- Safety and Health Topics
- Machine Guarding
This section highlights OSHA standards, Federal Register notices (rules, proposed rules), directives (instruction to OSHA staff), letters of interpretation (official letters of interpretation of the standards), and national consensus standards related to machine guarding.
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
- 1910 Subpart O, Machinery and machine guarding. Includes definitions, general requirements, and different kinds of machinery requirements.
- 1910.211, Definitions
- 1910.212, General requirements for all machines
- 1910.213, Woodworking machinery requirements
- 1910.215, Abrasive wheel machinery
- 1910.216, Mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries
- 1910.217, Mechanical power presses. Includes general requirements in addition to specific requirements for construction, safeguarding, dies, inspection, maintenance, modification, operation, injury reporting, and presence sensing device initiation (PSDI).
- Appendix A, Mandatory requirements for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
- Appendix B, Nonmandatory guidelines for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
- Appendix C, Mandatory requirements for OSHA recognition of third-party validation organizations for the PSDI standard
- Appendix D, Nonmandatory supplementary information
- 1910.218, Forging machines
- 1910.219, Mechanical power-transmission apparatus
- 1910 Subpart R, Special industries
Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917)
Longshoring (29 CFR 1918)
- 1918 Subpart I, General working conditions
Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)
- 1926 Subpart I, Tools - Hand and power. Includes general machine guarding requirements and specific guarding requirements for different types of tools.
Agriculture Industry (29 CFR 1928)
- 1928 Subpart D, Safety for agricultural equipment
- 1928.57, Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins
Federal Register Notices
- Power Presses. Proposed Rules 72:30729-30734, (June 4, 2007). OSHA is seeking comments on whether and how the mechanical power presses standard should be amended, including whether the requirements pertaining to the use of presence-sensing-device initiation (PSDI) systems should be revised and whether the scope of the standard should be expanded to cover other types of presses.
- Mechanical Power -- Transmission Apparatus; Mechanical Power Presses; Telecommunications; Hydrogen. Final Rules 69:31880-31882, (June 8, 2004). Corrects errors in four OSHA standards:
- The first correction deletes two references to a non existing table in the Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus Standard.
- The second is a correction of typographical errors in the Mechanical Power Presses Standard.
- The third correction is to a cross-reference in the Telecommunications Standard.
- The fourth correction is to a reference to a table contained in the Hazardous Materials Standard for Hydrogen.
- Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of Presence Sensing Device Initiation for Mechanical Power Presses. Proposed Rules 69:31927-31929, (June 8, 2004). OSHA has conducted a review of the Presence Sensing Device Initiation (PSDI) requirements of the Mechanical Power Presses Standard pursuant to section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and section 5 of Executive Order 12866 on Regulatory Planning and Review. Based on this review and public comments, OSHA has decided to update its mechanical power press standard to ANSI B.11.1-2001
- Mechanical Power Presses. Final Rules 53:8322-65, (March 14, 1988). Amendment of the standard for mechanical power presses, 29 CFR 1910.217, to allow (but not require) presence sensing device initiation (PSDI) on certain types of power presses.
- National Emphasis Program on Amputations. CPL 03-00-019, (August 13, 2015). Describes policies and procedures for implementing a National Emphasis Program (NEP) to identify and to reduce workplace machinery and equipment hazards which are causing or likely to cause amputations.
- Guidelines for Point of Operation Guarding of Power Press Brakes. CPL 02-01-025 [CPL 2-1.25], (February 14, 1997). Provides guidelines for compliance officers who determine compliance with the guarding requirements for power press brakes. Describes when guarding by "safe distance" is permitted.
- Abrasive Operation Using Cutoff Wheels and Masonry Saws. STD 01-12-026 [STD 1-12.26A], (September 26, 1994). Provides guidelines for violations related to guards for cutoff wheels and masonry saws.
- Awareness Barriers Installed on Metal Cutting Shears. STD 01-12-025 [STD 1-12.25A], (July 12, 1994). Provides guidance for applying awareness barrier safeguards as installed on metal cutting shears.
- Guarding of Three-Roller Printing Ink Mills. STD 01-12-023 [STD 1-12.23A], (July 12, 1994). Clarifies the guarding requirements of 29 CFR 1910.212 relative to the ingoing nip point on three-roller printing ink mills and to assure uniformity in the enforcement of the standard nationally.
- Alternative Abatement Methods of 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1) and (a)(2) As Applied to the Oil and Gas Drilling Industry. STD 01-12-028 [STD 1-12.28], (February 7, 1983). Provides guidelines for the use of certain monitoring techniques to comply with 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1) and (a)(2) in the oil and gas drilling industry.
- Portable Belt Sanding Machines as Covered by 29 CFR 1910.243(a)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.304(f). STD 01-13-004 [STD 1-13.4], (August 5, 1981). Provides guidance to allow equitable enforcement of 29 CFR 1910.243(a)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.304(f) as they pertain to the guarding of portable belt sanders.
- 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(3)(ii), Point of Operation Guarding for All Machines as Applied to the Hand-Fed Engraving Presses Used in the Engraved Stationery Manufacturing Industry. STD 01-12-022 [STD 1-12.22], (January 2, 1979). Provides guidance in applying point of operation guarding requirements relative to hand-fed engraving presses in the engraved stationery industry, when using the face down method of printing.
- Defining Acceptable Guarding of Fan Blades. STD 01-12-001 [STD 1-12.1], (October 30, 1978). Clarifies the applicability of 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(5) and directs answers to inquiries.
- Reduction of Air Pressure below 30 psi for Cleaning Purposes. STD 01-13-001 [STD 1-13.1], (October 30, 1978). Includes requirements for chip guarding.
- Caution Labeling of Radial Saws: 29 CFR 1910.213(h)(5). STD 01-12-004 [STD 1-12.4], (October 30, 1978). Provides guidance in the enforcement of the subject provision.
- Acceptable Guarding for Circular Meat Cutting Saws: 29 CFR Section 1910.212(a)(3)(ii). STD 01-12-005 [STD 1-12.5], (October 30, 1978). Provides guidance on the acceptable methods for guarding meat cutting saws.
- 29 CFR 1910.218 Forging Machines. STD 01-12-006 [STD 1-12.6], (October 30, 1978). Clarifies appropriate enforcement of 29 CFR 1910.218.
- 29 CFR 1910.217 and 29 CFR 1910.212; Applicability of Platen Presses. STD 01-12-007 [STD 1-12.7], (October 30, 1978). Provides specific clarifications on the applicability of 29 CFR 1910.217 and 29 CFR 1910.212 to platen presses.
- 29 CFR 1910.215(a)(4), Abrasive Wheel Machinery Work Rests. STD 01-12-008 [STD 1-12.8], (October 30, 1978). Provides clarification on the acceptable methods for the use of work rests.
- 29 CFR 1910.212 General Requirements for all Machines. STD 01-12-009 [STD 1-12.9], (October 30, 1978). Clarifies the intent of 29 CFR 1910.212 as applied to blade guards for chain saws.
- Application of 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1) to Food Waste Disposal Equipment. STD 01-12-010 [STD 1-12.10], (October 30, 1978). Assures uniformity in the application of 29 CFR 1910.212 to point of operation guarding on food waste disposal equipment.
- Clarification of 29 CFR 1910.219, the Terms "Enclosed" and "Fully Enclosed", as applying to Power Transmission Belts. STD 01-12-014 [STD 1-12.14], (October 30, 1978). Provides clarification of the application of "enclosed" and "fully enclosed" as applying to power transmission belts, and guarding by location.
- 29 CFR 1910.213(a)(4), Woodworking Machinery Requirements. STD 01-12-015 [STD 1-12.15], (October 30, 1978). Provides guidance to the field on the applicability of 29 CFR 1910.213(a)(4) in protecting employees from automatic cut-off saws that stroke continuously without the operator being able to control each stroke.
- 29 CFR 1910.213(h)(1), Radial Saw Guards. STD 01-12-017 [STD 1-12.17], (October 30, 1978). Provides clarification on the applicability of 29 CFR 1910.213 as it relates to the saw mill industries.
- 29 CFR 1910.213(c)(l) and (h)(1), Woodworking Machinery Guarding Requirements. STD 01-12-018 [STD 1-12.18], (October 30, 1978). Specifies requirements for hand-fed ripsaws and swing cutoff saws and radial saws.
- Application 1910.212(a)(1) to Sewing Machines in the Light Apparel Manufacturing Industries. STD 01-12-019 [STD 1-12.19], (October 30, 1978). Provides a uniform means of evaluating the nip point and moving belt hazard on light and medium duty sewing machines such as those used in apparel manufacturing and sewing of light weight materials.
- 29 CFR 1910.217(b)(3)(i), Mechanical Power Presses Single Stroke Mechanism Requirements. STD 01-12-020 [STD 1-12.20], (October 30, 1978). Provides an interpretation of 29 CFR 1910.217(b)(3)(i) and guidance for field personnel for the requirement of single stroke mechanisms on full revolution type mechanical power presses.
- 29 CFR 1910.217 Mechanical Power Presses, Clarifications. STD 01-12-021 [STD 1-12.21], (October 30, 1978). Provides a guide to aid in the recognition of mechanical power presses' point of operation hazards and uniform clarifications of definitions, guards, develop and methods of safeguarding.
Letters of Interpretation
- Use of laser guarding systems with hydraulic press brakes. (February 11, 2004).
- Maximum permissible guard openings for blade guards on cooling fans. (August 21, 2003).
- Questions and answers about color coding machine and machine guards according to ANSI Z535.1-1990. (August 19, 2003).
- OSHA machine guarding standards and the ISO/IEC standards adopted under the GATT; National Emphasis Program on Amputations. (May 13, 2003).
- Standards that apply to cotton gins. (August 6, 2002).
- Request for guidance on saws operated on "cut-climb/reverse-rotation" mode. (July 12, 2002).
- Guarding/hazards of using woodcutting sawblades on a cut-off machine. (November 15, 1999).
- Multiple interpretations regarding mechanical power presses. (May 8, 1998).
- Machine-guarding requirements. (December 20, 1994). Includes a request for a permanent variance from 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1), the standard which defines OSHA's general machine-guarding requirements.
- Presence sensing devices (PSDs) for power presses. (August 11, 1994).
- Applicability of the Machine Guarding and Lockout/Tagout standards to printing presses. (June 14, 1993).
- Printing Presses: requirements for normal production and servicing operations. (September 16, 1992).
Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
- ANSI B11 Subcommittees. The ANSI B11 committee is responsible for developing machine tool safety standards. This document provides brief descriptions of the subcommittees and the hazards they are addressing.
- B11.1-2001, Safety Requirements for Mechanical Power Presses
- B11.2-1995 (R05), Hydraulic Power Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
- B11.3-2002, Safety Requirements for Power Press Brakes
- B11.4-2003, Safety Requirements for Shears
- B11.5-1988 (R05), Ironworkers - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
- B11.6-2001, Safety Requirements for Manual Turning Machines with or without Automatic Control
- B11.7-1995 (R05), Cold Headers & Cold Formers - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
- B11.8-2001, Safety Requirements for Manual Milling, Drilling, & Boring Machines with or without Automatic Control
- B11.9-1975 (R05), Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Grinding Machines
- B11.10-2003, Safety Requirements for Metal Sawing Machines
- B11.11-2001, Safety Requirements for Gear and Spline Cutting Machines
- B11.12-2005, Safety Requirements for Roll Forming & Roll Bending Machines
- B11.13-1992 (R98), Single and Multiple-Spindle Automatic Bar, and Chucking Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
- B11.14-1996, Coil Slitting Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
- B11.15-2001, Safety Requirements for Pipe, Tube and Shape Bending Machines
- B11.16-2003 (MPIF #47), Safety Requirements for Powder/Metal Compacting Presses
- B11.17-2004, Safety Requirements for Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses
- B11.18-1997, Safety Requirements for Machines and Machinery Systems for Processing or Slitting or Non-Coiled Metal Strip, Sheet or Plate
- B11.19-2003, Performance Criteria for Safeguarding
- B11.20-2004, Safety Requirements for Integrated Manufacturing Systems
- B11.21-1997, Safety Requirements for Machine Tools Using Lasers For Processing Materials
- B11.22-2002, Safety Requirements for Turning Centers and Automatic Numerically Controlled Turning Machines
- B11.23-2002, Safety Requirements for Machining Centers and Automatic Numerically Controlled Milling, Drilling and Boring Machines
- B11.24-2002, Safety Requirements for Transfer Machines
- B11.TR 1-2004, Ergonomic Guidelines for the Design, Installation And Use of Machine Tools
- B11.TR 2-1997, Mist Control Considerations for the Design, Installation And Use of Machine Tools Using Metalworking Fluids
- B11.TR 3-2000, Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction- A Guideline to Estimate, Evaluate and Reduce Risks Associated with Machine Tools
- B11.TR 4-2004, Selection of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES/PLC) for Machine Tools
- B11.TR5-200X, Sound Level Measurement Guidelines (not an approved document; in development)
- B11.TR6-200X, Control Reliable Circuits and Servo Drive Technology