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Ionizing Radiation

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Pregnant Workers

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  • 10 CFR 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation. The NRC requires licensees to maintain exposure to the fetus of an occupationally exposed individual to 500 mrem (5 mSv) or less during the gestation period.

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)

  • 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Report 60. Recommends a limit of radiation exposure to a member of the general public as 100 mrem/y (1 mSv/y) and the limit for the fetus of an occupationally exposed individual to 200 mrem (2 mSv) during the gestation period.

National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP)

  • Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report 116. Recommends a limit of radiation exposure to a member of the general public as 100 mrem/y (1 mSv/y) and the limit for the fetus of an occupationally exposed individual to 50 mrem (0.5 mSv) per month during the gestation period.

Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD)

  • Radiation Protection. Suggests state regulations for radiation protection. In Subpart D, the suggested regulations state that the limit on exposure to the fetus of an occupationally exposed worker be kept below 500 mrem (5 mSv) during the gestation period.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

Medical Doses

  • UNSCEAR 2000 Report Vol. 1: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Contains medical radiation doses in Annex D.
  • Exposure of the U.S. population from diagnostic medical radiation. National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 100. Contains information on various sources of radiation exposure for the public and the associated radiation doses.
  • Sources and magnitude of occupational and public exposures from nuclear medicine procedures. National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 124. Contains information on sources of radiation exposure and associated doses from medical nuclear medicine procedures.
  • Doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 88. Contains information on radiation doses from maternal intake of radioactive materials and potential biological effects.

Health Effects of Radiation Exposure during Pregnancy

  • OSHA Technical Manual. OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A], (January 20, 1999).
    • Physical Agents. Contains general exposure and health effect information for ionizing radiation sources in health care facilities.
  • Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 8.13, (June 1999). Provides information to pregnant women, and other personnel, to help them make decisions regarding radiation exposure during pregnancy. Supplements Regulatory Guide 8.29, Instruction Concerning Risks from Occupational Radiation Exposure, which contains a broad discussion of the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation.
  • Radiation Protection. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  • Radiation Emergencies and Pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Discusses possible health effects to unborn babies from exposure to radiation.
  • Pregnancy and medical radiation. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 84. Contains information regarding the potential biological effects of medical procedures involving radiation for the pregnant patient.
  • Biological effects after prenatal irradiation (embryo and fetus). International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 90. Discusses pregnancy, radiation during pregnancy, health effects and radiation protection.
  • Radionuclide exposure of the embryo/fetus: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 128. Contains information on the effects of radiation exposure during pregnancy.

Examples Programs for Pregnant Radiation Workers

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