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Substrate Manufacture

Ingot Evaluation and Machining

Ingot cylinder

Before the ingots are sliced into wafer substrates, the ends of the new single-crystal ingot are cropped using a water-lubricated single-bladed diamond saw. The ingot is then placed on a lathe and ground to a uniform diameter. The ends of the cropped and ground ingots are chamfered (beveled), using a dry belt sander, which reduces the possibility of shattering the ingot. The crystal structure of the ingot is determined by x-ray diffraction, then a longitudinal section of the ingot cylinder is removed by wet grinding to produce a "flat". This flat is used to mark the crystal orientation of the ingot.

The following are the potential hazards of ingot evaluation and machining.

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