- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart N
- Subpart Title:Materials Handling and Storage
- Standard Number:
- Title:Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.
- GPO Source:
"Definitions applicable to this section."
A "crawler crane" consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery, and boom, mounted on a base, equipped with crawler treads for travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
A "locomotive crane" consists of a rotating superstructure with power-plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on railroad track. It may be self-propelled or propelled by an outside source. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
A "wheel mounted crane" (wagon crane) consists of a rotating superstructure with powerplant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubber-tired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by the engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
An "accessory" is a secondary part or assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.
"Appointed" means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
"ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.
An "angle indicator" [boom] is an accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal.
The "axis of rotation" is the vertical axis around which the crane superstructure rotates.
"Axle" means the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it refers to an automotive type of axle assembly including housings, gearing, differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.
"Axle" [bogie] means two or more automotive-type axles mounted in tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit vertical oscillation of the wheels.
The "base" (mounting) is the traveling base or carrier on which the rotating superstructure is mounted such as a car, truck, crawlers, or wheel platform.
The "boom angle" is the angle between the longitudinal centerline of the boom and the horizontal. The boom longitudinal centerline is a straight line between the boom foot pin (heel pin) centerline and boom point sheave pin centerline.
The "boom stop" is a device used to limit the angle of the boom at the highest position.
A "cab" is a housing which covers the rotating superstructure machinery and/or operator's station. On truck-crane trucks a separate cab covers the driver's station.
The "clutch" is a friction, electromagnetic, hydraulic, pneumatic, or positive mechanical device for engagement or disengagement of power.
The "counterweight" is a weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.
The "drum" is the cylindrical members around which ropes are wound for raising and lowering the load or boom.
"Dynamic" (loading) means loads introduced into the machine or its components by forces in motion.
"Load" (working) means the external load, in pounds, applied to the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as load blocks, shackles, and slings.
"Load block" [upper] means the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.
A "load hoist" is a hoist drum and rope reeving system used for hoisting and lowering loads.
A "standby crane" is a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
"Structural competence" means the ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
"Superstructure" means the rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.
"Swing" means the rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
"Swing mechanism" means the machinery involved in providing rotation of the superstructure.
"Tackle" is an assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for hoisting and pulling.
"Transit" means the moving or transporting of a crane from one jobsite to another.
"Travel" means the function of the machine moving from one location to another, on a jobsite.
The "travel mechanism" is the machinery involved in providing travel.
"Wheelbase" means the distance between centers of front and rear axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheelbase measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.
The "whipline" (auxiliary hoist) is a separate hoist rope system of lighter load capacity and higher speed than provided by the main hoist.
A "winch head" is a power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and spool.
"General requirements" -
"Application." This section applies to crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel mounted cranes of both truck and self-propelled wheel type, and any variations thereof which retain the same fundamental characteristics. This section includes only cranes of the above types, which are basically powered by internal combustion engines or electric motors and which utilize drums and ropes. Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements of this section are applicable only to machines when used as lifting cranes.
"New and existing equipment." All new crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes constructed and utilized on or after August 31, 1971, shall meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, ANSI B30.5-1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6. Crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes constructed prior to August 31, 1971, should be modified to conform to those design specifications by February 15, 1972, unless it can be shown that the crane cannot feasibly or economically be altered and that the crane substantially complies with the requirements of this section.
"Designated personnel." Only designated personnel shall be permitted to operate a crane covered by this section.
"Load ratings" -
"Load ratings - where stability governs lifting performance."
The margin of stability for determination of load ratings, with booms of stipulated lengths at stipulated working radii for the various types of crane mountings, is established by taking a percentage of the loads which will produce a condition of tipping or balance with the boom in the least stable direction, relative to the mounting. The load ratings shall not exceed the following percentages for cranes, with the indicated types of mounting under conditions stipulated in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section.
____________________________________________________________ | | Maximum | load ratings Type of crane mounting | (percent of | tipping | loads) ______________________________________________|______________ | Locomotive, without outriggers: | Booms 60 feet or less ......................| (1) 85 Booms over 60 feet .........................| (1) 85 Locomotive, using outriggers fully extended...| 80 Crawler, without outriggers...................| 75 Crawler, using outriggers fully extended......| 85 Truck and wheel mounted without outriggers or | using outriggers fully extended.............| 85 ______________________________________________|_______________ Footnote(1) Unless this results in less than 30,000 pound-feet net stabilizing moment about the rail, which shall be minimum with such booms.
"Load rating chart." A substantial and durable rating chart with clearly legible letters and figures shall be provided with each crane and securely fixed to the crane cab in a location easily visible to the operator while seated at his control station.
"Inspection classification" -
"Initial inspection." Prior to initial use all new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure compliance with provisions of this section.
"Regular inspection." Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as "frequent" and "periodic", with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
"Frequent inspection." Items such as the following shall be inspected for defects at intervals as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section or as specifically indicated including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspections. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
"Periodic inspection." Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed at intervals as generally defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections shall include the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and in addition, items such as the following. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
"Cranes not in regular use."
"Inspection records." Certification records which include the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the crane which was inspected shall be made monthly on critical items in use such as brakes, crane hooks, and ropes. This certification record shall be kept readily available.
"Rated load test."
"Maintenance procedure" - "General". After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane shall not be operated until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.
"Rope inspection." -
"Running ropes." A thorough inspection of all ropes in use shall be made at least once a month and a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier for the ropes shall be prepared and kept on file where readily available. All inspections shall be performed by an appointed or authorized person. Any deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength shall be carefully observed and determination made as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard. Some of the conditions that could result in an appreciable loss of strength are the following:
"Handling the load" -
"Size of load."
"Attaching the load."
"Moving the load."
"Holding the load."
"Other requirements" -
"Rail clamps." Rail clamps shall not be used as a means of restraining tipping of a locomotive crane.
"Ballast or counterweight." Cranes shall not be operated without the full amount of any ballast or counterweight in place as specified by the maker, but truck cranes that have dropped the ballast or counterweight may be operated temporarily with special care and only for light loads without full ballast or counterweight in place. The ballast or counterweight in place specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.
"Swinging locomotive cranes." A locomotive crane shall not be swung into a position where railway cars on an adjacent track might strike it, until it has been ascertained that cars are not being moved on the adjacent track and proper flag protection has been established.
"Operations near overhead lines" -
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49 FR 5323, Feb. 10, 1984; 51 FR 34561, Sept. 29, 1986; 53 FR 12122, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996]