Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

Gallium Arsenide Device Manufacturing

Processes and Related Hazards

Semiconductor manufacturing for gallium arsenide devices includes four main operations: (1) ingot growing, (2) wafer processing, (3) epitaxy, and (4) device fabrication. The links below provide further information on the various processes, related hazards, and controls for each of these main operations. Additional links refer to various topics contained in the OSHA Safety and Health Topics website. Information on this page is general; actual processes will vary with each production facility. A complete hazard inventory should be based on the hazard analysis of the actual process in question.

Ingot Growing

  • Introduction
  • Charge Preparation
  • Ampoule Load and Seal
  • Furnace Growth
  • Ampoule Breakout
  • Ingot and Remelt Sandblasting/Cleaning

Wafer Processing

  • Ingot Evaluation and Machining
  • Wafer Preparation


  • Introduction
  • Reactor Load and Unload
  • Reactor Cleaning

Device Fabrication

  • Nitride Deposition
  • Photolithography
  • Wet Etching
  • Plasma Etching and Ashing
  • Diffusion
  • Metallization
  • Alloying
  • Backlapping
  • Final Test


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