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Hazards and Solutions

The following references aid in recognizing the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) and provides information about proper PPE selection and usage.

  • Personal Protective Equipment (PDF). OSHA Publication 3151-12R, (2003). Discusses the types of equipment most commonly used to protect the head, torso, arms, hands, and feet. Additional topics include requirements, hazard assessment, selection, and employee training.
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PDF*). OSHA Fact Sheet, (2006, April). Answers common PPE questions.
  • Respiratory Protection (PDF*). OSHA Publication 3079, (Revised 2002).
  • OSHA Technical Manual. OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A], (1999, January 20).
    • Chemical Protective Clothing. Describes the various types of clothing that are appropriate for use in chemical operations and provides recommendations in their selection and use.
  • Working Outdoors in Warm Climates (PDF*). OSHA Fact Sheet, (2005, September).
  • Employer Payment for Personal Protective Equipment; Final Rule. OSHA Federal Register Final Rules 72:64341-64430, (2007, November 15). Stipulates that the employer must pay for required PPE, except in the limited cases specified in the standard. Safety-toe protective footwear and prescription safety glasses were excepted from the employer payment requirement, in large part because these items were considered to be very personal in nature and were often worn off the jobsite.
  • Recommendations for Chemical Protective Clothing Database. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (1998, February). Provides chemical protective clothing guidelines for chemicals listed in the pocket guide.
  • Emergency Response Resources. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic.
  • Personal Protective Technology. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Summaries reporting the illnesses, injuries and fatalities within the various industry sectors are described in the PPE strategies including agriculture, construction, health care, manufacturing, services, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and mining.
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). National Ag Safety Database (NASD).
  • Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). US Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). Provides guidance for firefighters, police, and other emergency services personnel who may be the first to arrive at the scene of a transportation incident involving a hazardous material. This guidebook was developed jointly by the US Department of Transportation, Transport Canada, and the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation of Mexico (SCT):
  • Guide for the Selection of Personal Protection Equipment for Emergency First Responders (PDF). National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Guide 102–00 (Volumes I), (2002, November). Provides information on personal protection equipment (PPE) for consideration by emergency first responders when purchasing and using PPE, including duration of protection, dexterity/mobility, launderability, and use/reuse.
  • OSH Answers: Designing an Effective PPE Program. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Gives an overview of designing a personal protective equipment (PPE) program.
  • Laboratory Safety. Environmental Health and Safety at Stony Brook University.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 639-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 639-2300.

**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.

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