- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart F
- Subpart Title:Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms
- Standard Number:
- Title:Existing Installations (Mandatory)
- GPO Source:
Use of the Appendix
Appendix D sets out the mandatory building and equipment requirements for applicable permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and no later than July 23, 1990 which are exempt from the paragraphs (a), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this standard. The requirements in appendix D are essentially the same as unrevised building and equipment provisions which previously were designated as 29 CFR 1910.66 (a), (b), (c) and (d) and which were effective on August 27, 1971.
Note: All existing installations subject to this appendix shall also comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C of the standard 29 CFR 1910.66.
(a) Definitions applicable to this appendix-
(1) Angulated roping. A system of platform suspension in which the upper wire rope sheaves or suspension points are closer to the plane of the building face than the corresponding attachment points on the platform, thus causing the platform to press against the face of the building during its vertical travel.
(2) ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
(3) Babbitted fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the ends of the wire strands are bent back and are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten babbitt metal.
(4) Brake-disc type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by frictional resistance between one or more faces of discs keyed to the rotating member to be held and fixed discs keyed to the stationary or housing member (pressure between the discs being applied axially).
(5) Brake-self-energizing band type. An essentially undirectional brake in which the holding effect is obtained by the snubbing action of a flexible band wrapped about a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held, the connections and linkages being so arranged that the motion of the brake wheel or drum will act to increase the tension or holding force of the band.
(6) Brake-shoe type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by applying the direct pressure of two or more segmental friction elements held to a stationary member against a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held.
(7) Building face rollers. A specialized form of guide roller designed to contact a portion of the outer face or wall structure of the building, and to assist in stabilizing the operators' platform during vertical travel.
(8) Continuous pressure. Operation by means of buttons or switches, any one of which may be used to control the movement of the working platform or roof car, only as long as the button or switch is manually maintained in the actuating position.
(9) Control. A system governing starting, stopping, direction, acceleration, speed, and retardation of moving members.
(10) Controller. A device or group of devices, usually contained in a single enclosure, which serves to control in some predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.
(11) Electrical ground. A conducting connection between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.
(12) Guide roller. A rotating, bearing-mounted, generally cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide shoe assembly, attached to the platform, and providing rolling contact with building guideways, or other building contact members.
(13) Guide shoe. An assembly of rollers, slide members, or the equivalent, attached as a unit to the operators' platform, and designed to engage with the building members provided for the vertical guidance of the operators' platform.
(14) Interlock. A device actuated by the operation of some other device with which it is directly associated, to govern succeeding operations of the same or allied devices.
(15) Operating device. A pushbutton, lever, or other manual device used to actuate a control.
(16) Powered platform. Equipment to provide access to the exterior of a building for maintenance, consisting of a suspended power-operated working platform, a roof car, or other suspension means, and the requisite operating and control devices.
(17) Rated load. The combined weight of employees, tools, equipment, and other material which the working platform is designed and installed to lift.
(18) Relay, direction. An electrically energized contactor responsive to an initiating control circuit, which in turn causes a moving member to travel in a particular direction.
(19) Relay, potential for vertical travel. An electrically energized contactor responsive to initiating control circuit, which in turn controls the operation of a moving member in both directions. This relay usually operates in conjunction with direction relays, as covered under the definition, "relay, direction."
(20) Roof car. A structure for the suspension of a working platform, providing for its horizontal movement to working positions.
(21) Roof-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on a roof car.
(22) Self-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on the working platform.
(23) Traveling cable. A cable made up of electrical or communication conductors or both, and providing electrical connection between the working platform and the roof car or other fixed point.
(24) Weatherproof. Equipment so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with its proper operation.
(25) Working platform. The suspended structure arranged for vertical travel which provides access to the exterior of the building or structure.
(26) Yield point. The stress at which the material exhibits a permanent set of 0.2 percent.
(27) Zinced fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the splayed or fanned wire ends are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten zinc.
(b) General requirements.
(1) Design requirements. All powered platform installations for exterior building maintenance completed as of August 27, 1971, but no later than [insert date, 180 days after the effective date], shall meet all of the design, construction and installation requirements of part II and III of the "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance ANSI A120.1-1970" and of this appendix. References shall be made to appropriate parts of ANSI A120.1-1970 for detail specifications for equipment and special installations.
(2) Limitation. The requirements of this appendix apply only to electric powered platforms. It is not the intent of this appendix to prohibit the use of other types of power. Installation of powered platforms using other types of power is permitted, provided such platforms have adequate protective devices for the type of power used, and otherwise provide for reasonable safety of life and limb to users of equipment and to others who may be exposed.
(3) Types of powered platforms.
(i) For the purpose of applying this appendix, powered platforms are divided into two basic types, Type F and Type T.
(ii) Powered platforms designated as Type F shall meet all the requirements in part II of ANSI A 120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance. A basic requirement of Type F equipment is that the work platform is suspended by at least four wire ropes and designed so that failure of any one wire rope will not substantially alter the normal position of the working platform. Another basic requirement of Type F equipment is that only one layer of hoisting rope is permitted on winding drums. Type F powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.
(iii) Powered platforms designated as Type T shall meet all the requirements in part III of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, except for section 28, Safety Belts and Life Lines. A basic requirement of Type T equipment is that the working platform is suspended by at least two wire ropes. Failure of one wire rope would not permit the working platform to fall to the ground, but would upset its normal position. Type T powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.
(iv) The requirements of this section apply to powered platforms with winding drum type hoisting machines. It is not the intent of this section to prohibit powered platforms using other types of hoisting machines such as, but not limited to, traction drum hoisting machines, air powered machines, hydraulic powered machines, and internal combustion machines. Installation of powered platforms with other types of hoisting machines is permitted, provided adequate protective devices are used, and provided reasonable safety of life and limb to users of the equipment and to others who may be exposed is assured.
(v) Both Type F and Type T powered platforms shall comply with the requirements of appendix C of this standard.
(c) Type F powered platforms-
(1) Roof car, general.
(i) A roof car shall be provided whenever it is necessary to move the working platform horizontally to working or storage positions.
(ii) The maximum rated speed at which a power traversed roof car may be moved in a horizontal direction shall be 50 feet per minute.
(2) Movement and positioning of roof car.
(i) Provision shall be made to protect against having the roof car leave the roof or enter roof areas not designed for travel.
(ii) The horizontal motion of the roof cars shall be positively controlled so as to insure proper movement and positioning of the roof car.
(iii) Roof car positioning devices shall be provided to insure that the working platform is placed and retained in proper position for vertical travel and during storage.
(iv) Mechanical stops shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the roof car beyond its normal limits of travel. Such stops shall be capable of withstanding a force equal to 100 percent of the inertial effect of the roof car in motion with traversing power applied.
(v)(a) The operating device of a power-operated roof car for traversing shall be located on the roof car, the working platform, or both, and shall be of the continuous pressure weather-proof electric type. If more than one operating device is provided, they shall be so arranged that traversing is possible only from one operating device at a time.
(b) The operating device shall be so connected that it is not operable until:
(1) The working platform is located at its uppermost position of travel and is not in contact with the building face or fixed vertical guides in the face of the building; and
(2) All protective devices and interlocks are in a position for traversing.
(3) Roof car stability. Roof car stability shall be determined by either paragraph (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this appendix, whichever is greater.
(i) The roof car shall be continuously stable, considering overturning moment as determined by 125 percent rated load, plus maximum dead load and the prescribed wind loading.
(ii) The roof car and its anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the value. For this calculation, the simultaneous effect of one-half wind load shall be included, and the design stresses shall not exceed those referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this appendix.
(iii) If the load on the motors is at any time in excess of three times that required for lifting the working platform with its rated load the motor shall stall.
(4) Access to the roof car. Safe access to the roof car and from the roof car to the working platform shall be provided. If the access to the roof car at any point of its travel is not over the roof area or where otherwise necessary for safety, then self-closing, selflocking gates shall be provided. Access to and from roof cars must comply with the requirements of subpart D of this part.
(5) Means for maintenance, repair, and storage. Means shall be provided to run the roof car away from the roof perimeter, where necessary, and to provide a safe area for maintenance, repairs, and storage. Provisions shall be made to secure the machine in the stored position. For stored machines subject to wind forces, see special design and anchorage requirements for "wind forces" in part II, section 10.5.1.1 of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.
(6) General requirements for working platforms. The working platform shall be of girder or truss construction and shall be adequate to support its rated load under any position of loading, and comply with the provisions set forth in section 10 of ANSI A120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.
(7) Load rating plate. Each working platform shall bear a manufacturer's load rating plate, conspicuously posted; stating the maximum permissible rated load. Load rating plates shall be made of noncorrosive material and shall have letters and figures stamped, etched, or cast on the surface. The minimum height of the letters and figures shall be one-fourth inch.
(8) Minimum size. The working platform shall have a minimum net width of 24 inches.
(9) Guardrails. Working platforms shall be furnished with permanent guard rails not less than 36 inches high, and not more than 42 inches high at the front (building side). At the rear, and on the sides, the rail shall not be less than 42 inches high. An intermediate guardrail shall be provided around the entire platform between the top guardrail and the toeboard.
(10) Toeboards. A four-inch toeboard shall be provided along all sides of the working platform.
(11) Open spaces between guardrails and toeboards. The spaces between the intermediate guardrail and platform toeboard on the building side of the working platform, and between the top guardrail and the toeboard on other sides of the platform, shall be filled with metalic mesh or similar material that will reject a ball one inch in diameter. The installed mesh shall be capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds applied horizontally over any area of 144 square inches. If the space between the platform and the building face does not exceed eight inches, and the platform is restrained by guides, the mesh may be omitted on the front side.
(12) Flooring. The platform flooring shall be of the nonskid type, and if of open construction, shall reject a 9⁄16 -inch diameter ball, or be provided with a screen below the floor to reject a 9⁄16 -inch diameter ball.
(13) Access gates. Where access gates are provided, they shall be self-closing and self-locking.
(14) Operating device for vertical movement of the working platform.
(i) The normal operating device for the working platform shall be located on the working platform and shall be of the continuous pressure weatherproof electric type.
(ii) The operating device shall be operable only when all electrical protective devices and interlocks on the working platform are in position for normal service and, the roof car, if provided, is at an established operating point.
(15) Emergency electric operative device.
(i) In addition, on roof-powered platforms, an emergency electric operating device shall be provided near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device for the working platform, or failure of the traveling cable system. The emergency operating device shall be mounted in a locked compartment and shall have a legend mounted thereon reading: "For Emergency Operation Only. Establish Communication With Personnel on Working Platform Before Use."
(ii) A key for unlocking the compartment housing the emergency operating device shall be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency operating device.
(16) Manual cranking for emergency operation. Emergency operation of the main drive machine may be provided to allow manual cranking. This provision for manual operation shall be designed so that not more than two persons will be required to perform this operation. The access to this provision shall include a means to automatically make the machine inoperative electrically while under the emergency manual operation. The design shall be such that the emergency brake is operative at or below governor tripping speed during manual operation.
(17) Arrangement and guarding of hoisting equipment.
(i) Hoisting equipment shall consist of a power-driven drum or drum contained in the roof car (roof-powered platforms) or contained on the working platform (self-powered platform).
(ii) The hoisting equipment shall be power-operated in both up and down directions.
(iii) Guard or other protective devices shall be installed wherever rotating shafts or other mechanisms or gears may expose personnel to a hazard.
(iv) Friction devices or clutches shall not be used for connecting the main driving mechanism to the drum or drums. Belt or chain-driven machines are prohibited.
(18) Hoisting motors. (i) Hoisting motors shall be electric and of weather-proof construction.
(ii) Hoisting motors shall be in conformance with applicable provisions of paragraph (c)(22) of this appendix, Electric Wiring and Equipment.
(iii) Hoisting motors shall be directly connected to the hoisting machinery. Motor couplings, if used, shall be of steel construction.
(19) Brakes. The hoisting machine(s) shall have two independent braking means, each designed to stop and hold the working platform with 125 percent of rated load.
(20) Hoisting ropes and rope connections.
(i) Working platforms shall be suspended by wire ropes of either 6 × 19 or 6 × 37 classification, preformed or nonpreformed.
(iii) The minimum factor of safety shall be 10, and shall be calculated by the following formula:
F = S × N/W
S = Manufacturer's rated breaking strength of one rope.
N = Number of ropes under load.
W = Maximum static load on all ropes with the platform and its rated load at any point of its travel.
(iv) Hoisting ropes shall be sized to conform with the required factor of safety, but in no case shall the size be less than 5⁄16 inch diameter.
(v) Winding drums shall have at least three turns of rope remaining when the platform has landed at the lowest possible point of its travel.
(vi) The lengthening or repairing of wire rope by the joining of two or more lengths is prohibited.
(vii) The nondrum ends of the hoisting ropes shall be provided with individual shackle rods which will permit individual adjustment of rope lengths, if required.
(viii) More than two reverse bends in each rope is prohibited.
(21) Rope tag data.
(i) A metal data tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings. This data tag shall bear the following wire rope data:
(a) The diameter in inches.
(b) Construction classification.
(c) Whether nonpreformed or preformed.
(d) The grade of material used.
(e) The manufacturer's rated breaking strength.
(f) Name of the manufacturer of the rope.
(g) The month and year the ropes were installed.
(22) Electrical wiring and equipment.
(i) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to the requirements of subpart S of this Part, except as modified by ANSI A120.1-1970 "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance" (see §1910.6). For detail design specifications for electrical equipment, see part 2, ANSI A120.1-1970.
(ii) All motors and operation and control equipment shall be supplied from a single power source.
(iii) The power supply for the powered platform shall be an independent circuit supplied through a fused disconnect switch.
(iv) Electrical conductor parts of the power supply system shall be protected against accidental contact.
(v) Electrical grounding shall be provided.
(a) Provisions for electrical grounding shall be included with the power-supply system.
(b) Controller cabinets, motor frames, hoisting machines, the working platform, roof car and roof car track system, and noncurrent carrying parts of electrical equipment, where provided, shall be grounded.
(c) The controller, where used, shall be so designed and installed that a single ground or short circuit will not prevent both the normal and final stopping device from stopping the working platform.
(d) Means shall be provided on the roof car and working platform for grounding portable electric tools.
(e) The working platform shall be grounded through a grounding connection in a traveling cable. Electrically powered tools utilized on the working platform shall be grounded.
(vi) Electrical receptacles located on the roof or other exterior location shall be of a weatherproof type and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The receptacles shall be grounded and the electric cable shall include a grounding conductor. The receptacle and plug shall be a type designed to avoid hazard to persons inserting or withdrawing the plug. Provision shall be made to prevent application of cable strain directly to the plug and receptacle.
(vii) Electric runway conductor systems shall be of the type designed for use in exterior locations and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The conductors, collectors, and disconnecting means shall conform to the same requirements as those for cranes and hoists in subpart S of this Part. A grounded conductor shall parallel the power conductors and be so connected that it cannot be opened by the disconnecting means. The system shall be designed to avoid hazard to persons in the area.
(viii) Electrical protective devices and interlocks of the weatherproof type shall be provided.
(ix) Where the installation includes a roof car, electric contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the working platform shall be operative only when the roof car is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.
(x) Where the powered platform includes a powered-operated roof car, the operating device for the roof car shall be inoperative when the roof car is mechanically retained at an established operating point.
(xi) An electric contact shall be provided and so connected that it will cause the down direction relay for vertical travel to open if the tension in the traveling cable exceeds safe limits.
(xii) An automatic overload device shall be provided to cut off the electrical power to the circuit in all hoisting motors for travel in the up direction, should the load applied to the hoisting ropes at either end of the working platform exceed 125 percent of its normal tension with rated load, as shown on the manufacturer's data plate on the working platform.
(xiii) An automatic device shall be provided for each hoisting rope which will cut off the electrical power to the hoisting motor or motors in the down direction and apply the brakes if any hoisting rope becomes slack.
(xiv) Upper and lower directional limit devices shall be provided to prevent the travel of the working platform beyond the normal upper and lower limits of travel.
(xv) Operation of a directional limit device shall prevent further motion in the appropriate direction, if the normal limit of travel has been reached.
(xvi) Directional limit devices, if driven from the hoisting machine by chains, tapes, or cables, shall incorporate a device to disconnect the electric power from the hoisting machine and apply both the primary and secondary brakes in the event of failure of the driving means.
(xvii) Final terminal stopping devices of the working platform:
(a) Final terminal stopping devices for the working platform shall be provided as a secondary means of preventing the working platform from over-traveling at the terminals.
(b) The device shall be set to function as close to each terminal landing as practical, but in such a way that under normal operating conditions it will not function when the working platform is stopped by the normal terminal stopping device.
(c) Operation of the final terminal stopping device shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine, and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.
(d) The final terminal stopping device for the upper limit of travel shall be mounted so that it is operated directly by the motion of the working platform itself.
(xviii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided in or adjacent to each operating device.
(xix) Emergency stop switches shall:
(a) Have red operating buttons or handles.
(b) Be conspicuously and permanently marked "Stop."
(c) Be the manually opened and manually closed type.
(d) Be positively opened with the opening not solely dependent on springs.
(xx) The manual operation of an emergency stop switch associated with an operating device for the working platform shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.
(xxi) The manual operation of the emergency stop switch associated with the operating device for a power-driven roof car shall cause the electrical power to the traverse machine to be interrupted, and the traverse machine brake to apply.
(23) Requirements for emergency communications.
(i) Communication equipment shall be provided for each powered platform for use in an emergency.
(ii) Two-way communication shall be established between personnel on the roof and personnel on the stalled working platform before any emergency operation of the working platform is undertaken by personnel on the roof.
(iii) The equipment shall permit two-way voice communication between the working platform and
(a) Designated personnel continuously available while the powered platform is in use; and
(b) Designated personnel on roof-powered platforms, undertaking emergency operation of the working platform by means of the emergency operating device located near the hoisting machine.
(iv) The emergency communication equipment shall be one of the following types:
(a) Telephone connected to the central telephone exchange system; or
(b) Telephones on a limited system or an approved two-way radio system, provided designated personnel are available to receive a message during the time the powered platform is in use.
(d) Type T powered platforms-
(1) Roof car. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.
(2) Working platform. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) through (c)(16) of this appendix apply to Type T powered platforms.
(i) The working platform shall be suspended by at least two wire ropes.
(ii) The maximum rated speed at which the working platform of self-powered platforms may be moved in a vertical direction shall not exceed 35 feet per minute.
(3) Hoisting equipment. The requirements of paragraphs (c) (17) and (18) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.
(4) Brakes. Brakes requirements of paragraph (c)(19) of this appendix shall apply.
(5) Hoisting ropes and rope connections.
(i) Paragraphs (c)(20) (i) through (vi) and (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.
(ii) Adjustable shackle rods in subparagraph (c)(20)(vii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms, if the working platform is suspended by more than two wire ropes.
(6) Electrical wiring and equipment.
(i) The requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (vi) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. "Circuit protection limitation," "powered platform electrical service system," all operating services and control equipment shall comply with the specifications contained in part 2, section 26, ANSI A120.1-1970.
(ii) For electrical protective devices the requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. Requirements for the "circuit potential limitation" shall be in accordance with specifications contained in part 2, section 26, of ANSI A120.1-1970.
(7) Emergency communications. All the requirements of paragraph (c)(23) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.
[54 FR 31408, July 28, 1989; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 72 FR 7190, Feb. 14, 2007; 81 FR 82999, Nov. 18, 2016]