Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

Silicon Device Manufacturing

Processes and Related Hazards

Semiconductor manufacturing includes four main operations: (1) substrate manufacture, (2) device fabrication, (3) metallization, and (4) non-fabrication processing. The links below provide additional information on the various processes, related hazards, and controls for each of these operations. Where appropriate, additional links are provided to various topics contained in the OSHA Safety and Health Topics website. Information on this page is general; actual processes will vary with each production facility. A complete hazard inventory should be based on a hazard analysis of the actual process in question.

Substrate Manufacture

  • PolycrystallineSilicon Production
  • Single Crystal Ingot Growth
  • Ingot Evaluation and Machining
  • Wafer Preparation

Device Fabrication

  • Oxidation
  • Cleaning
  • Photoresist Application
  • Soft Bake
  • Mask Alignment and Photoexposure
  • Developing
  • Hard Bake
  • Etching
  • Photoresist Stripping
  • Doping (Junction Formation)
  • Deposition


  • Metal Deposition
  • Photolithography
  • Silyation
  • Metal Etch
  • Alloying and Annealing
  • Passivation
  • Backlapping and Backside Metallization

Non-Fabrication Processing

  • Wafer Sort and Test
  • Die Separation
  • Die Attach and Bonding
  • Packaging and Encapsulation


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