- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart H
- Subpart Title:Hazardous Materials
- Standard Number:
- Title:Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.
- GPO Source:
The container-charging room shall be located not less than:
Ten feet from bulk storage containers.
Tank truck filling station outlets shall be located not less than:
Ten feet from pumps and compressors if housed in one or more separate buildings.
The pumps or compressors may be located in the container-charging room or building, in a separate building, or outside of buildings. When housed in a separate building, such building (a small noncombustible weather cover is not to be construed as a building) shall be located not less than:
Ten feet from bulk storage tanks.
Twenty-five feet from sources of ignition.
When a part of the container-charging building is to be used for a boiler room or where open flames or similar sources of ignition exist or are employed, the space to be so occupied shall be separated from container charging room by a partition wall or walls of fire-resistant construction continuous from floor to roof or ceiling. Such separation walls shall be without openings and shall be joined to the floor, other walls, and ceiling or roof in a manner to effect a permanent gas-tight joint.
Electrical equipment and installations shall conform with paragraphs (b) (17) and (18) of this section.
Each bulk plant shall be provided with at least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 12-B, C.
In industrial installations involving containers of 150,000 gallons aggregate water capacity or more, provision shall be made for an adequate supply of water at the container site for fire protection in the container area, unless other adequate means for fire control are provided. Water hydrants shall be readily accessible and so spaced as to provide water protection for all containers. Sufficient lengths of firehose shall be provided at each hydrant location on a hose cart, or other means provided to facilitate easy movement of the hose in the container area. It is desirable to equip the outlet of each hose line with a combination fog nozzle. A shelter shall be provided to protect the hose and its conveyor from the weather.
Lighting. Electrical equipment and installations shall conform to paragraphs (b) (17) and (18) of this section.
Vaporizers for internal combustion engines. The provisions of paragraph (e)(8) of this section shall apply.
Gas regulating and mixing equipment for internal combustion engines. The provisions of paragraph (e)(9) of this section shall apply.
Liquefied petroleum gas as a motor fuel -
This paragraph applies to internal combustion engines, fuel containers, and pertinent equipment for the use of liquefied petroleum gases as a motor fuel on easily movable, readily portable units including self-propelled vehicles.
Fuel containers and pertinent equipment for internal combustion engines using liquefied petroleum gas where installation is of the stationary type are covered by paragraph (d) of this section. This paragraph does not apply to containers for transportation of liquefied petroleum gases nor to marine fuel use. All requirements of paragraph (b) of this section apply to this paragraph, unless otherwise noted in paragraph (b) of this section.
Fuel may be used from the cargo tank of a truck while in transit, but not from cargo tanks on trailers or semitrailers. The use of fuel from the cargo tanks to operate stationary engines is permitted providing wheels are securely blocked.
Passenger-carrying vehicles shall not be fueled while passengers are on board.
Industrial trucks (including lift trucks) equipped with permanently mounted fuel containers shall be charged outdoors. Charging equipment shall comply with the provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.
LP-Gas fueled industrial trucks shall comply with the Standard for Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks, NFPA 505-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
Engines on vehicles shall be shut down while fueling if the fueling operation involves venting to the atmosphere.
Design pressure and classification of fuel containers.
Except as covered in paragraphs (e)(3) (ii) and (iii) of this section, containers shall be in accordance with Table H-32.
Fuel containers for use in industrial trucks (including lift trucks) shall be either DOT containers authorized for LP-Gas service having a minimum service pressure of 240 p.s.i.g. or minimum Container Type 250. Under 1950 and later ASME codes, this means a 312.5-p.s.i.g. design pressure container.
TABLE H-32 _____________________________________________________________________ | | | | Minimum design pressure of | For gases | container, lb. per sq. in. gage | with vapor |____________________________________________ | press. Not | | | to exceed | 1949 and | 1949 edition of ASME Code Container | lb. per sq. | earlier | (Par. U-200, U-201); 1950, type | in. gage at | editions of | 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, | 100 deg. F. | ASME Code | 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) |(37.8 deg C.)| (Par. U-68, | editions of ASME Code; | | U-69) | All editions of API-ASME | | | Code(2) __________|_____________|_____________|______________________________ | | | (1)200 | 215Z | 200 | 250 __________|_____________|_____________|______________________________ Footnote(1) Container type may be increased by increments of 25. The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 100% of the container type designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the ASME Code (Par. U-68 and U-69). The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 125% of the container type designation when constructed under: (1)The 1949 ASME Code (Par. U-200 and U-201), (2) 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of the ASME Code, and (3) all editions of the API-ASME Code. Footnote(2) Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is not authorized after July 1, 1961.
Containers manufactured and maintained under DOT specifications and regulations may be used as fuel containers. When so used they shall conform to all requirements of this paragraph.
All container inlets and outlets except safety relief valves and gaging devices shall be labeled to designate whether they communicate with vapor or liquid space. Labels may be on valves.
Installation of fuel containers.
Containers shall be located in a place and in a manner to minimize the possibility of damage to the container. Containers located in the rear of trucks and buses, when protected by substantial bumpers, will be considered in conformance with this requirement. Fuel containers on passenger-carrying vehicles shall be installed as far from the engine as is practicable, and the passenger space and any space containing radio equipment shall be sealed from the container space to prevent direct seepage of gas to these spaces. The container compartment shall be vented to the outside. In case the fuel container is mounted near the engine or the exhaust system, the container shall be shielded against direct heat radiation.
Containers shall be installed with as much clearance as practicable but never less than the minimum road clearance of the vehicle under maximum spring deflection. This minimum clearance shall be to the bottom of the container or to the lowest fitting on the container or housing, whichever is lower.
Permanent and removable fuel containers shall be securely mounted to prevent jarring loose, slipping, or rotating, and the fastenings shall be designed and constructed to withstand static loading in any direction equal to twice the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with fuel using a safety factor of not less than four based on the ultimate strength of the material to be used. Field welding, when necessary, shall be made only on saddle plates, lugs or brackets, originally attached to the container by the tank manufacturer.
Fuel containers on buses shall be permanently installed.
Containers from which vapor only is to be withdrawn shall be installed and equipped with suitable connections to minimize the accidental withdrawal of liquid.
Valves and accessories.
Container valves and accessories shall have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g., and shall be of a type suitable for liquefied petroleum gas service.
The filling connection shall be fitted with an approved double back-pressure check valve, or a positive shutoff in conjunction with an internal back-pressure check valve. On a removable container the filler valve may be a hand operated shutoff valve with an internal excess flow valve. Main shutoff valves on the container on liquid and vapor lines must be readily accessible.
With the exceptions of paragraph (e)(5)(iv)(c) of this section, filling connections equipped with approved automatic back-pressure check valves, and safety relief valves, all connections to containers having openings for the flow of gas in excess of a No. 54 drill size shall be equipped with approved automatic excess flow valves to prevent discharge of content in case connections are broken.
Liquid-level gaging devices:
Variable liquid-level gages which require the venting of fuel to the atmosphere shall not be used on fuel containers of industrial trucks (including lift trucks).
On portable containers that may be filled in the vertical and/or horizontal position, the fixed liquid-level gage must indicate maximum permitted filling level for both vertical and horizontal filling with the container oriented to place the safety relief valve in communication with the vapor space.
In the case of containers used solely in farm tractor service, and charged at a point at least 50 feet from any important building, the fixed liquid-level gaging device may be so constructed that the outward flow of container content exceeds that passed by a No. 54 drill size opening, but in no case shall the flow exceed that passed by a No. 31 drill-size opening. An excess flow valve is not required. Fittings equipped with such restricted drill size opening and container on which they are used shall be marked to indicate the size of the opening.
All valves and connections on containers shall be adequately protected to prevent damage due to accidental contact with stationary objects or from loose objects thrown up from the road, and all valves shall be safeguarded against damage due to collision, overturning or other accident. For farm tractors where parts of the vehicle provide such protection to valves and fittings, the foregoing requirements shall be considered fulfilled. However, on removable type containers the protection for the fittings shall be permanently attached to the container.
When removable fuel containers are used, means shall be provided in the fuel system to minimize the escape of fuel when the containers are exchanged. This may be accomplished by either of the following methods:
Using an approved automatic quick-closing coupling (a type closing in both directions when uncoupled) in the fuel line, or
Closing the valve at the fuel container and allowing the engine to run until the fuel in the line is consumed.
Piping - including pipe, tubing, and fittings.
Pipe from fuel container to first-stage regulator shall be not less than schedule 80 wrought iron or steel (black or galvanized), brass or copper; or seamless copper, brass, or steel tubing. Steel tubing shall have a minimum wall thickness of 0.049 inch. Steel pipe or tubing shall be adequately protected against exterior corrosion. Copper tubing shall be types K or L or equivalent having a minimum wall thickness of 0.032 inch. Approved flexible connections may be used between container and regulator or between regulator and gas-air mixer within the limits of approval. The use of aluminum pipe or tubing is prohibited. In the case of removable containers an approved flexible connection shall be used between the container and the fuel line.
All piping shall be installed, braced, and supported so as to reduce to a minimum the possibility of vibration strains or wear.
Spring-loaded internal type safety relief valves shall be used on all motor fuel containers.
The discharge outlet from safety relief valves shall be located on the outside of enclosed spaces and as far as practicable from possible sources of ignition, and vented upward within 45 degrees of the vertical in such a manner as to prevent impingement of escaping gas upon containers, or parts of vehicles, or on vehicles in adjacent lines of traffic. A rain cap or other protector shall be used to keep water and dirt from collecting in the valve.
When a discharge line from the container safety relief valve is used, the line shall be metallic, other than aluminum, and shall be sized, located, and maintained so as not to restrict the required flow of gas from the safety relief valve. Such discharge line shall be able to withstand the pressure resulting from the discharge of vapor when the safety relief valve is in the full open position. When flexibility is necessary, flexible metal hose or tubing shall be used.
Portable containers equipped for volumetric filling may be filled in either the vertical or horizontal position only when oriented to place the safety relief valve in communication with the vapor space.
Paragraph (b)(10)(xii) of this section for hydrostatic relief valves shall apply.
Vaporizers and any part thereof and other devices that may be subjected to container pressure shall have a design pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g.
Each vaporizer shall have a valve or suitable plug which will permit substantially complete draining of the vaporizer. It shall be located at or near the lowest portion of the section occupied by the water or other heating medium.
Vaporizers shall be securely fastened so as to minimize the possibility of becoming loosened.
Each vaporizer shall be permanently marked at a visible point as follows:
With the design pressure of the fuel-containing portion in p.s.i.g.
With the water capacity of the fuel-containing portion of the vaporizer in pounds.
Devices to supply heat directly to a fuel container shall be equipped with an automatic device to cut off the supply of heat before the pressure inside the fuel container reaches 80 percent of the start to discharge pressure setting of the safety relief device on the fuel container.
Engine exhaust gases may be used as a direct source of heat supply for the vaporization of fuel if the materials of construction of those parts of the vaporizer in contact with exhaust gases are resistant to the corrosive action of exhaust gases and the vaporizer system is designed to prevent excessive pressures.
Vaporizers shall not be equipped with fusible plugs.
Gas regulating and mixing equipment.
Approved automatic pressure reducing equipment shall be installed in a secure manner between the fuel supply container and gas-air mixer for the purpose of reducing the pressure of the fuel delivered to the gas-air mixer.
An approved automatic shutoff valve shall be provided in the fuel system at some point ahead of the inlet of the gas-air mixer, designed to prevent flow of fuel to the mixer when the ignition is off and the engine is not running. In the case of industrial trucks and engines operating in buildings other than those used exclusively to house engines, the automatic shutoff valve shall be designed to operate if the engine should stop. Atmospheric type regulators (zero governors) shall be considered adequate as an automatic shutoff valve only in cases of outdoor operation such as farm tractors, construction equipment, irrigation pump engines, and other outdoor stationary engine installations.
The source of the air for combustion shall be completely isolated from the passenger compartment, ventilating system, or air-conditioning system.
Stationary engines in buildings. Stationary engines and gas turbines installed in buildings, including portable engines used instead of or to supplement stationary engines, shall comply with the Standard for the Institution and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA 37-1970, and the appropriate provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.
Portable engines in buildings.
Portable engines may be used in buildings only for emergency use, except as provided by subparagraph (11) of this paragraph.
Exhaust gases shall be discharged to outside the building or to an area where they will not constitute a hazard.
Provision shall be made to supply sufficient air for combustion and cooling.
An approved automatic shutoff valve shall be provided in the fuel system ahead of the engine, designed to prevent flow of fuel to the engine when the ignition is off or if the engine should stop.
The capacity of LP-Gas containers used with such engines shall comply with the applicable occupancy provision of paragraph (c)(5) of this section.
Industrial trucks inside buildings.
LP-Gas-fueled industrial trucks are permitted to be used in buildings and structures.
No more than two LP-Gas containers shall be used on an industrial truck for motor fuel purposes.
Industrial trucks shall not be parked and left unattended in areas of possible excessive heat or sources of ignition.
Garaging LP-Gas-fueled vehicles.
LP-Gas-fueled vehicles may be stored or serviced inside garages provided there are no leaks in the fuel system and the fuel tanks are not filled beyond the maximum filling capacity specified in paragraph (b)(12)(i) of this section.
LP-Gas-fueled vehicles being repaired in garages shall have the container shutoff valve closed except when fuel is required for engine operation.
Such vehicles shall not be parked near sources of heat, open flames, or similar sources of ignition or near open pits unless such pits are adequately ventilated.
Storage of containers awaiting use or resale -
Application. This paragraph shall apply to the storage of portable containers not in excess of 1,000 pounds water capacity, filled or partially filled, at user location but not connected for use, or in storage for resale by dealers or resellers. This paragraph shall not apply to containers stored at charging plants or at plants devoted primarily to the storage and distribution of LP-Gas or other petroleum products.
Containers in storage shall be located so as to minimize exposure to excessive temperature rise, physical damage, or tampering by unauthorized persons.
Containers when stored inside shall not be located near exits, stairways, or in areas normally used or intended for the safe exit of people.
Container valves shall be protected while in storage as follows:
By setting into recess of container to prevent the possibility of their being struck if the container is dropped upon a flat surface, or
By ventilated cap or collar, fastened to container capable of withstanding blow from any direction equivalent to that of a 30-pound weight dropped 4 feet. Construction must be such that a blow will not be transmitted to a valve or other connection.
The outlet valves of containers in storage shall be closed.
Empty containers which have been in LP-Gas service when stored inside, shall be considered as full containers for the purpose of determining the maximum quantity of LP-Gas permitted by this paragraph.
Storage within buildings not frequented by the public (such as industrial buildings).
The quantity of LP-Gas stored shall not exceed 300 pounds (approximately 2,550 cubic feet in vapor form) except as provided in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph.
Containers carried as a part of service equipment on highway mobile vehicles are not to be considered in the total storage capacity in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph provided such vehicles are stored in private garages, and are limited to one container per vehicle with an LP-Gas capacity of not more than 100 pounds. All container valves shall be closed.
Storage within special buildings or rooms.
The quantity of LP-Gas stored in special buildings or rooms shall not exceed 10,000 pounds.
The walls, floors, and ceilings of container storage rooms that are within or adjacent to other parts of the building shall be constructed of material having at least a 2-hour fire resistance rating.
A portion of the exterior walls or roof having an area not less than 10 percent of that of the combined area of the enclosing walls and roof shall be of explosion relieving construction.
Each opening from such storage rooms to other parts of the building shall be protected by a 1½ hour (B) fire door listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to § 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Such rooms shall have no open flames for heating or lighting.
Such rooms shall be adequately ventilated both top and bottom to the outside only. The openings from such vents shall be at least 5 feet away from any other opening into any building.
The floors of such rooms shall not be below ground level. Any space below the floor shall be of solid fill or properly ventilated to the open air.
Such storage rooms shall not be located adjoining the line of property occupied by schools, churches, hospitals, athletic fields or other points of public gathering.
Fixed electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (b)(18) of this section.
Storage outside of buildings.
Storage outside of buildings, for containers awaiting use or resale, shall be located in accordance with Table H-33 with respect to:
The nearest important building or group of buildings;
TABLE H-33 _____________________________________________ | Quantity of LP-Gas Stored | Distance __________________________________|__________ | 500 pounds or less................| 0 501 to 2,500 pounds...............| (1)0 2,501 to 6,000 pounds.............| 10 feet 6,001 to 10,000 pounds............| 20 feet Over 10,000 pounds................| 25 feet __________________________________|__________ Footnote(1) Container or containers shall be at least 10 feet from any building on adjoining property, any sidewalk, or any of the exposures described in 1910.110(f)(6)(i) (c) or (d) of this paragraph.
Containers shall be in a suitable enclosure or otherwise protected against tampering.
Fire protection. Storage locations other than supply depots separated and located apart from dealer, reseller, or user establishments shall be provided with at least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 8-B, C.
Liquefied petroleum gas service stations -
Application. This paragraph applies to storage containers, and dispensing devices, and pertinent equipment in service stations where LP-Gas is stored and is dispensed into fuel tanks of motor vehicles. See paragraph (e) of this section for requirements covering use of LP-Gas as a motor fuel. All requirements of paragraph (b) of this section apply to this paragraph unless otherwise noted.
Design pressure and classification of storage containers. Storage containers shall be designed and classified in accordance with Table H-34.
|Container type||For gases with vapor press. Not to exceed lb. per sq. in. gage at 100 °F. (37.8 °C.)||Minimum design pressure of container, lb. per sq. in. gage|
|1949 and earlier editions of ASME Code (Par. U-68, U-69)||1949 edition of ASME Code (Par. U-200, U-201); 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of ASME Code; All editions of API-ASME Code2|
1 Container type may be increased by increments of 25. The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 100 percent of the container type designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the ASME Code (Par. U-68 and U-69). The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 125 percent of the container type designation when constructed under: (1) The 1949 ASME Code (Paragraphs U-200 and U-201), (2) 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of the ASME Code, and (3) all editions of the API-ASME Code.
2 Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is not authorized after July 1, 1961.
Container valves and accessories.
A filling connection on the container shall be fitted with one of the following:
A combination back-pressure check and excess flow valve.
One double or two single back-pressure valves.
A positive shutoff valve, in conjunction with either,
An internal back-pressure valve, or
On internal excess flow valve.
In lieu of an excess flow valve, filling connections may be fitted with a quick-closing internal valve, which shall remain closed except during operating periods. The mechanism for such valves may be provided with a secondary control which will cause it to close automatically in case of fire. When a fusible plug is used its melting point shall not exceed 220 °F.
A filling pipe inlet terminal not on the container shall be fitted with a positive shutoff valve in conjunction with either;
A black pressure check valve, or
An excess flow check valve.
All openings in the container except those listed below shall be equipped with approved excess flow check valves:
Filling connections as provided in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
Safety relief connections as provided in paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section.
Liquid-level gaging devices as provided in paragraphs (b)(7)(iv) and (19)(iv) of this section.
Pressure gage connections as provided in paragraph (b)(7)(v) of this section.
All container inlets and outlets except those listed below shall be labeled to designate whether they connect with vapor or liquid (labels may be on valves):
Safety relief valves.
Liquid-level gaging devices.
Each storage container shall be provided with a suitable pressure gage.
All safety-relief devices shall be installed as follows:
On the container and directly connected with the vapor space.
Safety-relief valves and discharge piping shall be protected against physical damage. The outlet shall be provided with loose-fitting rain caps. There shall be no return bends or restrictions in the discharge piping.
The discharge from two or more safety relief valves having the same pressure settings may be run into a common discharge header. The cross-sectional area of such header shall be at least equal to the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual discharges.
Discharge from any safety relief device shall not terminate in any building nor beneath any building.
Aboveground containers shall be provided with safety relief valves as follows:
The rate of discharge, which may be provided by one or more valves, shall be not less than that specified in paragraph (b)(10)(ii) of this section.
The discharge from safety relief valves shall be vented to the open air unobstructed and vertically upwards in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container; loose-fitting rain caps shall be used. On a container having a water capacity greater than 2,000 gallons, the discharge from the safety relief valves shall be vented away from the container vertically upwards to a point at least 7 feet above the container. Suitable provisions shall be made so that any liquid or condensate that may accumulate inside of the relief valve or its discharge pipe will not render the valve inoperative. If a drain is used, a means shall be provided to protect the container, adjacent containers, piping, or equipment against impingement of flame resulting from ignition of the product escaping from the drain.
Underground containers shall be provided with safety relief valves as follows:
The discharge from safety-relief valves shall be piped vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the ground. The discharge lines or pipes shall be adequately supported and protected against physical damage.
If no liquid is put into a container until after it is buried and covered, the rate of discharge of the relief valves may be reduced to not less than 30 percent of the rate shown in paragraph (b)(10)(ii) of this section. If liquid fuel is present during installation of containers, the rate of discharge shall be the same as for aboveground containers. Such containers shall not be uncovered until emptied of liquid fuel.
Capacity of liquid containers. Individual liquid storage containers shall not exceed 30,000 gallons water capacity.
Installation of storage containers.
Each storage container used exclusively in service station operation shall comply with the following table which specifies minimum distances to a building and groups of buildings.
_______________________________________________________ | | Minimum distances |________________________ | | | Above- | Between Water capacity per container | ground | above- (gallons) | and | ground | under- | containers | ground | (feet) | (feet) | ______________________________|_________|______________ | | Up to 2,000...................| 25 | 3 Over 2,000....................| 50 | 5 ______________________________|_________|______________ NOTE: The above distances may be reduced to not less than 10 feet for service station buildings of other than wood frame construction.
Readily ignitible material including weeds and long dry grass, shall be removed within 10 feet of containers.
The minimum separation between LP-Gas containers and flammable liquid tanks shall be 20 feet and the minimum separation between a container and the centerline of the dike shall be 10 feet.
LP-Gas containers located near flammable liquid containers shall be protected against the flow or accumulation of flammable liquids by diking, diversion curbs, or grading.
LP-Gas containers shall not be located within diked areas for flammable liquid containers.
Field welding is permitted only on saddle plates or brackets which were applied by the container manufacturer.
When permanently installed containers are interconnected, provision shall be made to compensate for expansion, contraction, vibration, and settling of containers and interconnecting piping. Where flexible connections are used, they shall be of an approved type and shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than five times the vapor pressure of the product at 100 °F. The use of nonmetallic hose is prohibited for interconnecting such containers.
Where high water table or flood conditions may be encountered protection against container flotation shall be provided.
Aboveground containers shall be installed in accordance with this subdivision.
Containers may be installed horizontally or vertically.
Containers shall be protected by crash rails or guards to prevent physical damage unless they are so protected by virtue of their location. Vehicles shall not be serviced within 10 feet of containers.
Container foundations shall be of substantial masonry or other noncombustible material. Containers shall be mounted on saddles which shall permit expansion and contraction, and shall provide against the excessive concentration of stresses. Corrosion protection shall be provided for tank-mounting areas. Structural metal container supports shall be protected against fire. This protection is not required on prefabricated storage and pump assemblies, mounted on a common base, with container bottom not more than 24 inches above ground and whose water capacity is 2,000 gallons or less if the piping connected to the storage and pump assembly is sufficiently flexible to minimize the possibility of breakage or leakage in the event of failure of the container supports.
Underground containers shall be installed in accordance with this subdivision.
Containers shall be given a protective coating before being placed under ground. This coating shall be equivalent to hot-dip galvanizing or to two coatings of red lead followed by a heavy coating of coal tar or asphalt. In lowering the container into place, care shall be exercised to minimize abrasion or other damage to the coating. Damage to the coating shall be repaired before back-filling.
Containers shall be set on a firm foundation (firm earth may be used) and surrounded with earth or sand firmly tamped in place. Backfill should be free of rocks or other abrasive materials.
A minimum of 2 feet of earth cover shall be provided. Where ground conditions make compliance with this requirement impractical, equivalent protection against physical damage shall be provided. The portion of the container to which manhole and other connections are attached need not be covered. If the location is subjected to vehicular traffic, containers shall be protected by a concrete slab or other cover adequate to prevent the weight of a loaded vehicle imposing concentrated direct loads on the container shell.
Protection of container fittings. Valves, regulators, gages, and other container fittings shall be protected against tampering and physical damage.
Transport truck unloading point.
During unloading, the transport truck shall not be parked on public thoroughfares and shall be at least 5 feet from storage containers, and shall be positioned so that shutoff valves are readily accessible.
The filling pipe inlet terminal shall not be located within a building nor within 10 feet of any building or driveway. It shall be protected against physical damage.
Piping, valves, and fittings.
Piping may be underground, above ground, or a combination of both. It shall be well supported and protected against physical damage and corrosion.
Piping laid beneath driveways shall be installed to prevent physical damage by vehicles.
Piping shall be wrought iron or steel (black or galvanized), brass or copper pipe; or seamless copper, brass, or steel tubing and shall be suitable for a minimum pressure of 250 p.s.i.g. Pipe joints may be screwed, flanged, brazed, or welded. The use of aluminum alloy piping or tubing is prohibited.
All shutoff valves (liquid or gas) shall be suitable for liquefied petroleum gas service and designed for not less than the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected. Valves which may be subjected to container pressure shall have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g.
All materials used for valve seats, packing, gaskets, diaphragms, etc., shall be resistant to the action of LP-Gas.
Fittings shall be steel, malleable iron, or brass having a minimum working pressure of 250 p.s.i.g. Cast iron pipe fittings, such as ells, tees, and unions shall not be used.
All piping shall be tested after assembly and proved free from leaks at not less than normal operating pressures.
Provision shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring, and vibration, and for settling. This may be accomplished by flexible connections.
Pumps and accessories. All pumps and accessory equipment shall be suitable for LP-Gas service, and designed for not less than the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected. Accessories shall have a minimum rated working pressure of 250 p.s.i.g. Positive displacement pumps shall be equipped with suitable pressure actuated bypass valves permitting flow from pump discharge to storage container or pump suction.
Meters, vapor separators, valves, and fittings in the dispenser shall be suitable for LP-Gas service and shall be designed for a minimum working pressure of 250 p.s.i.g.
Provisions shall be made for venting LP-Gas contained in a dispensing device to a safe location.
Pumps used to transfer LP-Gas shall be equipped to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage or accidental discharge. Means shall be provided outside the dispensing device to readily shut off the power in the event of fire or accident.
A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow check valve shall be installed downstream of the pump and ahead of the dispenser inlet.
Dispensing hose shall be resistant to the action of LP-Gas in the liquid phase and designed for a minimum bursting pressure of 1,250 p.s.i.g.
An excess flow check valve or automatic shutoff valve shall be installed at the terminus of the liquid line at the point of attachment of the dispensing hose.
LP-Gas dispensing devices shall be located not less than 10 feet from aboveground storage containers greater than 2,000 gallons water capacity. The dispensing devices shall not be less than 20 feet from any building (not including canopies), basement, cellar, pit, or line of adjoining property which may be built upon and not less than 10 feet from sidewalks, streets, or thoroughfares. No drains or blowoff lines shall be directed into or in proximity to the sewer systems used for other purposes.
LP-Gas dispensing devices shall be installed on a concrete foundation or as part of a complete storage and dispensing assembly mounted on a common base, and shall be adequately protected from physical damage.
LP-Gas dispensing devices shall not be installed within a building except that they may be located under a weather shelter or canopy provided this area is not enclosed on more than two sides. If the enclosing sides are adjacent to each other, the area shall be properly ventilated.
The dispensing of LP-Gas into the fuel container of a vehicle shall be performed by a competent attendant who shall remain at the LP-Gas dispenser during the entire transfer operation.
Additional rules. There shall be no smoking on the driveway of service stations in the dispensing areas or transport truck unloading areas. Conspicuous signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. Letters on such signs shall be not less than 4 inches high. The motors of all vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operations.
Electrical. Electrical equipment and installations shall conform to paragraphs (b) (17) and (18) of this section.
Fire protection. Each service station shall be provided with at least one approved portable fire extinguisher having at least an 8-B, C, rating.
Paragraph (b) of this section applies to installations made in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (c), (d), (e), (g), and (h) of this section, except as noted in each of those paragraphs.
Paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section apply as provided in each of those paragraphs.
Inapplicability. This section does not apply to:
Marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, or tank farms other than those at industrial sites.
LP-Gas refrigerated storage systems;
LP-Gas when used with oxygen. The requirements of § 1910.253 shall apply to such use;
LP-Gas when used in utility gas plants. The National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, NFPA No. 59-1968, shall apply to such use;
Low-pressure (not in excess of one-half pound per square inch or 14 inches water column) LP-Gas piping systems, and the installation and operation of residential and commercial appliances including their inlet connections, supplied through such systems. For such systems, the National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping, NFPA 54-1969 shall apply.
Retroactivity. Unless otherwise stated, it is not intended that the provisions of this section be retroactive.
Existing plants, appliances, equipment, buildings, structures, and installations for the storage, handling or use of LP-Gas, which were in compliance with the current provisions of the National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases NFPA No. 58, at the time of manufacture or installation may be continued in use, if such continued use does not constitute a recognized hazard that is causing or is likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
Stocks of equipment and appliances on hand in such locations as manufacturers' storage, distribution warehouses, and dealers' storage and showrooms, which were in compliance with the current provisions of the National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases, NFPA No. 58, at the time of manufacture, may be placed in service, if such use does not constitute a recognized hazard that is causing or is likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49747, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 53 FR 12122, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 25094, June 20, 1990; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 58 FR 15089, March 19, 1993; 58 FR 35309, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007]