirators.

Screen means asking questions to determine whether a person is COVID–19 positive or has symptoms of COVID–19.

Surgical mask means a mask that covers the user’s nose and mouth and provides a physical barrier to fluids and particulate materials. The mask meets certain fluid barrier protection standards and Class I or Class II flammability tests. Surgical masks are generally regulated by FDA as Class II devices under 21 CFR 878.4040—Surgical apparel.

Vaccine means a biological product authorized or licensed by the FDA to prevent or provide protection against COVID–19, whether the substance is administered through a single dose or a series of doses.

Workplace means a physical location (e.g., fixed, mobile) where the employer’s work or operations are performed.

1910.502(c)

COVID–19 plan.

1910.502(c)(1)

The employer must develop and implement a COVID–19 plan for each workplace. If the employer has multiple workplaces that are substantially similar, its COVID–19 plan may be developed by workplace type rather than by individual workplace so long as all required site specific information is included in the plan.

Note to paragraph (c)(1). For those employers who do not already have a COVID–19 plan in place, OSHA’s website contains significant compliance assistance materials, including a model plan.

1910.502(c)(2)

If the employer has more than 10 employees, the COVID–19 plan must be written.

1910.502(c)(3)

The employer must designate one or more workplace COVID–19 safety coordinators to implement and monitor the COVID–19 plan developed under this section. The COVID–19 safety coordinator(s) must be knowledgeable in infection control principles and practices as they apply to the workplace and employee job operations. The identity of the safety coordinator(s) must be documented in any written COVID–19 plan. The safety coordinator(s) must have the authority to ensure compliance with all aspects of the COVID–19 plan.

1910.502(c)(4)(i)

The employer must conduct a workplace-specific hazard assessment to identify potential workplace hazards related to COVID–19.

1910.502(c)(4)(ii)

In order for an employer to be exempt from providing controls in a well-defined area under paragraph (a)(4) of this section based on employees’ fully vaccinated status, the COVID–19 plan must include policies and procedures to determine employees’ vaccination status.

1910.502(c)(5)

The employer must seek the input and involvement of non-managerial employees and their representatives, if any, in the hazard assessment and the development and implementation of the COVID–19 plan.

1910.502(c)(6)

The employer must monitor each workplace to ensure the ongoing effectiveness of the COVID–19 plan and update it as needed.

1910.502(c)(7)

The COVID–19 plan must address the hazards identified by the assessment required by paragraph (c)(4) of this section, and include policies and procedures to:

1910.502(c)(7)(i)

Minimize the risk of transmission of COVID–19 for each employee, as required by paragraphs (d) through (n) of this section;

Note to paragraph (c)(7)(i). Although the employer’s COVID–19 plan must account for the potential COVID–19 exposures to each employee, the plan can do so generally and need not address each employee individually.

1910.502(c)(7)(ii)

Effectively communicate and coordinate with other employers:

1910.502(c)(7)(ii)(A)

When employees of different employers share the same physical location, each employer must effectively communicate its COVID–19 plan to all other employers, coordinate to ensure that each of its employees is protected as required by this section, and adjust its COVID–19 plan to address any particular COVID–19 hazards presented by the other employees. This requirement does not apply to delivery people, messengers, and other employees who only enter a workplace briefly to drop off or pick up items.

1910.502(c)(7)(ii)(B)

An employer with one or more employees working in a physical location controlled by another employer must notify the controlling employer when those employees are exposed to conditions at that location that do not meet the requirements of this section; and

1910.502(c)(7)(iii)

Protect employees who in the course of their employment enter into private residences or other physical locations controlled by a person not covered by the OSH Act (e.g., homeowners, sole proprietors). This must include procedures for employee withdrawal from that location if those protections are inadequate.

Note to paragraph (c). The employer may include other policies, procedures, or information necessary to comply with any applicable federal, state, or local public health laws, standards, and guidelines in their COVID–19 plan.

1910.502(d)

Patient screening and management. In settings where direct patient care is provided, the employer must:

1910.502(d)(1)

Limit and monitor points of entry to the setting. This provision does not apply where emergency responders or other licensed healthcare providers enter a non-healthcare setting to provide healthcare services.

1910.502(d)(2)

Screen and triage all clients, patients, residents, delivery people and other visitors, and other non-employees entering the setting.

1910.502(d)(3)

Implement other applicable patient management strategies in accordance with CDC’s ‘‘COVID–19 Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations’’ (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509).

Note to paragraph (d). The employer is encouraged to use telehealth services where available and appropriate in order to limit the number of people entering the workplace.

1910.502(e)

Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions. Employers must develop and implement policies and procedures to adhere to Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions in accordance with CDC’s ‘‘Guidelines for Isolation Precautions’’ (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509).

1910.502(f)

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

1910.502(f)(1)

Facemasks.

1910.502(f)(1)(i)

Employers must provide, and ensure that employees wear, facemasks that meet the definition in paragraph (b) of this section; and

1910.502(f)(1)(ii)

The employer must ensure a facemask is worn by each employee over the nose and mouth when indoors and when occupying a vehicle with other people for work purposes. The employer must provide a sufficient number of facemasks to each employee to comply with this paragraph and must ensure that each employee changes them at least once per day, whenever they are soiled or damaged, and more frequently as necessary (e.g., patient care reasons).

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)

The following are exceptions to the requirements for facemasks in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section:

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(A)

When an employee is alone in a room.

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(B)

While an employee is eating and drinking at the workplace, provided each employee is at least 6 feet away from any other person, or separated from other people by a physical barrier.

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(C)

When employees are wearing respiratory protection in accordance with § 1910.134 or paragraph (f) of this section.

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(D)

When it is important to see a person’s mouth (e.g., communicating with an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing) and the conditions do not permit a facemask that is constructed of clear plastic (or includes a clear plastic window). In such situations, the employer must ensure that each employee wears an alternative to protect the employee, such as a face shield, if the conditions permit it.

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(E)

When employees cannot wear facemasks due to a medical necessity, medical condition, or disability as defined in the Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), or due to a religious belief. Exceptions must be provided for a narrow subset of persons with a disability who cannot wear a facemask or cannot safely wear a facemask, because of the disability, as defined in the Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), including a person who cannot independently remove the facemask. The remaining portion of the subset who cannot wear a facemask may be exempted on a case-by-case basis as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act and other applicable laws. In all such situations, the employer must ensure that any such employee wears a face shield for the protection of the employee, if their condition or disability permits it. Accommodations may also need to be made for religious beliefs consistent with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

1910.502(f)(1)(iii)(F)

When the employer can demonstrate that the use of a facemask presents a hazard to an employee of serious injury or death (e.g., arc flash, heat stress, interfering with the safe operation of equipment). In such situations, the employer must ensure that each employee wears an alternative to protect the employee, such as a face shield, if the conditions permit it. Any employee not wearing a facemask must remain at least 6 feet away from all other people unless the employer can demonstrate it is not feasible. The employee must resume wearing a facemask when not engaged in the activity where the facemask presents a hazard.

Note to paragraph (f)(1)(iii)(F). With respect to paragraphs (f)(1)(iii)(D) through (F) of this section, the employer may determine that the use of face shields, without facemasks, in certain settings is not appropriate due to other infection control concerns.

1910.502(f)(1)(iv)

Where a face shield is required to comply with this paragraph or is otherwise required by the employer, the employer must ensure that face shields are cleaned at least daily and are not damaged. When an employee provides a face shield that meets the definition in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer may allow the employee to use it and is not required to reimburse the employee for that face shield.

1910.502(f)(2)

Respirators and other PPE for exposure to people with suspected or confirmed COVID–19. When employees have exposure to a person with suspected or confirmed COVID–19, the employer must provide:

1910.502(f)(2)(i)

A respirator to each employee and ensure that it is provided and used in accordance with § 1910.134 and

1910.502(f)(2)(ii)

Gloves, an isolation gown or protective clothing, and eye protection to each employee and ensure that the PPE is used in accordance with subpart I of this part.

Note to paragraph (f)(2). When there is a limited supply of filtering facepiece respirators, employers may follow the CDC’s ‘‘Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators’’ (available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/respirators-strategy/index.html). Where possible, employers are encouraged to select elastomeric respirators or PAPRs instead of filtering facepiece respirators to prevent shortages and supply chain disruption.

1910.502(f)(3)

Respirators and other PPE during aerosol-generating procedures. For aerosol-generating procedures performed on a person with suspected or confirmed COVID–19, the employer must provide:

1910.502(f)(3)(i)

A respirator to each employee and ensure that it is provided and used in accordance with § 1910.134; and

1910.502(f)(3)(ii)

Gloves, an isolation gown or protective clothing, and eye protection to each employee and ensure that the PPE is used in accordance with subpart I of this part.

Note 1 to paragraph (f)(3). For aerosol generating procedures on a person suspected or confirmed with COVID–19, employers are encouraged to select elastomeric respirators or PAPRs instead of filtering facepiece respirators.

Note 2 to paragraph (f)(3). Additional requirements specific to aerosol-generating procedures on people with suspected or confirmed COVID–19 are contained in paragraph (g) of this section.

1910.502(f)(4)

Use of respirators when not required.

1910.502(f)(4)(i)

The employer may provide a respirator to the employee instead of a facemask as required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section. In such circumstances, the employer must comply with § 1910.504.

1910.502(f)(4)(ii)

Where the employer provides the employee with a facemask as required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the employer must permit the employee to wear their own respirator instead of a facemask. In such circumstances, the employer must also comply with § 1910.504.

1910.502(f)(5)

Respirators and other PPE based on Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions. The employer must provide protective clothing and equipment (e.g., respirators, gloves, gowns, goggles, face shields) to each employee in accordance with Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions in healthcare settings in accordance with CDC’s ‘‘Guidelines for Isolation Precautions’’ (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509) and ensure that the protective clothing and equipment is used in accordance with subpart I of this part.

1910.502(g)

Aerosol-generating procedures on a person with suspected or confirmed COVID–19. When an aerosol-generating procedure is performed on a person with suspected or confirmed COVID–19:

1910.502(g)(1)

The employer must limit the number of employees present during the procedure to only those essential for patient care and procedure support.

1910.502(g)(2)

The employer must ensure that the procedure is performed in an existing AIIR, if available.

1910.502(g)(3)

After the procedure is completed, the employer must clean and disinfect the surfaces and equipment in the room or area where the procedure was performed.

Note to paragraph (g). Respirators and other PPE requirements during aerosol generating procedures are contained in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

1910.502(h)

Physical distancing.

1910.502(h)(1)

The employer must ensure that each employee is separated from all other people by at least 6 feet when indoors unless the employer can demonstrate that such physical distancing is not feasible for a specific activity (e.g., hands-on medical care). This provision does not apply to momentary exposure while people are in movement (e.g., passing in hallways or aisles).

1910.502(h)(2)

When the employer establishes it is not feasible for an employee to maintain a distance of at least 6 feet from all other people, the employer must ensure that the employee is as far apart from all other people as feasible.

Note to paragraph (h). Physical distancing can include methods such as: Telehealth; telework or other remote work arrangements; reducing the number of people, including non-employees, in an area at one time; visual cues such as signs and floor markings to indicate where employees and others should be located or their direction and path of travel; staggered arrival, departure, work, and break times; and adjusted work processes or procedures to allow greater distance between employees.

1910.502(i)

Physical barriers. At each fixed work location outside of direct patient care areas (e.g., entryway/lobby, check-in desks, triage, hospital pharmacy windows, bill payment) where each employee is not separated from all other people by at least 6 feet of distance, the employer must install cleanable or disposable solid barriers, except where the employer can demonstrate it is not feasible. The barrier must be sized (e.g., height and width) and located to block face-to-face pathways between individuals based on where each person would normally stand or sit. The barrier may have a pass-through space at the bottom for objects and merchandise.

Note to paragraph (i). Physical barriers are not required in direct patient care areas or resident rooms.

1910.502(j)

Cleaning and disinfection.

1910.502(j)(1)

In patient care areas, resident rooms, and for medical devices and equipment, the employer must follow standard practices for cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment in accordance with CDC’s "COVID–19 Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations" and CDC’s "Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control," pp. 86–103, 147–149 (both incorporated by reference, § 1910.509).

1910.502(j)(2)

In all other areas, the employer must:

1910.502(j)(2)(i)

Clean high-touch surfaces and equipment at least once a day, following manufacturers’ instructions for application of cleaners; and

1910.502(j)(2)(ii)

When the employer is aware that a person who is COVID–19 positive has been in the workplace within the last 24 hours, clean and disinfect, in accordance with CDC’s "Cleaning and Disinfecting Guidance" (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509), any areas, materials, and equipment under the employer’s control that have likely been contaminated by the person who is COVID–19 positive (e.g., rooms they occupied, items they touched).

1910.502(j)(3)

The employer must provide alcohol-based hand rub that is at least 60% alcohol or provide readily accessible hand washing facilities.

1910.502(k)

Ventilation.

1910.502(k)(1)

Employers who own or control buildings or structures with an existing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) must ensure that:

1910.502(k)(1)(i)

The HVAC system(s) is used in accordance with the HVAC manufacturer’s instructions and the design specifications of the HVAC system(s);

1910.502(k)(1)(ii)

The amount of outside air circulated through its HVAC system(s) and the number of air changes per hour are maximized to the extent appropriate;

1910.502(k)(1)(iii)

All air filters are rated Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) 13 or higher, if compatible with the HVAC system(s). If MERV–13 or higher filters are not compatible with the HVAC system(s), employers must use filters with the highest compatible filtering efficiency for the HVAC system(s);

1910.502(k)(1)(iv)

All air filters are maintained and replaced as necessary to ensure the proper function and performance of the HVAC system(s); and

1910.502(k)(1)(v)

All intake ports that provide outside air to the HVAC system(s) are cleaned, maintained, and cleared of any debris that may affect the function and performance of the HVAC system(s).

1910.502(k)(2)

Where the employer has an existing AIIR, the employer must maintain and operate it in accordance with its design and construction criteria.

Note 1 to paragraph (k). This section does not require installation of new HVAC systems or AIIRs to replace or augment functioning systems.

Note 2 to paragraph (k). In addition to the requirements for existing HVAC systems and AIIRs, all employers should also consider other measures to improve ventilation in accordance with "CDC’s Ventilation Guidance," (available at www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/ ventilation.html) (e.g., opening windows and doors). This could include maximizing ventilation in buildings without HVAC systems or in vehicles.

1910.502(l)

Health screening and medical management—

1910.502(l)(1)

Screening.

1910.502(l)(1)(i)

The employer must screen each employee before each work day and each shift. Screening may be conducted by asking employees to self-monitor before reporting to work or may be conducted in-person by the employer.

1910.502(l)(1)(ii)

If a COVID–19 test is required by the employer for screening purposes, the employer must provide the test to each employee at no cost to the employee.

1910.502(l)(2)

Employee notification to employer of COVID–19 illness or symptoms. The employer must require each employee to promptly notify the employer when the employee:

1910.502(l)(2)(i)

Is COVID–19 positive (i.e., confirmed positive test for, or has been diagnosed by a licensed healthcare provider with, COVID–19); or

1910.502(l)(2)(ii)

Has been told by a licensed healthcare provider that they are suspected to have COVID–19; or

1910.502(l)(2)(iii)

Is experiencing recent loss of taste and/or smell with no other explanation; or

1910.502(l)(2)(iv)

Is experiencing both fever (≥100.4 °F) and new unexplained cough associated with shortness of breath.

1910.502(l)(3)

Employer notification to employees of COVID–19 exposure in the workplace.

1910.502(l)(3)(i)

Except as provided for in paragraph (l)(3)(iii) of this section, when the employer is notified that a person who has been in the workplace(s) (including employees, clients, patients, residents, vendors, contractors, customers, delivery people and other visitors, or other non-employees) is COVID–19 positive, the employer must, within 24 hours:

1910.502(l)(3)(i)(A)

Notify each employee who was not wearing a respirator and any other required PPE and has been in close contact with that person in the workplace. The notification must state the fact that the employee was in close contact with someone with COVID–19 along with the date(s) that contact occurred.

1910.502(l)(3)(i)(B)

Notify all other employees who were not wearing a respirator and any other required PPE and worked in a well-defined portion of a workplace (e.g., a particular floor) in which that person was present during the potential transmission period. The potential transmission period runs from 2 days before the person felt sick (or, for asymptomatic people, 2 days prior to test specimen collection) until the time the person is isolated. The notification must specify the date(s) the person with COVID–19 was in the workplace during the potential transmission period.

1910.502(l)(3)(i)(C)

Notify other employers whose employees were not wearing respirators and any other required PPE and have been in close contact with that person, or worked in a well-defined portion of a workplace (e.g., a particular floor) in which that person was present, during the potential transmission period. The potential transmission period runs from 2 days before the person felt sick (or, for asymptomatic people, 2 days prior to test specimen collection) until the time the person is isolated. The notification must specify the date(s) the person with COVID–19 was in the workplace during the potential transmission period and the location(s) where the person with COVID–19 was in the workplace.

1910.502(l)(3)(ii)

The notifications required by paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section must not include any employee’s name, contact information (e.g., phone number, email address), or occupation.

1910.502(l)(3)(iii)

The notification provisions are not triggered by the presence of a patient with confirmed COVID–19 in a workplace where services are normally provided to suspected or confirmed COVID–19 patients (e.g., emergency rooms, urgent care facilities, COVID–19 testing sites, COVID–19 wards in hospitals).

1910.502(l)(4)

Medical removal from the workplace.

1910.502(l)(4)(i)

If the employer knows an employee meets the criteria listed in paragraph (l)(2)(i) of this section, then the employer must immediately remove that employee and keep the employee removed until they meet the return to work criteria in paragraph (l)(6) of this section.

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)

If the employer knows an employee meets the criteria listed in paragraphs (l)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section, then the employer must immediately remove that employee and either:

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)(A)

Keep the employee removed until they meet the return to work criteria in paragraph (l)(6) of this section; or

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)(B)

Keep the employee removed and provide a COVID–19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test at no cost to the employee.

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)(B)(1)

If the test results are negative, the employee may return to work immediately.

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)(B)(2)

If the test results are positive, the employer must comply with paragraph (l)(4)(i) of this section.

1910.502(l)(4)(ii)(B)(3)

If the employee refuses to take the test, the employer must continue to keep the employee removed from the workplace consistent with paragraph (l)(4)(ii)(A) of this section, but the employer is not obligated to provide medical removal protection benefits in accordance with paragraph (l)(5)(iii) of this section. Absent undue hardship, employers must make reasonable accommodations for employees who cannot take the test for religious or disability-related medical reasons.

Note to paragraph (l)(4)(ii). This partial symptom list in paragraphs (l)(2)(iii) and (l)(2)(iv) of this section informs the employer of the minimum requirements for compliance. The full list of COVID–19 symptoms provided by CDC includes additional symptoms not listed in paragraphs (l)(2)(iii) through (iv) of this section. Employers may choose to remove or test employees with additional symptoms from the CDC list, or refer the employees to a healthcare provider.

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)

If the employer is required to notify the employee of close contact in the workplace to a person who is COVID–19 positive in accordance with paragraph (l)(3)(i)(A) of this section, then the employer must immediately remove that employee and either:

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)(1)

Keep the employee removed for 14 days; or

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)(2)

Keep the employee removed and provide a COVID–19 test at least five days after the exposure at no cost to the employee.

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)(2)(i)

If the test results are negative, the employee may return to work after seven days following exposure.

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)(2)(ii)

If the test results are positive, the employer must comply with paragraph (l)(4)(i) of this section.

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(A)(2)(iii)

If the employee refuses to take the test, the employer must continue to keep the employee removed from the workplace consistent with paragraph (l)(4)(iii)(A)(1) of this section, but the employer is not obligated to provide medical removal protection benefits in accordance with paragraph (l)(5)(iii) of this section. Absent undue hardship, employers must make reasonable accommodations for employees who cannot take the test for religious or disability-related medical reasons, consistent with applicable nondiscrimination laws

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(B)

Employers are not required to remove any employee who would otherwise be required to be removed under paragraph (i)(4)(iii)(A) of this section if the employee does not experience the symptoms in paragraph (l)(2)(iii) or (iv) of this section and has:

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(B)(1)

Been fully vaccinated against COVID–19 (i.e., 2 weeks or more following the final dose); or

1910.502(l)(4)(iii)(B)(2)

Had COVID–19 and recovered within the past 3 months.

1910.502(l)(4)(iv)

Any time an employee is required to be removed from the workplace for any reason under paragraph (l)(4) of this section, the employer may require the employee to work remotely or in isolation if suitable work is available.

1910.502(l)(5)

Medical removal protection benefits.

1910.502(l)(5)(i)

Employers with 10 or fewer employees on the effective date of this section are not required to comply with paragraphs (l)(5)(iii) through (iv) of this section.

1910.502(l)(5)(ii)

When an employer allows an employee to work remotely or in isolation in accordance with paragraph (l)(4)(iv) of this section, the employer must continue to pay the employee the same regular pay and benefits the employee would have received had the employee not been absent from work, until the employee meets the return to work criteria specified in paragraph (l)(4)(iii) or (l)(6) of this section.

1910.502(l)(5)(iii)

When an employer removes an employee in accordance with paragraph (l)(4) of this section:

1910.502(l)(5)(iii)(A)

The employer must continue to provide the benefits to which the employee is normally entitled and must also pay the employee the same regular pay the employee would have received had the employee not been absent from work, up to $1,400 per week, until the employee meets the return to work criteria specified in paragraph (l)(4)(iii) or (l)(6) of this section.

1910.502(l)(5)(iii)(B)

For employers with fewer than 500 employees, the employer must pay the employee up to the $1,400 per week cap but, beginning in the third week of an employee’s removal, the amount is reduced to only two-thirds of the same regular pay the employee would have received had the employee not been absent from work, up to $200 per day ($1,000 per week in most cases).

1910.502(l)(5)(iv)

The employer’s payment obligation under paragraph (l)(5)(iii) of this section is reduced by the amount of compensation that the employee receives from any other source, such as a publicly or employer-funded compensation program (e.g., paid sick leave, administrative leave), for earnings lost during the period of removal or any additional source of income the employee receives that is made possible by virtue of the employee’s removal.

1910.502(l)(5)(v)

Whenever an employee returns to the workplace after a COVID–19-related workplace removal, that employee must not suffer any adverse action as a result of that removal from the workplace and must maintain all employee rights and benefits, including the employee’s right to their former job status, as if the employee had not been removed.

1910.502(l)(6)

Return to work. The employer must make decisions regarding an employee’s return to work after a COVID–19-related workplace removal in accordance with guidance from a licensed healthcare provider or CDC’s "Isolation Guidance" (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509); and CDC’s "Return to Work Healthcare Guidance" (incorporated by reference, § 1910.509).

Note to paragraph (l). OSHA recognizes that CDC’s ‘‘Strategies to Mitigate Healthcare Personnel Staffing Shortages’’ (available at www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/mitigating-staff-shortages.html) allows elimination of quarantine for certain healthcare workers, but only as a last resort, if the workers’ absence would mean there are no longer enough staff to provide safe patient care, specific other amelioration strategies have already been tried, patients have been notified, and workers are utilizing additional PPE at all times.

1910.502(m)

Vaccination. The employer must support COVID–19 vaccination for each employee by providing reasonable time and paid leave (e.g., paid sick leave, administrative leave) to each employee for vaccination and any side effects experienced following vaccination.

1910.502(n)

Training.

1910.502(n)(1)

The employer must ensure that each employee receives training, in a language and at a literacy level the employee understands, and so that the employee comprehends at least the following:

1910.502(n)(1)(i)

COVID–19, including how the disease is transmitted (including presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission), the importance of hand hygiene to reduce the risk of spreading COVID–19 infections, ways to reduce the risk of spreading COVID–19 through the proper covering of the nose and mouth, the signs and symptoms of the disease, risk factors for severe illness, and when to seek medical attention;

1910.502(n)(1)(ii)

Employer-specific policies and procedures on patient screening and management;

1910.502(n)(1)(iii)

Tasks and situations in the workplace that could result in COVID–19 infection;

1910.502(n)(1)(iv)

Workplace-specific policies and procedures to prevent the spread of COVID–19 that are applicable to the employee’s duties (e.g., policies on Standard and Transmission-Based Precautions, physical distancing, physical barriers, ventilation, aerosol generating procedures);

1910.502(n)(1)(v)

Employer-specific multi-employer workplace agreements related to infection control policies and procedures, the use of common areas, and the use of shared equipment that affect employees at the workplace;

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)

Employer-specific policies and procedures for PPE worn to comply with this section, including:

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)(A)

When PPE is required for protection against COVID–19;

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)(B)

Limitations of PPE for protection against COVID–19;

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)(C)

How to properly put on, wear, and take off PPE;

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)(D)

How to properly care for, store, clean, maintain, and dispose of PPE; and

1910.502(n)(1)(vi)(E)

Any modifications to donning, doffing, cleaning, storage, maintenance, and disposal procedures needed to address COVID–19 when PPE is worn to address workplace hazards other than COVID–19;

1910.502(n)(1)(vii)

Workplace-specific policies and procedures for cleaning and disinfection;

1910.502(n)(1)(viii)

Employer-specific policies and procedures on health screening and medical management;

1910.502(n)(1)(ix)

Available sick leave policies, any COVID–19-related benefits to which the employee may be entitled under applicable federal, state, or local laws, and other supportive policies and practices (e.g., telework, flexible hours);

1910.502(n)(1)(x)

The identity of the safety coordinator(s) specified in the COVID–19 plan;

1910.502(n)(1)(xi)

The requirements of this section; and

1910.502(n)(1)(xii)

How the employee can obtain copies of this section and any employer specific policies and procedures developed under this section, including the employer’s written COVID–19 plan, if required.

Note to paragraph (n)(1). Employers may rely on training completed prior to the effective date of this section to the extent that it meets the relevant training requirements under this paragraph.

1910.502(n)(2)

The employer must ensure that each employee receives additional training whenever:

1910.502(n)(2)(i)

Changes occur that affect the employee’s risk of contracting COVID–19 at work (e.g., new job tasks);

1910.502(n)(2)(ii)

Policies or procedures are changed; or

1910.502(n)(2)(iii)

There is an indication that the employee has not retained the necessary understanding or skill.

1910.502(n)(3)

The employer must ensure that the training is overseen or conducted by a person knowledgeable in the covered subject matter as it relates to the employee’s job duties.

1910.502(n)(4)

The employer must ensure that the training provides an opportunity for interactive questions and answers with a person knowledgeable in the covered subject matter as it relates to the employee’s job duties.

1910.502(o)

Anti-Retaliation.

1910.502(o)(1)

The employer must inform each employee that:

1910.502(o)(1)(i)

Employees have a right to the protections required by this section; and

1910.502(o)(1)(ii)

Employers are prohibited from discharging or in any manner discriminating against any employee for exercising their right to the protections required by this section, or for engaging in actions that are required by this section.

1910.502(o)(2)

The employer must not discharge or in any manner discriminate against any employee for exercising their right to the protections required by this section, or for engaging in actions that are required by this section.

Note to paragraph (o). In addition, section 11(c) of the OSH Act also prohibits the employer from discriminating against an employee for exercising rights under, or as a result of actions that are required by, this section. That provision of the Act also protects the employee who files a safety and health complaint, or otherwise exercises any rights afforded by the OSH Act.

1910.502(p)

Requirements implemented at no cost to employees. The implementation of all requirements of this section, with the exception of any employee self monitoring conducted under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, must be at no cost to employees.

1910.502(q)

Recordkeeping.

1910.502(q)(1)

Small employer exclusion. Employers with 10 or fewer employees on the effective date of this section are not required to comply with paragraph (q)(2) or (q)(3) of this section.

1910.502(q)(2)

Required records. Employers with more than 10 employees on the effective date of this section must:

1910.502(q)(2)(i)

Retain all versions of the COVID–19 plan implemented to comply with this section while this section remains in effect.

1910.502(q)(2)(ii)

Establish and maintain a COVID–19 log to record each instance identified by the employer in which an employee is COVID–19 positive, regardless of whether the instance is connected to exposure to COVID–19 at work.

1910.502(q)(2)(ii)(A)

The COVID–19 log must contain, for each instance, the employee’s name, one form of contact information, occupation, location where the employee worked, the date of the employee’s last day at the workplace, the date of the positive test for, or diagnosis of, COVID–19, and the date the employee first had one or more COVID–19 symptoms, if any were experienced.

1910.502(q)(2)(ii)(B)

The information in the COVID–19 log must be recorded within 24 hours of the employer learning that the employee is COVID–19 positive and must be maintained as though it is a confidential medical record and must not be disclosed except as required by this ETS or other federal law.

1910.502(q)(2)(ii)(C)

The COVID–19 log must be maintained and preserved while this section remains in effect.

Note to paragraph (q)(2)(ii): The COVID–19 log is intended to assist employers with tracking and evaluating instances of employees who are COVID–19 positive without regard to whether those employees were infected at work. The tracking will help evaluate potential workplace exposure to other employees.

1910.502(q)(3)

Availability of records. By the end of the next business day after a request, the employer must provide, for examination and copying:

1910.502(q)(3)(i)

All versions of the written COVID–19 plan to all of the following: Any employees, their personal representatives, and their authorized representatives.

1910.502(q)(3)(ii)

The individual COVID–19 log entry for a particular employee to that employee and to anyone having written authorized consent of that employee.

1910.502(q)(3)(iii)

A version of the COVID–19 log that removes the names of employees, contact information, and occupation, and only includes, for each employee in the COVID–19 log, the location where the employee worked, the last day that the employee was at the workplace before removal, the date of that employee’s positive test for, or diagnosis of, COVID–19, and the date the employee first had one or more COVID–19 symptoms, if any were experienced, to all of the following: Any employees, their personal representatives, and their authorized representatives.

1910.502(q)(3)(iv)

All records required to be maintained by this section to the Assistant Secretary.

Note to paragraph (q). Employers must continue to record all work-related confirmed cases of COVID–19 on their OSHA Forms 300, 300A, and 301, or the equivalent forms, if required to do so under 29 CFR part 1904.

1910.502(r)

Reporting COVID–19 fatalities and hospitalizations to OSHA.

1910.502(r)(1)

The employer must report to OSHA:

1910.502(r)(1)(i)

Each work-related COVID–19 fatality within 8 hours of the employer learning about the fatality.

1910.502(r)(1)(ii)

Each work-related COVID–19 inpatient hospitalization within 24 hours of the employer learning about the inpatient hospitalization.

1910.502(r)(2)

When reporting COVID–19 fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations to OSHA in accordance with paragraph (r)(1) of this section, the employer must follow the requirements in 29 CFR 1904.39, except for 29 CFR 1904.39(a)(1) and (2) and (b)(6).

1910.502(s)(1)

Effective date. This section is effective as of June 21, 2021.

1910.502(s)(2)

Compliance dates.

1910.502(s)(2)(i)

Employers must comply with all requirements of this section, except for requirements in paragraphs (i), (k), and (n) of this section by July 6, 2021.

1910.502(s)(2)(ii)

Employers must comply with the requirements of this section in paragraphs (i), (k), and (n) of this section by July 21, 2021.

[86 FR 32620-32626, June 21, 2021]