OSHA has jurisdiction over off-highway loading and unloading, such as warehouses, plants, grain handling facilities, retail locations, marine terminals, wharves, piers, and shipyards. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has jurisdiction over interstate highway driving, Commercial Driving Licensing (CDL), the hours of service and roadworthiness of the vehicles. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has jurisdiction over the natural environment and pollution prevention programs. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates flight crews and some other aspects of the safety of ground crews. OSHA covers most of the working conditions of ground crews and baggage handlers. OSHA has jurisdiction unless preempted by another Federal agency such as DOT, EPA or FAA, but OSHA can only be preempted in a specified activity or task. OSHA has the ultimate responsibility for the safety and health of all employees.
These pages are part of OSHA and industry's commitment to provide employers and trucking workers with information and assistance to help in complying with OSHA and other Federal standards to ensure a safe workplace.
The following is an overview of the regulations, training requirements, and other resources from other federal agencies:
When another Federal agency has regulated a working condition, OSHA is preempted by Section 4(b)1 from enforcing its regulations. For example:
The Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates driving over public highways, the health and safety of drivers involving their use of drugs and alcohol, hours of service, and use of seat belts. DOT also regulates the road worthiness of trucks and trailers and has specific requirements for the safe operation of trucks.
DOT has jurisdiction over interstate commerce while OSHA has jurisdiction over intrastate commerce except when handling hazardous materials. DOT has issued regulations regarding the shipping, packaging, and handling of these materials. However, if a truck driver becomes an emergency responder in the event of a spill or other disaster, then OSHA has jurisdiction.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates flight crews and some other aspects of the safety of ground crews. If there is a clause that covers a working condition in an operational plan negotiated between the carrier and the FAA, the FAA has jurisdiction over that working condition. Otherwise, OSHA covers most of the working conditions of ground crews and baggage handlers.
Due to the DOT brake regulation, OSHA does not cite for failure to chock trailer wheels if a vehicle is otherwise adequately secured. DOT's regulation preempts enforcement and DOT has jurisdiction. However, if the vehicle is an intrastate truck, OSHA has jurisdiction. Only another Federal agency may preempt OSHA's jurisdiction.
US Department of Transportation. Oversees the formulation of national transportation policy and promotes intermodal transportation. Its agencies include: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Maritime Administration (MARAD), and the US Coast Guard (USCG). The newly created Transport Security Administration (TSA) was initially part of DOT and is now part of the US Department of Homeland Security.
Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). Collects information on transportation and other areas. The Bureau's largest data collection programs are the Commodity Flow Survey and the American Travel Survey, conducted jointly with the Bureau of the Census to identify where freight and people go by all modes of transportation.
Federal Highway Administration. Coordinates highway transportation programs in cooperation with states and other partners to enhance the country's safety, economic vitality, quality of life, and the environment. Major program areas include the Federal-Aid Highway Program, which provides Federal financial assistance to the states to construct and improve the National Highway System, urban and rural roads, bridges, and the Federal Lands Highway Program, which provides access to and within national forests, national parks, Indian reservations and other public lands. The FHWA also manages a comprehensive research, development, and technology program.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMSCA)
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Prevents commercial motor vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. On its website, it has links to its regulations and Regulatory Guidance, a series of frequently asked questions that offer detailed answers for specific situations. A self-employed independent owner-operator is covered under the FMCSRs, and defined as an "employee" unlike in OSHA Regulations where a self-employed person is not covered by the OSHA Act and is not considered an "employee".
The following is an overview of the major sections of the regulations related to driver safety and health:
49 CFR 325, Compliance with interstate motor carrier noise emission standards
49 CFR 350, Commercial motor carrier safety assistance program
49 CFR 382, Controlled substances and alcohol use and testing
49 CFR 383, Commercial driver's license standards; requirements and penalties
49 CFR 391, Qualifications of Drivers and longer combination vehicle (LCV) driver instructions
391.1, Scope of the rules in this part; additional qualifications; duties of carrier drivers
49 CFR 392, Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles. Every motor carrier, its officers, agents, representatives, and employees responsible for the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of commercial motor vehicles, or the hiring, supervising, training, assigning, or dispatching of drivers, shall be instructed in and comply with the rules in this part.
392.64, Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits
392.66, Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected
392.67, Heater, flame-producing; on commercial motor vehicle in motion
49 CFR 393, Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation. Every employer and employee shall comply and be conversant with the requirements and specifications of this part. No employer shall operate a commercial motor vehicle, or cause or permit it to be operated, unless it is equipped in accordance with the requirements and specifications of this part.
393.9, Lamps operable, prohibition of obstructions of lamps and reflectors
395.3, Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles
49 CFR 396, Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance. Every motor carrier, its officers, drivers, agents, representatives, and employees directly concerned with the inspection or maintenance of motor vehicles shall comply and be conversant with the rules of this part.
49 CFR 399, Employee Safety and Health Standards. Prescribes step, handhold, and deck requirements on commercial motor vehicles. These requirements are intended to enhance the safety of motor carrier employees.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Federal Aviation Administration. Oversees the safety of civil aviation. It also regulates a program to protect the security of civil aviation, and enforces regulations under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act for shipments by air.
Part 139 Airport Certification. In 2004, FAA issued a final rule that revised the Federal airport certification regulation 14 CFR Part 139 and established certification requirements for airports serving scheduled air carrier operations in aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats but less than 31 passenger seats. In addition, this final rule amended a section of an air carrier operation regulation 14 CFR Part 121 so it would conform with changes to airport certification requirements. The revised Federal airport certification requirements went into effect on June 9, 2004.
Environmental Protection Agency. Protects human health and safeguards the natural environment - air, water, and land - upon which life depends. The EPA also works with industries and all levels of government in a variety of voluntary pollution
prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
Environmental Screening Checklist and Workbook for the Trucking Industry (PDF). (2000, August). Includes a checklist and workbook which may be used to evaluate a facility’s compliance with Federal environmental regulations applicable to the trucking industry. The term "facility" refers to, but is not limited to, trucking terminals, truck maintenance shops, etc., that are overseen by owners/operators, managers, field personnel, etc., who engage in trucking operations.
Profile of the Ground Transportation Industry: Railroad, Trucking, and Pipeline (PDF). Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project, (1997, September). Presents comprehensive, common sense environmental protection measures for the trucking industry. For the purposes of this project, the key elements included are: general industry information (economic and geographic); a description of industrial processes; pollution outputs; pollution prevention opportunities; Federal statutory and regulatory framework; compliance history; and a description of partnerships that have been formed between regulatory agencies, the regulated community and the public.
The trucking industry includes establishments engaged in motor freight transportation and warehousing. This includes local and long-distance trucking or transfer services, and establishments engaged in the storage of farm products, furniture, and other household goods, or commercial goods of any kind. For the purpose of this notebook, the trucking industry also includes the operation of terminal facilities for handling freight, both those with and without maintenance facilities. The trucking SIC sectors covered in this notebook are shown in the following table.
SIC 42 - MOTOR FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION & WAREHOUSING
Local Trucking Without Storage
Trucking, Except Local
Local Trucking With Storage
Courier Services, Except by Air
Farm Product Warehousing & Storage
Refrigerated Warehousing & Storage
General Warehousing & Storage
Special Warehousing & Storage, NEC (Not Elsewhere Classified)
Terminal & Joint Terminal Maintenance Facilities for Motor Freight Transportation
All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.
**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.
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