- Part Number:1928
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Agriculture
- Subpart:1928 Subpart D
- Subpart Title:Safety for Agricultural Equipment
- Standard Number:
- Title:Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.
- GPO Source:
Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide for the protection of employees from the hazards associated with moving machinery parts of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins used in any agricultural operation.
Scope. Paragraph (a) of this section contains general requirements which apply to all covered equipment. In addition, paragraph (b) of this section applies to farm field equipment, paragraph (c) of this section applies to farmstead equipment, and paragraph (d) of this section applies to cotton gins.
Application. This section applies to all farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins, except that paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(4) (ii)(A), and (c)(2), (c)(3), and (c)(4) (ii)(A) do not apply to equipment manufactured before October 25, 1976.
Effective date. This section takes effect on October 25, 1976, except that paragraph (d) of this section is effective on June 30, 1977.
Definitions - Cotton gins are systems of machines which condition seed cotton, separate lint from seed, convey materials, and package lint cotton.
Farm field equipment means tractors or implements, including self-propelled implements, or any combination thereof used in agricultural operations.
Farmstead equipment means agricultural equipment normally used in a stationary manner. This includes, but is not limited to, materials handling equipment and accessories for such equipment whether or not the equipment is an integral part of a building.
Ground driven components are components which are powered by the turning motion of a wheel as the equipment travels over the ground.
A guard or shield is a barrier designed to protect against employee contact with a hazard created by a moving machinery part.
Power take-off shafts are the shafts and knuckles between the tractor, or other power source, and the first gear set, pulley, sprocket, or other components on power take-off shaft driven equipment.
Operating instructions. At the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter, the employer shall instruct every employee in the safe operation and servicing of all covered equipment with which he is or will be involved, including at least the following safe operating practices:
Methods of guarding. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, each employer shall protect employees from coming into contact with hazards created by moving machinery parts as follows:
Guarding by location. A component is guarded by location during operation, maintenance, or servicing when, because of its location, no employee can inadvertently come in contact with the hazard during such operation, maintenance, or servicing. Where the employer can show that any exposure to hazards results from employee conduct which constitutes an isolated and unforeseeable event, the component shall also be considered guarded by location.
Guarding by railings. Guardrails or fences shall be capable of protecting against employees inadvertently entering the hazardous area.
Servicing and maintenance. Whenever a moving machinery part presents a hazard during servicing or maintenance, the engine shall be stopped, the power source disconnected, and all machine movement stopped before servicing or maintenance is performed, except where the employer can establish that:
Functional components. Functional components, such as snapping or husking rolls, straw spreaders and choppers, cutterbars, flail rotors, rotary beaters, mixing augers, feed rolls, conveying augers, rotary tillers, and similar units, which must be exposed for proper function, shall be guarded to the fullest extent which will not substantially interfere with normal functioning of the component.
All power take-off shafts, including rear, mid-, or side-mounted shafts, shall be guarded either by a master shield as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section or other protective guarding.
Power take-off driven equipment shall be guarded to protect against employee contact with positively driven rotating members of the power drive system. Where power take-off driven equipment is of a design requiring removal of the tractor master shield, the equipment shall also include protection from that portion of the tractor power take-off shaft which protrudes from the tractor.
Smooth shafts and shaft ends (without any projecting bolts, keys, or set screws), revolving at less than 10 rpm, on feed handling equipment used on the top surface of materials in bulk storage facilities; and
The largest dimensions or openings in grating type guards through which materials are required to flow shall be 4¾ inches. The area of each opening shall be no larger than 10 square inches. The opening shall be located no closer to the rotating flighting than 2½ inches.
Slotted openings in solid baffle style covers shall be no wider than 1½ inches, or closer than 3½ inches to the exposed flighting.
The employer can establish that because of the nature of the operation, distances involved, and the amount of time normally spent by employees in the area of the affected equipment, use of the manual reset device would be infeasible;
When guarded by railings, any hazardous component within 15 horizontal inches of the rail shall be completely enclosed. Railing height shall be approximately 42 inches off the floor, platform, or other working surface, with a midrail between the toprail and the working surface. Panels made of materials conforming to the requirements in Table D-1, or equivalent, may be substituted for midrails. Guardrails shall be strong enough to withstand at least 200 pounds force on the toprail.
Belts guarded by railings shall be inspected for defects at least daily. The machinery shall not be operated until all defective belts are replaced.
Table D-1 - Examples of Minimum Requirements for Guard Panel Materials
|Material||Clearance from moving part at all points (in inches)||Largest mesh or opening allowable (in inches)||Minimum gage (U.S. standard) or thickness|
|Woven wire||Under 2||3⁄8||16|
|2 to 4||½||16|
|4 to 15||2||12|
|Expanded metal||Under 4
4 to 15
|Perforated metal||Under 4
4 to 15
|Sheet metal||Under 4||22|
|4 to 15||22|
|4 to 15||(1)|
1 Tensile strength of 10,000 lb/in2
Gin stands shall be provided with a permanently installed guard designed to preclude contact with the gin saws while in motion. The saw blades in the roll box shall be considered guarded by location if they do not extend through the ginning ribs into the roll box when the breast is in the out position.
Warning device. A warning device shall be installed in all gins to provide an audible signal which will indicate to employees that any or all of the machines comprising the gin are about to be started. The signal shall be of sufficient volume to be heard by employees, and shall be sounded each time before starting the gin.
[41 FR 10195, Mar. 9, 1976; 41 FR 11022, Mar. 16, 1976; 41 FR 22268, June 2, 1976, as amended at 41 FR 46598, Oct. 22, 1976]