• Part Number:
    1910
  • Part Number Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards
  • Subpart:
    1910 Subpart R
  • Subpart Title:
    Special Industries
  • Standard Number:
  • Title:
    Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
  • Appendix:
  • GPO Source:
1910.269(n)(7)
Additional precautions. The employer shall ensure that, when an employee performs work on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable is not grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
1910.269(n)(8)
Removal of grounds for test. The employer may permit employees to remove grounds temporarily during tests. During the test procedure, the employer shall ensure that each employee uses insulating equipment, shall isolate each employee from any hazards involved, and shall implement any additional measures necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously grounded lines and equipment become energized.
1910.269(o)
Testing and test facilities.
1910.269(o)(1)

Application. Paragraph (o) of this section provides for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories, shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements using high voltage, high power, or combinations of high voltage and high power, and not to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and normal line work.

Note to paragraph (o)(1): OSHA considers routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified employees to be routine line work not included in the scope of paragraph (o) of this section, provided that the hazards related to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high-power sources require only the normal precautions associated with routine work specified in the other paragraphs of this section. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.

1910.269(o)(2)
General requirements.
1910.269(o)(2)(i)
The employer shall establish and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such work practices shall include, as a minimum, test area safeguarding, grounding, the safe use of measuring and control circuits, and a means providing for periodic safety checks of field test areas.
1910.269(o)(2)(ii)
The employer shall ensure that each employee, upon initial assignment to the test area, receives training in safe work practices, with retraining provided as required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
1910.269(o)(3)
Safeguarding of test areas.
1910.269(o)(3)(i)
The employer shall provide safeguarding within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus under test that could become energized as part of the testing by either direct or inductive coupling and to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
1910.269(o)(3)(ii)
The employer shall guard permanent test areas with walls, fences, or other barriers designed to keep employees out of the test areas.
1910.269(o)(3)(iii)
In field testing, or at a temporary test site not guarded by permanent fences and gates, the employer shall ensure the use of one of the following means to prevent employees without authorization from entering:
1910.269(o)(3)(iii)(A)
Distinctively colored safety tape supported approximately waist high with safety signs attached to it,
1910.269(o)(3)(iii)(B)
A barrier or barricade that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually, to the barricade specified in paragraph (o)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, or
1910.269(o)(3)(iii)(C)
One or more test observers stationed so that they can monitor the entire area.
1910.269(o)(3)(iv)
The employer shall ensure the removal of the safeguards required by paragraph (o)(3)(iii) of this section when employees no longer need the protection afforded by the safeguards.
1910.269(o)(4)
Grounding practices.
1910.269(o)(4)(i)
The employer shall establish and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
1910.269(o)(4)(i)(A)
The employer shall maintain at ground potential all conductive parts accessible to the test operator while the equipment is operating at high voltage.
1910.269(o)(4)(i)(B)
Wherever ungrounded terminals of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they shall be treated as energized until tests demonstrate that they are deenergized.
1910.269(o)(4)(ii)
The employer shall ensure either that visible grounds are applied automatically, or that employees using properly insulated tools manually apply visible grounds, to the high-voltage circuits after they are deenergized and before any employee performs work on the circuit or on the item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections shall be solidly connected to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
1910.269(o)(4)(iii)
In high-power testing, the employer shall provide an isolated ground-return conductor system designed to prevent the intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, from occurring in the ground grid or in the earth. However, the employer need not provide an isolated ground-return conductor if the employer can demonstrate that both of the following conditions exist:
1910.269(o)(4)(iii)(A)
The employer cannot provide an isolated ground-return conductor due to the distance of the test site from the electric energy source, and
1910.269(o)(4)(iii)(B)
The employer protects employees from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the test

Note to paragraph (o)(4)(iii)(B): See Appendix C to this section for information on measures that employers can take to protect employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
1910.269(o)(4)(iv)
For tests in which using the equipment grounding conductor in the equipment power cord to ground the test equipment would result in greater hazards to test personnel or prevent the taking of satisfactory measurements, the employer may use a ground clearly indicated in the test set-up if the employer can demonstrate that this ground affords protection for employees equivalent to the protection afforded by an equipment grounding conductor in the power supply cord.
1910.269(o)(4)(v)
The employer shall ensure that, when any employee enters the test area after equipment is deenergized, a ground is placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
1910.269(o)(4)(v)(A)
Before any employee applies a direct ground, the employer shall discharge high capacitance equipment through a resistor rated for the available energy.
1910.269(o)(4)(v)(B)
A direct ground shall be applied to the exposed terminals after the stored energy drops to a level at which it is safe to do so.
1910.269(o)(4)(vi)
If the employer uses a test trailer or test vehicle in field testing, its chassis shall be grounded. The employer shall protect each employee against hazardous touch potentials with respect to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees with bonding, insulation, or isolation.
1910.269(o)(5)
Control and measuring circuits.
1910.269(o)(5)(i)
The employer may not run control wiring, meter connections, test leads, or cables from a test area unless contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure or unless the employer takes other precautions that it can demonstrate will provide employees with equivalent safety.
1910.269(o)(5)(ii)
The employer shall isolate meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts from test personnel to protect against hazards that could arise should such terminals and parts become energized during testing. If the employer provides this isolation by locating test equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, the employer shall provide interlocks to interrupt the power supply when someone opens the compartment cover.
1910.269(o)(5)(iii)
The employer shall protect temporary wiring and its connections against damage, accidental interruptions, and other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, the employer shall keep signal, control, ground, and power cables separate from each other.
1910.269(o)(5)(iv)
If any employee will be present in the test area during testing, a test observer shall be present. The test observer shall be capable of implementing the immediate deenergizing of test circuits for safety purposes.
1910.269(o)(6)
Safety check.
1910.269(o)(6)(i)
Safety practices governing employee work at temporary or field test areas shall provide, at the beginning of each series of tests, for a routine safety check of such test areas.
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)
The test operator in charge shall conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and shall verify at least the following conditions:
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(A)
Barriers and safeguards are in workable condition and placed properly to isolate hazardous areas;
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(B)
System test status signals, if used, are in operable condition;
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(C)
Clearly marked test-power disconnects are readily available in an emergency;
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(D)
Ground connections are clearly identifiable;
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(E)
Personal protective equipment is provided and used as required by Subpart I of this part and by this section; and
1910.269(o)(6)(ii)(F)
Proper separation between signal, ground, and power cables.
1910.269(p)
Mechanical equipment.
1910.269(p)(1)
General requirements.
1910.269(p)(1)(i)
The critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment shall receive a thorough visual inspection before use on each shift.

Note to paragraph (p)(1)(i): Critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components for which failure would result in free fall or free rotation of the boom.
1910.269(p)(1)(ii)
No motor vehicle or earthmoving or compacting equipment having an obstructed view to the rear may be operated on off-highway jobsites where any employee is exposed to the hazards created by the moving vehicle, unless:
1910.269(p)(1)(ii)(A)
The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level, or
1910.269(p)(1)(ii)(B)
The vehicle is backed up only when a designated employee signals that it is safe to do so.
1910.269(p)(1)(iii)
Rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end loaders, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler-type tractors, crawler-type loaders, and motor graders, with or without attachments, shall have rollover protective structures that meet the requirements of Subpart W of Part 1926 of this chapter.
1910.269(p)(1)(iv)
The operator of an electric line truck may not leave his or her position at the controls while a load is suspended, unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) is endangered.
1910.269(p)(2)
Outriggers.
1910.269(p)(2)(i)
Mobile equipment, if provided with outriggers, shall be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly set, except as provided in paragraph (p)(2)(iii) of this section.
1910.269(p)(2)(ii)
Outriggers may not be extended or retracted outside of the clear view of the operator unless all employees are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
1910.269(p)(2)(iii)
If the work area or the terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within its maximum load ratings specified by the equipment manufacturer for the particular configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
1910.269(p)(3)
Applied loads. Mechanical equipment used to lift or move lines or other material shall be used within its maximum load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the mechanical equipment is being used
1910.269(p)(4)
Operations near energized lines or equipment.
1910.269(p)(4)(i)
Mechanical equipment shall be operated so that the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, are maintained from exposed energized lines and equipment. However, the insulated portion of an aerial lift operated by a qualified employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement if the applicable minimum approach distance is maintained between the uninsulated portions of the aerial lift and exposed objects having a different electrical potential.
1910.269(p)(4)(ii)
A designated employee other than the equipment operator shall observe the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and provide timely warnings before the minimum approach distance required by paragraph (p)(4)(i) of this section is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate that the operator can accurately determine that the minimum approach distance is being maintained.
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)
If, during operation of the mechanical equipment, that equipment could become energized, the operation also shall comply with at least one of paragraphs (p)(4)(iii)(A) through (p)(4)(iii)(C) of this section.
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(A)
The energized lines or equipment exposed to contact shall be covered with insulating protective material that will withstand the type of contact that could be made during the operation.
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(B)
The mechanical equipment shall be insulated for the voltage involved. The mechanical equipment shall be positioned so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the energized lines or equipment any closer than the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section.
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(C)
Each employee shall be protected from hazards that could arise from mechanical equipment contact with energized lines or equipment. The measures used shall ensure that employees will not be exposed to hazardous differences in electric potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that could arise if the mechanical equipment contacts the energized line or equipment, the measures used shall include all of the following techniques:
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(C)(1)
Using the best available ground to minimize the time the lines or electric equipment remain energized,
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(C)(2)
Bonding mechanical equipment together to minimize potential differences,
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(C)(3)
Providing ground mats to extend areas of equipotential, and
1910.269(p)(4)(iii)(C)(4)
Employing insulating protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous electrical potential differences.

Note to paragraph (p)(4)(iii)(C): Appendix C to this section contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.
1910.269(q)
Overhead lines and live-line barehand work. This paragraph provides additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment and for live-line barehand work.
1910.269(q)(1)
General.
1910.269(q)(1)(i)
Before allowing employees to subject elevated structures, such as poles or towers, to such stresses as climbing or the installation or removal of equipment may impose, the employer shall ascertain that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses. If the pole or other structure cannot withstand the expected loads, the employer shall brace or otherwise support the pole or structure so as to prevent failure.

Note to paragraph (q)(1)(i): Appendix D to this section contains test methods that employers can use in ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces imposed by an employee climbing the pole. This paragraph also requires the employer to ascertain that the pole can sustain all other forces imposed by the work employees will perform.
1910.269(q)(1)(ii)
When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the pole may not contact the conductor.
1910.269(q)(1)(iii)
When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts of his or her body.
1910.269(q)(1)(iv)
To protect employees from falling into holes used for placing poles, the employer shall physically guard the holes, or ensure that employees attend the holes, whenever anyone is working nearby.
1910.269(q)(2)
Installing and removing overhead lines. The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of overhead conductors or cable (overhead lines).
1910.269(q)(2)(i)
When lines that employees are installing or removing can contact energized parts, the employer shall use the tension-stringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the possibility that conductors and cables the employees are installing or removing will contact energized power lines or equipment.
1910.269(q)(2)(ii)
For conductors, cables, and pulling and tensioning equipment, the employer shall provide the protective measures required by paragraph (p)(4)(iii) of this section when employees are installing or removing a conductor or cable close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the conductor or cable being installed or removed:
1910.269(q)(2)(ii)(A)
Failure of the pulling or tensioning equipment,
1910.269(q)(2)(ii)(B)
Failure of the conductor or cable being pulled, or
1910.269(q)(2)(ii)(C)
Failure of the previously installed lines or equipment.
1910.269(q)(2)(iii)
If the conductors that employees are installing or removing cross over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts and if the design of the circuitinterrupting devices protecting the lines so permits, the employer shall render inoperable the automatic-reclosing feature of these devices.
1910.269(q)(2)(iv)
Before employees install lines parallel to existing energized lines, the employer shall make a determination of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work shall proceed on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the lines that employees are installing are not subject to the induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner that the employer can demonstrate will prevent exposure of each employee to hazardous differences in electric potential.

Note 1 to paragraph (q)(2)(iv): If the employer takes no precautions to protect employees from hazards associated with involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the induced voltage is sufficient to pass a current of 1 milliampere through a 500-ohm resistor. If the employer protects employees from injury due to involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the resultant current would be more than 6 milliamperes.

Note 2 to paragraph (q)(2)(iv): Appendix C to this section contains guidelines for protecting employees from hazardous differences in electric potential as required by this paragraph.
1910.269(q)(2)(ix)
The employer shall ensure that employees maintain reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, between the reel tender and the pullingrig operator.
1910.269(q)(2)(v)
Reel-handling equipment, including pulling and tensioning devices, shall be in safe operating condition and shall be leveled and aligned.
1910.269(q)(2)(vi)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not exceed load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists.
1910.269(q)(2)(vii)
The employer shall repair or replace defective pulling lines and accessories.
1910.269(q)(2)(viii)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not use conductor grips on wire rope unless the manufacturer specifically designed the grip for this application.
1910.269(q)(2)(x)
Employees may operate the pulling rig only when it is safe to do so.

Note to paragraph (q)(2)(x): Examples of unsafe conditions include: employees in locations prohibited by paragraph (q)(2)(xi) of this section, conductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slipping of the conductor grip.
1910.269(q)(2)(xi)
While a power-driven device is pulling the conductor or pulling line and the conductor or pulling line is in motion, the employer shall ensure that employees are not directly under overhead operations or on the crossarm, except as necessary for the employees to guide the stringing sock or board over or through the stringing sheave.
1910.269(q)(3)
Live-line barehand work. In addition to other applicable provisions contained in this section, the following requirements apply to live-line barehand work:
1910.269(q)(3)(i)
Before an employee uses or supervises the use of the live-line barehand technique on energized circuits, the employer shall ensure that the employee completes training conforming to paragraph (a)(2) of this section in the technique and in the safety requirements of paragraph (q)(3) of this section.
1910.269(q)(3)(ii)
Before any employee uses the liveline barehand technique on energized high-voltage conductors or parts, the employer shall ascertain the following information in addition to information about other existing conditions required by paragraph (a)(4) of this section:
1910.269(q)(3)(ii)(A)
The nominal voltage rating of the circuit on which employees will perform the work,
1910.269(q)(3)(ii)(B)
The clearances to ground of lines and other energized parts on which employees will perform the work, and
1910.269(q)(3)(ii)(C)
The voltage limitations of equipment employees will use.
1910.269(q)(3)(iii)
The employer shall ensure that the insulated equipment, insulated tools, and aerial devices and platforms used by employees are designed, tested, and made for live-line barehand work.
1910.269(q)(3)(iv)
The employer shall ensure that employees keep tools and equipment clean and dry while they are in use.
1910.269(q)(3)(ix)
Aerial lifts used for live-line barehand work shall have dual controls (lower and upper) as follows:
1910.269(q)(3)(ix)(A)
The upper controls shall be within easy reach of the employee in the bucket. On a two-bucket-type lift, access to the controls shall be within easy reach of both buckets.
1910.269(q)(3)(ix)(B)
The lower set of controls shall be near the base of the boom and shall be designed so that they can override operation of the equipment at any time.
1910.269(q)(3)(v)
The employer shall render inoperable the automatic-reclosing feature of circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines if the design of the devices permits.
1910.269(q)(3)(vi)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not perform work when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous even after the employer implements the work practices required by this section. Additionally, employees may not perform work when winds reduce the phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground clearances at the work location below the minimum approach distances specified in paragraph (q)(3)(xiv) of this section, unless insulating guards cover the grounded objects and other lines and equipment.

Note to paragraph (q)(3)(vi): Thunderstorms in the vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that make liveline barehand work too hazardous to perform safely even after the employer implements the work practices required by this section.
1910.269(q)(3)(vii)
The employer shall provide and ensure that employees use a conductive bucket liner or other conductive device for bonding the insulated aerial device to the energized line or equipment.
1910.269(q)(3)(vii)(A)
The employee shall be connected to the bucket liner or other conductive device by the use of conductive shoes, leg clips, or other means.
1910.269(q)(3)(vii)(B)
Where differences in potentials at the worksite pose a hazard to employees, the employer shall provide electrostatic shielding designed for the voltage being worked.
1910.269(q)(3)(viii)
The employer shall ensure that, before the employee contacts the energized part, the employee bonds the conductive bucket liner or other conductive device to the energized conductor by means of a positive connection. This connection shall remain attached to the energized conductor until the employee completes the work on the energized circuit.
1910.269(q)(3)(x)
Lower (ground-level) lift controls may not be operated with an employee in the lift except in case of emergency.
1910.269(q)(3)(xi)
The employer shall ensure that, before employees elevate an aerial lift into the work position, the employees check all controls (ground level and bucket) to determine that they are in proper working condition.
1910.269(q)(3)(xii)
The employer shall ensure that, before employees elevate the boom of an aerial lift, the employees ground the body of the truck or barricade the body of the truck and treat it as energized.
1910.269(q)(3)(xiii)
The employer shall ensure that employees perform a boom-current test before starting work each day, each time during the day when they encounter a higher voltage, and when changed conditions indicate a need for an additional test.
1910.269(q)(3)(xiii)(A)
This test shall consist of placing the bucket in contact with an energized source equal to the voltage to be encountered for a minimum of 3 minutes.
1910.269(q)(3)(xiii)(B)
The leakage current may not exceed 1 microampere per kilovolt of nominal phase-to-ground voltage.
1910.269(q)(3)(xiii)(C)
The employer shall immediately suspend work from the aerial lift when there is any indication of a malfunction in the equipment.
1910.269(q)(3)(xiv)
The employer shall ensure that employees maintain the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, from all grounded objects and from lines and equipment at a potential different from that to which the live-line barehand equipment is bonded, unless insulating guards cover such grounded objects and other lines and equipment.
1910.269(q)(3)(xix)
A nonconductive measuring device shall be readily accessible to employees performing live-line barehand work to assist them in maintaining the required minimum approach distance.
1910.269(q)(3)(xv)
The employer shall ensure that, while an employee is approaching, leaving, or bonding to an energized circuit, the employee maintains the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, between the employee and any grounded parts, including the lower boom and portions of the truck and between the employee and conductive objects energized at different potentials.
1910.269(q)(3)(xvi)
While the bucket is alongside an energized bushing or insulator string, the employer shall ensure that employees maintain the phase-to ground minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, between all parts of the bucket and the grounded end of the bushing or insulator string or any other grounded surface.
1910.269(q)(3)(xvii)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not use handlines between the bucket and the boom or between the bucket and the ground. However, employees may use nonconductive-type handlines from conductor to ground if not supported from the bucket. The employer shall ensure that no one uses ropes used for live-line barehand work for other purposes.
1910.269(q)(3)(xviii)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not pass uninsulated equipment or material between a pole or structure and an aerial lift while an employee working from the bucket is bonded to an energized part.
1910.269(q)(4)
Towers and structures. The following requirements apply to work performed on towers or other structures that support overhead lines.
1910.269(q)(4)(i)
The employer shall ensure that no employee is under a tower or structure while work is in progress, except when the employer can demonstrate that such a working position is necessary to assist employees working above.
1910.269(q)(4)(ii)
The employer shall ensure that employees use tag lines or other similar devices to maintain control of tower sections being raised or positioned, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of such devices would create a greater hazard to employees.
1910.269(q)(4)(iii)
The employer shall ensure that employees do not detach the loadline from a member or section until they safely secure the load.
1910.269(q)(4)(iv)
The employer shall ensure that, except during emergency restoration procedures, employees discontinue work when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section.

Note to paragraph (q)(4)(iv): Thunderstorms in the vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that make this work too hazardous to perform even after the employer implements the work practices required by this section.
1910.269(r)
Line-clearance tree trimming. This paragraph provides additional requirements for line-clearance tree trimming and for equipment used in this type of work.
1910.269(r)(1)
Electrical hazards. This paragraph does not apply to qualified employees.
1910.269(r)(1)(i)
Before an employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, a determination shall be made of the nominal voltage of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees. However, a determination of the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead, if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.
1910.269(r)(1)(ii)
There shall be a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal (that is, unassisted) voice communication under any of the following conditions:
1910.269(r)(1)(ii)(A)
If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely than 3.05 meters (10 feet) to any conductor or electric apparatus energized at more than 750 volts or
1910.269(r)(1)(ii)(B)
If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 750 volts than the distances listed in Table R-5, Table R-6, Table R-7, and Table R-8 or
1910.269(r)(1)(ii)(C)
If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs from such conductors or apparatus.
1910.269(r)(1)(iii)
Line-clearance tree trimmers shall maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in Table R-5, Table R-6, Table R-7, and Table R-8.
1910.269(r)(1)(iv)
Branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or equipment or that are within the distances specified in Table R-5, Table R-6, Table R-7, and Table R-8 may be removed only through the use of insulating equipment.

Note to paragraph (r)(1)(iv): A tool constructed of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting paragraph (j)(1) of this section is considered as insulated under paragraph (r)(1)(iv) of this section if the tool is clean and dry.
1910.269(r)(1)(v)
Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table R-5, Table R-6, Table R-7, and Table R-8.
1910.269(r)(1)(vi)
Line-clearance tree trimming may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section. Each employee performing line-clearance tree trimming in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions shall be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.

Note to paragraph (r)(1)(vi): Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree trimming too hazardous to perform safely.
1910.269(r)(2)
Brush chippers.
1910.269(r)(2)(i)
Brush chippers shall be equipped with a locking device in the ignition system.
1910.269(r)(2)(ii)
Access panels for maintenance and adjustment of the chipper blades and associated drive train shall be in place and secure during operation of the equipment.
1910.269(r)(2)(iii)
Brush chippers not equipped with a mechanical infeed system shall be equipped with an infeed hopper of length sufficient to prevent employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine during operation.
1910.269(r)(2)(iv)
Trailer chippers detached from trucks shall be chocked or otherwise secured.
1910.269(r)(2)(v)
Each employee in the immediate area of an operating chipper feed table shall wear personal protective equipment as required by Subpart I of this part.
1910.269(r)(3)
Sprayers and related equipment.
1910.269(r)(3)(i)
Walking and working surfaces of sprayers and related equipment shall be covered with slip-resistant material. If slipping hazards cannot be eliminated, slip-resistant footwear or handrails and stair rails meeting the requirements of Subpart D of this part may be used instead of slip-resistant material.
1910.269(r)(3)(ii)
Equipment on which employees stand to spray while the vehicle is in motion shall be equipped with guardrails around the working area. The guardrail shall be constructed in accordance with Subpart D of this part.
1910.269(r)(4)
Stump cutters.
1910.269(r)(4)(i)
Stump cutters shall be equipped with enclosures or guards to protect employees.
1910.269(r)(4)(ii)
Each employee in the immediate area of stump grinding operations including the stump cutter operator) shall wear personal protective equipment as required by Subpart I of this part.
1910.269(r)(5)
Gasoline-engine power saws. Gasoline-engine power saw operations shall meet the requirements of § 1910.266(e) and the following:
1910.269(r)(5)(i)
Each power saw weighing more than 6.8 kilograms (15 pounds, service weight) that is used in trees shall be supported by a separate line, except when work is performed from an aerial lift and except during topping or removing operations where no supporting limb will be available.
1910.269(r)(5)(ii)
Each power saw shall be equipped with a control that will return the saw to idling speed when released.
1910.269(r)(5)(iii)
Each power saw shall be equipped with a clutch and shall be so adjusted that the clutch will not engage the chain drive at idling speed.
1910.269(r)(5)(iv)
A power saw shall be started on the ground or where it is otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting of saws over 6.8 kilograms (15 pounds), other than chain saws, is permitted outside of the bucket of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear of personnel.

Note to paragraph (r)(5)(iv): Paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of § 1910.266 prohibits drop starting of chain saws.
1910.269(r)(5)(v)
A power saw engine may be started and operated only when all employees other than the operator are clear of the saw.
1910.269(r)(5)(vi)
A power saw may not be running when the saw is being carried up into a tree by an employee.
1910.269(r)(5)(vii)
Power saw engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
1910.269(r)(6)
Backpack power units for use in pruning and clearing.
1910.269(r)(6)(i)
While a backpack power unit is running, no one other than the operator may be within 3.05 meters (10 feet) of the cutting head of a brush saw.
1910.269(r)(6)(ii)
A backpack power unit shall be equipped with a quick shutoff switch readily accessible to the operator.
1910.269(r)(6)(iii)
Backpack power unit engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
1910.269(r)(7)
Rope.
1910.269(r)(7)(i)
Climbing ropes shall be used by employees working aloft in trees. These ropes shall have a minimum diameter of 12 millimeters (0.5 inch) with a minimum breaking strength of 10.2 kilonewtons (2,300 pounds). Synthetic rope shall have elasticity of not more than 7 percent.
1910.269(r)(7)(ii)
Rope shall be inspected before each use and, if unsafe (for example, because of damage or defect), may not be used.
1910.269(r)(7)(iii)
Rope shall be stored away from cutting edges and sharp tools. Rope contact with corrosive chemicals, gas, and oil shall be avoided.
1910.269(r)(7)(iv)
When stored, rope shall be coiled and piled, or shall be suspended, so that air can circulate through the coils.
1910.269(r)(7)(v)
Rope ends shall be secured to prevent their unraveling.
1910.269(r)(7)(vi)
Climbing rope may not be spliced to effect repair.
1910.269(r)(7)(vii)
A rope that is wet, that is contaminated to the extent that its insulating capacity is impaired, or that is otherwise not considered to be insulated for the voltage involved may not be used near exposed energized lines.
1910.269(r)(8)
Fall protection. Each employee shall be tied in with a climbing rope and safety saddle when the employee is working above the ground in a tree, unless he or she is ascending into the tree.
1910.269(s)
Communication facilities.
1910.269(s)(1)
Microwave transmission.
1910.269(s)(1)(i)
The employer shall ensure that no employee looks into an open waveguide or antenna connected to an energized microwave source.
1910.269(s)(1)(ii)

If the electromagnetic-radiation level within an accessible area associated with microwave communications systems exceeds the radiation-protection guide specified by § 1910.97(a)(2), the employer shall post the area with warning signs containing the warning symbol described in § 1910.97(a)(3). The lower half of the warning symbol shall include the following statements, or ones that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent: "Radiation in this area may exceed hazard limitations and special precautions are required. Obtain specific instruction before entering."

1910.269(s)(1)(iii)
When an employee works in an area where the electromagnetic radiation could exceed the radiationprotection guide, the employer shall institute measures that ensure that the employee's exposure is not greater than that permitted by that guide. Such measures may include administrative and engineering controls and personal protective equipment.
1910.269(s)(2)
Power-line carrier. The employer shall ensure that employees perform power-line carrier work, including work on equipment used for coupling carrier current to power line conductors, in accordance with the requirements of this section pertaining to work on energized lines.
1910.269(t)
Underground electrical installations. This paragraph provides additional requirements for work on underground electrical installations.
1910.269(t)(1)
Access. The employer shall ensure that employees use a ladder or other climbing device to enter and exit a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 1.22 meters (4 feet) in depth. No employee may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.
1910.269(t)(2)
Lowering equipment into manholes.
1910.269(t)(2)(i)
Equipment used to lower materials and tools into manholes or vaults shall be capable of supporting the weight to be lowered and shall be checked for defects before use.
1910.269(t)(2)(ii)
Before anyone lowers tools or material into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working in the manhole or vault shall be clear of the area directly under the opening.
1910.269(t)(3)
Attendants for manholes and vaults.
1910.269(t)(3)(i)
While work is being performed in a manhole or vault containing energized electric equipment, an employee with first-aid training shall be available on the surface in the immediate vicinity of the manhole or vault entrance to render emergency assistance.
1910.269(t)(3)(ii)
Occasionally, the employee on the surface may briefly enter a manhole or vault to provide nonemergency assistance.

Note 1 to paragraph (t)(3)(ii): Paragraph (e)(7) of this section may also require an attendant and does not permit this attendant to enter the manhole or vault.

Note 2 to paragraph (t)(3)(ii): Paragraph (l)(1)(ii) of this section requires employees entering manholes or vaults containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more to be qualified.
1910.269(t)(3)(iii)
For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief periods of time, a manhole or vault where energized cables or equipment are in service if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical hazards.
1910.269(t)(3)(iv)
The employer shall ensure that employees maintain reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, among all employees involved in the job.
1910.269(t)(4)
Duct rods. The employer shall ensure that, if employees use duct rods, the employees install the duct rods in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees. The employer shall station an employee at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the employees maintain the required minimum approach distances.
1910.269(t)(5)
Multiple cables. When multiple cables are present in a work area, the employer shall identify the cable to be worked by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification. The employer shall protect cables other than the one being worked from damage.
1910.269(t)(6)
Moving cables. Except when paragraph (t)(7)(ii) of this section permits employees to perform work that could cause a fault in an energized cable in a manhole or vault, the employer shall ensure that employees inspect energized cables to be moved for abnormalities.
1910.269(t)(7)
Protection against faults.
1910.269(t)(7)(i)
Where a cable in a manhole or vault has one or more abnormalities that could lead to a fault or be an indication of an impending fault, the employer shall deenergize the cable with the abnormality before any employee may work in the manhole or vault, except when service-load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole or vault provided the employer protects them from the possible effects of a failure using shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault. The employer shall treat the following abnormalities as indications of impending faults unless the employer can demonstrate that the conditions could not lead to a fault: Oil or compound leaking from cable or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface temperatures of cables or joints, or joints swollen beyond normal tolerance.
1910.269(t)(7)(ii)
If the work employees will perform in a manhole or vault could cause a fault in a cable, the employer shall deenergize that cable before any employee works in the manhole or vault, except when service-load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole or vault provided the employer protects them from the possible effects of a failure using shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault.
1910.269(t)(8)
Sheath continuity. When employees perform work on buried cable or on cable in a manhole or vault, the employer shall maintain metallic-sheath continuity, or the cable sheath shall be treated as energized.
1910.269(u)
Substations. This paragraph provides additional requirements for substations and for work performed in them.
1910.269(u)(1)
Access and working space. The employer shall provide and maintain sufficient access and working space about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment by employees.

Note to paragraph (u)(1): American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2012 contains guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (u)(1) of this section. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard complies with paragraph (u)(1) of this section based on the following criteria:

(1) Whether the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made,

(2) Whether the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, while the employees are working on exposed, energized parts, and

(3) Whether the precautions taken when employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection provided by access and working space meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2012.
1910.269(u)(2)
Draw-out-type circuit breakers. The employer shall ensure that, when employees remove or insert draw-out-type circuit breakers, the breaker is in the open position. The employer shall also render the control circuit inoperable if the design of the equipment permits.
1910.269(u)(3)
Substation fences. Conductive fences around substations shall be grounded. When a substation fence is expanded or a section is removed, fence sections shall be isolated, grounded, or bonded as necessary to protect employees from hazardous differences in electric potential.

Note to paragraph (u)(3): IEEE Std 80-2000, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding, contains guidelines for protection against hazardous differences in electric potential.
1910.269(u)(4)
Guarding of rooms and other spaces containing electric supply equipment.
1910.269(u)(4)(i)
Rooms and other spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (u)(4)(ii) through (u)(4)(v) of this section under the following conditions:
1910.269(u)(4)(i)(A)
If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground or other working surface inside the room or other space,
1910.269(u)(4)(i)(B)
If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts to ground and located within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground or other working surface inside the room or other space are guarded only by location, as permitted under paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this section, or
1910.269(u)(4)(i)(C)
If live parts operating at more than 600 volts to ground are within the room or other space, unless:
1910.269(u)(4)(i)(C)(1)
The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts, or
1910.269(u)(4)(i)(C)(2)
The live parts are installed at a height, above ground and any other working surface, that provides protection at the voltage on the live parts corresponding to the protection provided by a 2.4-meter (8-foot) height at 50 volts.
1910.269(u)(4)(ii)
Fences, screens, partitions, or walls shall enclose the rooms and other spaces so as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
1910.269(u)(4)(iii)
Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or other spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
1910.269(u)(4)(iv)
The employer shall display signs at entrances to the rooms and other spaces warning unqualified persons to keep out.
1910.269(u)(4)(v)
The employer shall keep each entrance to a room or other space locked, unless the entrance is under the observation of a person who is attending the room or other space for the purpose of preventing unqualified employees from entering.
1910.269(u)(5)
Guarding of energized parts.
1910.269(u)(5)(i)
The employer shall provide guards around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient clearance (horizontal, vertical, or both) to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.

Note to paragraph (u)(5)(i): American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2002 contains guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this section. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard complies with paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this section based on the following criteria:

(1) Whether the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made,

(2) Whether each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and

(3) Whether the precautions taken when employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2002.
1910.269(u)(5)(ii)
Except for fuse replacement and other necessary access by qualified persons, the employer shall maintain guarding of energized parts within a compartment during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent dropped tools or other equipment from contacting energized parts.
1910.269(u)(5)(iii)
Before guards are removed from energized equipment, the employer shall install barriers around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
1910.269(u)(6)
Substation entry.
1910.269(u)(6)(i)
Upon entering an attended substation, each employee, other than employees regularly working in the station, shall report his or her presence to the employee in charge of substation activities to receive information on special system conditions affecting employee safety.
1910.269(u)(6)(ii)
The job briefing required by paragraph (c) of this section shall cover information on special system conditions affecting employee safety, including the location of energized equipment in or adjacent to the work area and the limits of any deenergized work area.
1910.269(v)
Power generation. This paragraph provides additional requirements and related work practices for power generating plants.
1910.269(v)(1)
Interlocks and other safety devices.
1910.269(v)(1)(i)
Interlocks and other safety devices shall be maintained in a safe, operable condition.
1910.269(v)(1)(ii)
No interlock or other safety device may be modified to defeat its function, except for test, repair, or adjustment of the device.
1910.269(v)(2)
Changing brushes. Before exciter or generator brushes are changed while the generator is in service, the exciter or generator field shall be checked to determine whether a ground condition exists. The brushes may not be changed while the generator is energized if a ground condition exists.
1910.269(v)(3)
Access and working space. The employer shall provide and maintain sufficient access and working space about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment by employees.

Note to paragraph (v)(3) of this section: American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2012 contains guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (v)(3) of this section. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard complies with paragraph (v)(3) of this section based on the following criteria:

(1) Whether the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made;

(2) Whether the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section, while the employees are working on exposed, energized parts, and;

(3) Whether the precautions taken when employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection provided by access and working space meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2012.
1910.269(v)(4)
Guarding of rooms and other spaces containing electric supply equipment.
1910.269(v)(4)(i)
Rooms and other spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (v)(4)(ii) through (v)(4)(v) of this section under the following conditions:
1910.269(v)(4)(i)(A)
If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground or other working surface inside the room or other space,
1910.269(v)(4)(i)(B)
If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts to ground and located within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground or other working surface inside the room or other space are guarded only by location, as permitted under paragraph (v)(5)(i) of this section, or
1910.269(v)(4)(i)(C)
If live parts operating at more than 600 volts to ground are within the room or other space, unless:
1910.269(v)(4)(i)(C)(1)
The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts, or
1910.269(v)(4)(i)(C)(2)
The live parts are installed at a height, above ground and any other working surface, that provides protection at the voltage on the live parts corresponding to the protection provided by a 2.4-meter (8-foot) height at 50 volts.
1910.269(v)(4)(ii)
Fences, screens, partitions, or walls shall enclose the rooms and other spaces so as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
1910.269(v)(4)(iii)
Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or other spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
1910.269(v)(4)(iv)
The employer shall display signs at entrances to the rooms and other spaces warning unqualified persons to keep out.
1910.269(v)(4)(v)
The employer shall keep each entrance to a room or other space locked, unless the entrance is under the observation of a person who is attending the room or other space for the purpose of preventing unqualified employees from entering.
1910.269(v)(5)
Guarding of energized parts.
1910.269(v)(5)(i)
The employer shall provide guards around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient clearance (horizontal, vertical, or both) to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.

Note to paragraph (v)(5)(i): American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2002 contains guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (v)(5)(i) of this section. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard complies with paragraph (v)(5)(i) of this section based on the following criteria:

(1) Whether the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made;

(2) Whether each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and

(3) Whether the precautions taken when employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2002.
1910.269(v)(5)(ii)
Except for fuse replacement and other necessary access by qualified persons, the employer shall maintain guarding of energized parts within a compartment during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent dropped tools or other equipment from contacting energized parts.
1910.269(v)(5)(iii)
Before guards are removed from energized equipment, the employer shall install barriers around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
1910.269(v)(6)
Water or steam spaces. The following requirements apply to work in water and steam spaces associated with boilers:
1910.269(v)(6)(i)
A designated employee shall inspect conditions before work is permitted and after its completion. Eye protection, or full face protection if necessary, shall be worn at all times when condenser, heater, or boiler tubes are being cleaned.
1910.269(v)(6)(ii)
Where it is necessary for employees to work near tube ends during cleaning, shielding shall be installed at the tube ends.
1910.269(v)(7)
Chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels. The following requirements apply to chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels:
1910.269(v)(7)(i)
Areas where chemical cleaning is in progress shall be cordoned off to restrict access during cleaning. If flammable liquids, gases, or vapors or combustible materials will be used or might be produced during the cleaning process, the following requirements also apply:
1910.269(v)(7)(i)(A)
The area shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazards of fire and explosion; and
1910.269(v)(7)(i)(B)
Smoking, welding, and other possible ignition sources are prohibited in these restricted areas.
1910.269(v)(7)(ii)
The number of personnel in the restricted area shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
1910.269(v)(7)(iii)
There shall be ready access to water or showers for emergency use.

Note to paragraph (v)(7)(iii): See § 1910.141 for requirements that apply to the water supply and to washing facilities.
1910.269(v)(7)(iv)
Employees in restricted areas shall wear protective equipment meeting the requirements of Subpart I of this part and including, but not limited to, protective clothing, boots, goggles, and gloves.
1910.269(v)(8)
Chlorine systems.
1910.269(v)(8)(i)
Chlorine system enclosures shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazard to health and the hazards of fire and explosion.

Note to paragraph (v)(8)(i): See Subpart Z of this part for requirements necessary to protect the health of employees from the effects of chlorine.
1910.269(v)(8)(ii)
Only designated employees may enter the restricted area. Additionally, the number of personnel shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
1910.269(v)(8)(iii)
Emergency repair kits shall be available near the shelter or enclosure to allow for the prompt repair of leaks in chlorine lines, equipment, or containers.
1910.269(v)(8)(iv)
Before repair procedures are started, chlorine tanks, pipes, and equipment shall be purged with dry air and isolated from other sources of chlorine.
1910.269(v)(8)(v)
The employer shall ensure that chlorine is not mixed with materials that would react with the chlorine in a dangerously exothermic or other hazardous manner.
1910.269(v)(9)
Boilers.
1910.269(v)(9)(i)
Before internal furnace or ash hopper repair work is started, overhead areas shall be inspected for possible falling objects. If the hazard of falling objects exists, overhead protection such as planking or nets shall be provided.
1910.269(v)(9)(ii)
When opening an operating boiler door, employees shall stand clear of the opening of the door to avoid the heat blast and gases which may escape from the boiler.
1910.269(v)(10)
Turbine generators.
1910.269(v)(10)(i)
Smoking and other ignition sources are prohibited near hydrogen or hydrogen sealing systems, and signs warning of the danger of explosion and fire shall be posted.
1910.269(v)(10)(ii)
Excessive hydrogen makeup or abnormal loss of pressure shall be considered as an emergency and shall be corrected immediately.
1910.269(v)(10)(iii)
A sufficient quantity of inert gas shall be available to purge the hydrogen from the largest generator.
1910.269(v)(11)
Coal and ash handling.
1910.269(v)(11)(i)
Only designated persons may operate railroad equipment.
1910.269(v)(11)(ii)
Before a locomotive or locomotive crane is moved, a warning shall be given to employees in the area.
1910.269(v)(11)(iii)
Employees engaged in switching or dumping cars may not use their feet to line up drawheads.
1910.269(v)(11)(iv)
Drawheads and knuckles may not be shifted while locomotives or cars are in motion.
1910.269(v)(11)(ix)
A conveyor that could cause injury when started may not be started until personnel in the area are alerted by a signal or by a designated person that the conveyor is about to start.
1910.269(v)(11)(v)
When a railroad car is stopped for unloading, the car shall be secured from displacement that could endanger employees.
1910.269(v)(11)(vi)
An emergency means of stopping dump operations shall be provided at railcar dumps.
1910.269(v)(11)(vii)
The employer shall ensure that employees who work in coal- or ashhandling conveyor areas are trained and knowledgeable in conveyor operation and in the requirements of paragraphs (v)(11)(viii) through (v)(11)(xii) of this section.
1910.269(v)(11)(viii)
Employees may not ride a coalor ash-handling conveyor belt at any time. Employees may not cross over the conveyor belt, except at walkways, unless the conveyor's energy source has been deenergized and has been locked out or tagged in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section
1910.269(v)(11)(x)
If a conveyor that could cause injury when started is automatically controlled or is controlled from a remote location, an audible device shall be provided that sounds an alarm that will be recognized by each employee as a warning that the conveyor will start and that can be clearly heard at all points along the conveyor where personnel may be present. The warning device shall be actuated by the device starting the conveyor and shall continue for a period of time before the conveyor starts that is long enough to allow employees to move clear of the conveyor system. A visual warning may be used in place of the audible device if the employer can demonstrate that it will provide an equally effective warning in the particular circumstances involved. However if the employer can demonstrate that the system's function would be seriously hindered by the required time delay, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device. If the system was installed before January 31, 1995, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device until such time as the conveyor or its control system is rebuilt or rewired. These warning signs shall be clear, concise, and legible and shall indicate that conveyors and allied equipment may be started at any time, that danger exists, and that personnel must keep clear. These warning signs shall be provided along the conveyor at areas not guarded by position or location.
1910.269(v)(11)(xi)
Remotely and automatically controlled conveyors, and conveyors that have operating stations which are not manned or which are beyond voice and visual contact from drive areas, loading areas, transfer points, and other locations on the conveyor path not guarded by location, position, or guards shall be furnished with emergency stop buttons, pull cords, limit switches, or similar emergency stop devices. However, if the employer can demonstrate that the design, function, and operation of the conveyor do not expose an employee to hazards, an emergency stop device is not required.
1910.269(v)(11)(xi)(A)
Emergency stop devices shall be easily identifiable in the immediate vicinity of such locations.
1910.269(v)(11)(xi)(B)
An emergency stop device shall act directly on the control of the conveyor involved and may not depend on the stopping of any other equipment.
1910.269(v)(11)(xi)(C)
Emergency stop devices shall be installed so that they cannot be overridden from other locations.
1910.269(v)(11)(xii)
Where coal-handling operations may produce a combustible atmosphere from fuel sources or from flammable gases or dust, sources of ignition shall be eliminated or safely controlled to prevent ignition of the combustible atmosphere.

Note to paragraph (v)(11)(xii): Locations that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust are classified as Class II hazardous locations. See § 1910.307.
1910.269(v)(11)(xiii)
An employee may not work on or beneath overhanging coal in coal bunkers, coal silos, or coal storage areas, unless the employee is protected from all hazards posed by shifting coal.
1910.269(v)(11)(xiv)
An employee entering a bunker or silo to dislodge the contents shall wear a body harness with lifeline attached. The lifeline shall be secured to a fixed support outside the bunker and shall be attended at all times by an employee located outside the bunker or facility.
1910.269(v)(12)
Hydroplants and equipment. Employees working on or close to water gates, valves, intakes, forebays, flumes, or other locations where increased or decreased water flow or levels may pose a significant hazard shall be warned and shall vacate such dangerous areas before water flow changes are made.
1910.269(w)
Special conditions.
1910.269(w)(1)
Capacitors. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors.

Note to paragraph (w)(1): See paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section for requirements pertaining to the deenergizing and grounding of capacitor installations.
1910.269(w)(1)(i)
Before employees work on capacitors, the employer shall disconnect the capacitors from energized sources and short circuit the capacitors. The employer shall ensure that the employee short circuiting the capacitors waits at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection before applying the short circuit,
1910.269(w)(1)(ii)
Before employees handle the units, the employer shall short circuit each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks, the employer shall bond the racks to ground.
1910.269(w)(1)(iii)
The employer shall short circuit any line connected to capacitors before the line is treated as deenergized.
1910.269(w)(2)
Current transformer secondaries. The employer shall ensure that employees do not open the secondary of a current transformer while the transformer is energized. If the employer cannot deenergize the primary of the current transformer before employees perform work on an instrument, a relay, or other section of a current transformer secondary circuit, the employer shall bridge the circuit so that the current transformer secondary does not experience an open-circuit condition.
1910.269(w)(3)
Series streetlighting.
1910.269(w)(3)(i)
If the open-circuit voltage exceeds 600 volts, the employer shall ensure that employees work on series streetlighting circuits in accordance with paragraph (q) or (t) of this section, as appropriate.
1910.269(w)(3)(ii)
Before any employee opens a series loop, the employer shall deenergize the streetlighting transformer and isolate it from the source of supply or shall bridge the loop to avoid an open-circuit condition.
1910.269(w)(4)
Illumination. The employer shall provide sufficient illumination to enable the employee to perform the work safely.
1910.269(w)(5)
Protection against drowning.
1910.269(w)(5)(i)
Whenever an employee may be pulled or pushed, or might fall, into water where the danger of drowning exists, the employer shall provide the employee with, and shall ensure that the employee uses, a U.S. Coast Guardapproved personal flotation device.
1910.269(w)(5)(ii)
The employer shall maintain each personal flotation device in safe condition and shall inspect each personal flotation device frequently enough to ensure that it does not have rot, mildew, water saturation, or any other condition that could render the device unsuitable for use.
1910.269(w)(5)(iii)
An employee may cross streams or other bodies of water only if a safe means of passage, such as a bridge, is available.
1910.269(w)(6)
Employee protection in public work areas.
1910.269(w)(6)(i)
Traffic-control signs and traffic-control devices used for the protection of employees shall meet § 1926.200(g)(2) of this chapter.
1910.269(w)(6)(ii)
Before employees begin work in the vicinity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic that may endanger them, the employer shall place warning signs or flags and other traffic-control devices in conspicuous locations to alert and channel approaching traffic.
1910.269(w)(6)(iii)
The employer shall use barricades where additional employee protection is necessary.
1910.269(w)(6)(iv)
The employer shall protect excavated areas with barricades.
1910.269(w)(6)(v)
The employer shall display warning lights prominently at night.
1910.269(w)(7)
Backfeed. When there is a possibility of voltage backfeed from sources of cogeneration or from the secondary system (for example, backfeed from more than one energized phase feeding a common load), the requirements of paragraph (l) of this section apply if employees will work the lines or equipment as energized, and the requirements of paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section apply if employees will work the lines or equipment as deenergized.
1910.269(w)(8)
Lasers. The employer shall install, adjust, and operate laser equipment in accordance with § 1926.54 of this chapter.
1910.269(w)(9)
Hydraulic fluids. Hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of equipment shall provide insulation for the voltage involved.
1910.269(x)

Definitions.

Affected employee. An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.

Attendant. An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.

Authorized employee. An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.

Automatic circuit recloser. A self-controlled device for automatically interrupting and reclosing an alternating-current circuit, with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold closed, or lockout.

Barricade. A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures that provides a warning about, and limits access to, a hazardous area.

Barrier. A physical obstruction that prevents contact with energized lines or equipment or prevents unauthorized access to a work area.

Bond. The electrical interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electric potential.

Bus. A conductor or a group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.

Bushing. An insulating structure that includes a through conductor or that provides a passageway for such a conductor, and that, when mounted on a barrier, insulates the conductor from the barrier for the purpose of conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.

Cable. A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (singleconductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).

Cable sheath. A conductive protective covering applied to cables.

Note to the definition of "cable sheath": A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers one or more of which is conductive.

Circuit. A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.

Clearance (between objects). The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.

Clearance (for work). Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.

Communication lines. (See Lines; (1) Communication lines.)

Conductor. A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric current.

Contract employer. An employer, other than a host employer, that performs work covered by this section under contract.

Covered conductor. A conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor is used.

Current-carrying part. A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Non-current-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.

Deenergized. Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential that is different from the potential of the earth.

Note to the definition of "deenergized": The term applies only to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).

Designated employee (designated person). An employee (or person) who is assigned by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this section and who has sufficient knowledge of the construction and operation of the equipment, and the hazards involved, to perform his or her duties safely.

Electric line truck. A truck used to transport personnel, tools, and material for electric supply line work.

Electric supply equipment. Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of electric energy.

Electric supply lines. (See Lines; (2) Electric supply lines.)

Electric utility. An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric supply system.

Enclosed space. A working space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions, and that, under normal conditions, does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.

Note to the definition of "enclosed space": The Occupational Safety and Health Administration does not consider spaces that are enclosed but not designed for employee entry under normal operating conditions to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Similarly, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration does not consider spaces that are enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Such spaces meet the definition of permit spaces in § 1910.146, and entry into them must conform to that standard.

Energized (alive, live). Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.

Energy isolating device. A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: a manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)

Energy source. Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to employees.

Entry (as used in paragraph (e) of this section). The action by which a person passes through an opening into an enclosed space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.

Equipment (electric),. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.

Exposed, Exposed to contact (as applied to energized parts). Not isolated or guarded.

Fall restraint system. A fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance.

First-aid training. Training in the initial care, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (which includes chest compressions, rescue breathing, and, as appropriate, other heart and lung resuscitation techniques), performed by a person who is not a medical practitioner, of a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be administered.

Ground. A conducting connection, whether planned or unplanned, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Grounded. Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Guarded. Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or inadvertent contact by persons or objects.

Note to the definition of "guarded": Wires that are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not guarded.
Hazardous atmosphere. An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);

(2)Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;

Note to the definition of "hazardous atmosphere" (2): This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 1.52 meters (5 feet) or less.

(3)Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;

(4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of this part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;

Note to the definition of "hazardous atmosphere" (4): An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.

(5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.

Note to the definition of "hazardous atmosphere" (5): For air contaminants for which the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Safety Data Sheets (SDS) that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, § 1910.1200, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

High-power tests. Tests in which the employer uses fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and linedropping currents to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower voltages.

High-voltage tests. Tests in which the employer uses voltages of approximately 1,000 volts as a practical minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.

High wind. A wind of such velocity that one or more of the following hazards would be present:

(1) The wind could blow an employee from an elevated location,

(2) The wind could cause an employee or equipment handling material to lose control of the material, or

(3) The wind would expose an employee to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.

Note to the definition of "high wind": The Occupational Safety and Health Administration normally considers winds exceeding 64.4 kilometers per hour (40 miles per hour), or 48.3 kilometers per hour (30 miles per hour) if the work involves material handling, as meeting this criteria, unless the employer takes precautions to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.

Host employer. An employer that operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, an electric power generation, transmission, or distribution installation on which a contract employer is performing work covered by this section.

Note to the definition of "host employer": The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will treat the electric utility or the owner of the installation as the host employer if it operates or controls operating procedures for the installation. If the electric utility or installation owner neither operates nor controls operating procedures for the installation, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration will treat the employer that the utility or owner has contracted with to operate or control the operating procedures for the installation as the host employer. In no case will there be more than one host employer.

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

Note to the definition of "immediately dangerous to life or health" : Some materials-hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example-may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health

Insulated. Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.

Note to the definition of "insulated" : When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it normally is subjected. Otherwise, it is, for the purpose of this section, uninsulated.

Insulation (cable). Material relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground.

Isolated. Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

Line-clearance tree trimmer. An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both, is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree trimming.

Note 1 to the definition of "line-clearance tree trimmer": An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a line-clearance tree trimmer for the performance of those duties.

Note 2 to the definition of "line-clearance tree trimmer": A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered to be a "qualified employee" under this section unless he or she has the training required for a qualified employee under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard in subpart S of this part, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified employee." Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in §§1910.331 through 1910.335 when it is directly associated with electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment. (See §1910.331 for requirements on the applicability of the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in §§1910.331 through 1910.335 to line-clearance tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees," and see the note following §1910.332(b)(3) for information regarding the training an employee must have to be considered a qualified employee under §§1910.331 through 1910.335.)

Line-clearance tree trimming. The pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees, or the cutting of brush, that is within the following distance of electric supply lines and equipment:

Note to the definition of "line-clearance tree trimming" :This section applies only to line-clearance tree trimming performed for the purpose of clearing space around electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment and on behalf of an organization that operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, those lines or equipment. See paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Tree trimming performed on behalf of a homeowner or commercial entity other than an organization that operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment is not directly associated with an electric power generation, transmission, or distribution installation and is outside the scope of this section. In addition, tree trimming that is not for the purpose of clearing space around electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment is not directly associated with an electric power generation, transmission, or distribution installation and is outside the scope of this section. Such tree trimming may be covered by other applicable standards. See, for example, §§ 1910.268 and 1910.331 through 1910.335.

(1) For voltages to ground of 50 kilovolts or less-3.05 meters (10 feet);

(2) For voltages to ground of more than 50 kilovolts-3.05 meters (10 feet) plus 0.10 meters (4 inches) for every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.

Lines. (1) Communication lines. The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system. Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely to communication equipment.

Note to the definition of "communication lines": Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable television, and other systems conforming to this definition are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered as electric supply lines of the same voltage.

(2) Electric supply lines. Conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section, and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.

Manhole. A subsurface enclosure that personnel may enter and that is used for installing, operating, and maintaining submersible equipment or cable.

Minimum approach distance. The closest distance an employee may approach an energized or a grounded object.

Note to the definition of "minimum approach distance": Paragraph (l)(3)(i) of this section requires employers to establish minimum approach distances.

Personal fall arrest system. A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.

Qualified employee (qualified person). An employee (person) knowledgeable in the construction and operation of the electric power generation, transmission, and distribution equipment involved, along with the associated hazards.

Note 1 to the definition of "qualified employee (qualified person)": An employee must have the training required by (a)(2)(ii) of this section to be a qualified employee.

Note 2 to the definition of "qualified employee (qualified person)": Except under (g)(2)(iv)(C)(2) and (g)(2)(iv)(C)(3) of this section, an employee who is undergoing on-the-job training and who has demonstrated, in the course of such training, an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is a qualified person for the performance of those duties.

Statistical sparkover voltage. A transient overvoltage level that produces a 97.72-percent probability of sparkover (that is, two standard deviations above the voltage at which there is a 50-percent probability of sparkover).

Statistical withstand voltage. A transient overvoltage level that produces a 0.14-percent probability of sparkover (that is, three standard deviations below the voltage at which there is a 50-percent probability of sparkover).

Switch. A device for opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In this section, a switch is manually operable, unless otherwise stated.

System operator. A qualified person designated to operate the system or its parts.

Vault. An enclosure, above or below ground, that personnel may enter and that is used for installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.

Vented vault. A vault that has provision for air changes using exhaustflue stacks and low-level air intakes operating on pressure and temperature differentials that provide for airflow that precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.

Voltage. The effective (root mean square, or rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and ground. This section expresses voltages in nominal values, unless otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.

Work-positioning equipment. A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a utility pole or tower leg, and work with both hands free while leaning.

[59 FR 40672, Aug. 9, 1994; 59 FR 51672, Oct. 12, 1994; 79 FR 20633-20659, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 56960, September 24, 2014; 80 FR 60037, October 5, 2015]