Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

Ionizing Radiation

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Test Your Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements are true about ionizing radiation?
    1. Ionizing radiation is energy that is released by an unstable atom in order to become more stable.
    2. Ionizing radiation is used in many occupational settings, including medical offices, manufacturing facilities, security screening, and many others.
    3. Ionizing radiation has enough energy to remove electrons from atoms in its path.
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above


  2. Which of the following types of radiation is not ionizing radiation?
    1. Alpha particles
    2. Beta particles
    3. Gamma rays
    4. X-rays
    5. Radiofrequency radiation


  3. What is a difference between Gamma rays and X-rays?
    1. Gamma rays are emitted from the nucleus of an atom; X-rays are emitted from the outside the nucleus.
    2. X-rays are emitted from the nucleus of an atom; gamma rays are emitted from the outside the nucleus.
    3. Gamma rays and X-rays are emitted from the nucleus of the atoms.
    4. Gamma rays and X-rays are emitted from outside the nucleus.
    5. Gamma rays and X-rays are exactly the same.


  4. Which of the following types of radiation is the most penetrating?
    1. Alpha particles
    2. Beta particles
    3. Gamma rays
    4. X-rays
    5. All of the above


  5. What is the annual average radiation dose per person in the United States from natural background radiation and medical exposures (see NCRP 2009)?
    1. 50 mrem (0.5 mSv)
    2. 100 mrem (1 mSv)
    3. 620 mrem (6.2 mSv)
    4. 1000 mrem (10 mSv)


  6. What is the most frequently cited provision of OSHA’s Ionizing Radiation Standard (29 CFR 1910.1096)?
    1. Failure to conduct surveys of radiation hazards in order to comply with the Standard (29 CFR 1910.1096(d)(1))
    2. Failure to supply appropriate personal monitoring (29 CFR 1910.1096(d)(2))
    3. Failure to post radiation areas (29 CFR 1910.1096(e)(2))
    4. Failure to provide instruction to personnel (29 CFR 1910.1096(i)(2))
    5. Failure to post operating procedures (29 CFR 1910.1096(i)(3))


  7. Which of the following health effects occur only after very high radiation doses, such as those experienced during a radiation emergency?
    1. Permanent sterility
    2. Skin reddening
    3. Temporary hair loss
    4. Acute radiation syndrome
    5. All of the above


  8. Suppose a person is working with an X-ray machine and accidentally sticks his hand into the X-ray field. That person has been:
    1. Contaminated
    2. Externally exposed to radiation
    3. Internally exposed to radiation
    4. Contaminated and exposede
    5. All of the above


  9. Suppose a lab worker spills a radioactive solution containing a high energy beta particle emitter, such as 32P, on his lab coat. That person has been:
    1. Contaminated
    2. Externally exposed to radiation
    3. Internally exposed to radiation
    4. Both a and b
    5. All of the above


  10. Which of the following practices help to keep radiation doses ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable)?
    1. Minimize time spent in areas with elevated radiation levels
    2. Maximize distance from radiation sources
    3. Use shielding between radiation sources and workers
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

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