• Part Number:
    1910
  • Part Number Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards
  • Subpart:
    1910 Subpart H
  • Subpart Title:
    Hazardous Materials
  • Standard Number:
  • Title:
    Flammable liquids.
  • GPO Source:

For paragraphs 1910.106(a) to 1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(2), see 1910.106 - page 1.

1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(3)
[Reserved]
1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(4)
The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 feet in length.
1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(5)
The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type without a latchopen device.
1910.106(g)(1)(i)(f)
Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.
1910.106(g)(1)(i)(g)

[Reserved]

     TABLE H-18 - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS AREAS
                - BULK PLANTS
___________________________________________________________________
                            |        |
                            |Class I |
       Location             |Group D |   Extent of classified area
                            |division|
____________________________|________|____________________________
                            |        |
Tank vehicle and tank car(1)|        |
 Loading through open dome  |      1 | Within 3 feet of edge of
                            |        |   dome, extending in all
                            |        |   directions.
                            |      2 | Area between 3 feet and 5
                            |        |   feet from edge of dome,
                            |        |   extending in all
                            |        |   directions.
 Loading through bottom     |      1 | Within 3 feet of point of
   connections with         |        |   venting to atmosphere
   atmospheric venting.     |        |   extending in all
                            |        |   directions.
                            |      2 | Area between 3 feet and 5
                            |        |   feet from point of
                            |        |   venting to atmosphere,
                            |        |   extending in all
                            |        |   directions. Also up to
                            |        |   18 inches above grade
                            |        |   within a horizontal
                            |        |   radius of 10 feet from
                            |        |   point of loading
                            |        |   connection.
 Loading through closed     |      1 | Within 3 feet of open end
   dome with atmospheric    |        |   of vent, extending in
   venting.                 |        |   all directions.
                            |      2 | Area between 3 feet and 5
                            |        |   feet from open end of
                            |        |   vent, extending in all
                            |        |   directions. Also within
                            |        |   3 feet of edge of dome,
                            |        |   extending in all
                            |        |   directions.
 Loading through closed     |      2 | Within 3 feet of point of
   dome with vapor          |        |   connection of both fill
   recovery.                |        |   and vapor lines, extending
                            |        |    in all directions.
 Bottom loading with vapor  |      2 | Within 3 feet of point of
   recovery or any bottom   |        |   connections extending in
   unloading.               |        |   all directions. Also up to
                            |        |   18 inches above grade with
                            |        |   in a horizontal radius of
                            |        |   10 feet from point of
                            |        |   connection.
Drum and container filling: |        |
 Outdoors, or indoors with  |      1 | Within 3 feet of vent and
 adequate ventilation.      |        |   fill opening, extending in
                            |        |   all directions.
                            |      2 | Area between 3 feet and 5
                            |        |   feet from vent or fill
                            |        |   opening, extending in all
                            |        |   directions. Also up to 18
                            |        |   inches above floor or grade
                            |        |   level within a horizontal
                            |        |   radius of 10 feet from
                            |        |   vent or fill opening.
Tank - Aboveground:         |        |
 Shell, ends, or roof and   |      2 | Within 10 feet from shell,
 dike area................  |        |   ends, or roof of tank. Area
                            |        |   inside dikes to level of
                            |        |   top of dike.
 Vent.....................  |      1 | Within 5 feet of open end of
                            |        |   vent, extending in all
                            |        |   directions.
                            |      2 | Area between 5 feet and 10
                            |        |   feet from open end of vent,
                            |        |   extending in all directions.
 Floating roof............  |      1 | Area above the roof and
                            |        |   within the shell.
Pits:                       |        |
 Without mechanical         |      1 | Entire area within pit if any
 ventilation..............  |        |   part is within a Division
                            |        |   1 or 2 classified area.
 With mechanical            |      2 | Entire area within pit if any
 ventilation..............  |        |   part is within a Division
                            |        |   1 or 2 classified area.
 Containing valves,         |      2 | Entire pit.
 fittings or piping, and    |        |
 not within a Division      |        |
 1 or 2 classified area.    |        |
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal |        |
 fittings, meters and       |        |
 similar devices:           |        |
 Indoors..................  |      2 | Within 5 feet of any edge of
                            |        |   such devices, extending in
                            |        |   all directions. Also up to
                            |        |   3 feet above floor grade
                            |        |   level within 25 feet
                            |        |   horizontally from any
                            |        |   edge of such devices.
 Outdoors.................  |      2 | Within 3 feet of any edge of
                            |        |   such devices, extending in
                            |        |   all directions. Also up to
                            |        |   18 inches above grade level
                            |        |   within 10 feet horizontally
                            |        |   from any edge of such
                            |        |   devices.
 Storage and repair garage  |      1 | All pits or spaces below
   for tank vehicles......  |      2 |   floor level.
                            |        | Area up to 18 inches above
                            |        |   floor or grade level for
                            |        |   entire storage or repair
                            |        |   garage.
 Drainage ditches,          |      2 | Area up to 18 inches above
   separator, impounding    |        |   ditch, separator or basin.
   basins.                  |        |   Also up to 18 inches above
                            |        |   grade within 15 feet
                            |        |   horizontally from any edge.
 Garages for other than     |    (2) | If there is any opening to
   tank vehicles..........  |        |   these rooms within the
                            |        |   extent of an outdoor
                            |        |   classified area, the
                            |        |   entire room shall be
                            |        |   classified the same as the
                            |        |   area classification at the
                            |        |   point of the opening.
 Outdoor drum storage.....  |    (2) |
 Indoor warehousing where   |    (2) | If there is any opening to
   there is no flammable    |        |   these rooms within the
   liquid transfer.         |        |   extent of an indoor
                            |        |   classified area, the
                            |        |   entire room shall be
                            |        |   classified the same as if
                            |        |   the wall, curb or
                            |        |   partition did not exist.
 Office and rest rooms....  |    (2) |
____________________________|________|______________________________
 Footnote(1) When classifying the extent of the area, consideration
shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles may be
spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading
or unloading positions shall be used.
 Footnote(2) Ordinary.

1910.106(g)(1)(ii)

"Special enclosures."

1910.106(g)(1)(ii)(a)
When installation of tanks in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section is impractical because of property or building limitations, tanks for flammable liquids may be installed in buildings if properly enclosed.
1910.106(g)(1)(ii)(b)
The enclosure shall be substantially liquid and vaportight without backfill. Sides, top, and bottom of the enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches thick, with openings for inspection through the top only. Tank connections shall be so piped or closed that neither vapor nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space. Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment may be employed to discharge to the outside any liquid or vapors which might accumulate should leakage occur.
1910.106(g)(1)(iii)

"Inside buildings."

1910.106(g)(1)(iii)(a)
Except where stored in tanks as provided in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, no Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be stored within any service station building except in closed containers of aggregate capacity not exceeding 60 gallons. One container not exceeding 60 gallons capacity equipped with an approved pump is permitted.
1910.106(g)(1)(iii)(b)
Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), may be transferred from one container to another in lubrication or service rooms of a service station building provided the electrical installation complies with Table H-19 and provided that any heating equipment complies with paragraph (g)(6) of this section.
1910.106(g)(1)(iii)(c)
Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored and dispensed inside service station buildings from tanks of not more than 120 gallons capacity each.
1910.106(g)(1)(iv)
[Reserved]
1910.106(g)(1)(v)
Dispensing into portable containers. No delivery of any Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be made into portable containers unless the container is constructed of metal, has a tight closure with screwed or spring cover, and is fitted with a spout or so designed so the contents can be poured without spilling.
1910.106(g)(2)
[Reserved]
1910.106(g)(3)

"Dispensing systems" -

1910.106(g)(3)(i)

"Location." Dispensing devices at automotive service stations shall be so located that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station.

1910.106(g)(3)(ii)

"Inside location." Approved dispensing units may be located inside of buildings. The dispensing area shall be separated from other areas in an approved manner. The dispensing unit and its piping shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means and shall be located in a position where it cannot be struck by a vehicle descending a ramp or other slope out of control. The dispensing area shall be provided with an approved mechanical or gravity ventilation system. When dispensing units are located below grade, only approved mechanical ventilation shall be used and the entire dispensing area shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Ventilating systems shall be electrically interlocked with gasoline dispensing units so that the dispensing units cannot be operated unless the ventilating fan motors are energized.

1910.106(g)(3)(iii)

"Emergency power cutoff." A clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) or a circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices, including remote pumping systems, to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of emergency.

1910.106(g)(3)(iv)

"Dispensing units."

1910.106(g)(3)(iv)(a)
Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps so designed and equipped as to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage or accidental discharge.
1910.106(g)(3)(iv)(b)(1)
Only listed devices may be used for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). No such device may be used if it shows evidence of having been dismantled.
1910.106(g)(3)(iv)(b)(2)
Every dispensing device for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), installed after December 31, 1978, shall contain evidence of listing so placed that any attempt to dismantle the device will result in damage to such evidence, visible without disassembly or dismounting of the nozzle.
1910.106(g)(3)(iv)(c)
Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed by pressure from drums, barrels, and similar containers. Approved pumps taking suction through the top of the container or approved self-closing faucets shall be used.
1910.106(g)(3)(iv)(d)
The dispensing units, except those attached to containers, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)

"Remote pumping systems."

1910.106(g)(3)(v)(a)
This paragraph (g)(3)(v) shall apply to systems for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), where such liquids are transferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing units by pumps located elsewhere than at the dispensing units.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)(b)
Pumps shall be designed or equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above its allowable working pressure. Pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet from lines of adjoining property which may be built upon, and not less than 5 feet from any building opening. When an outside pump location is impractical, pumps may be installed inside of buildings, as provided for dispensers in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, or in pits as provided in subdivision (c) of this subdivision. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage by vehicles.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)(c)
Pits for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to which they may be subjected without damage to the pump, tank, or piping. The pit shall be no larger than necessary for inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fitted cover.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)(d)
A control shall be provided that will permit the pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket on the dispensing unit and the switch on this dispensing unit is manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when all nozzles have been returned to their brackets.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)(e)
An approved impact valve, incorporating a fusible link, designed to close automatically in the event of severe impact or fire exposure shall be properly installed in the dispensing supply line at the base of each individual dispensing device.
1910.106(g)(3)(v)(f)
Testing. After the completion of the installation, including any paving, that section of the pressure piping system between the pump discharge and the connection for the dispensing facility shall be tested for at least 30 minutes at the maximum operating pressure of the system. Such tests shall be repeated at 5-year intervals thereafter.
1910.106(g)(3)(vi)

"Delivery nozzles."

1910.106(g)(3)(vi)(a)
A listed manual or automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve shall be provided on dispensers used for the dispensing of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C).
1910.106(g)(3)(vi)(b)
Manual-closing type valves shall be held open manually during dispensing. Automatic-closing type valves may be used in conjunction with an approved latch-open device.
1910.106(g)(4)

"Marine service stations" -

1910.106(g)(4)(i)

"Dispensing."

1910.106(g)(4)(i)(a)
The dispensing area shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in all cases be at least 20 feet from any activity involving fixed sources of ignition.
1910.106(g)(4)(i)(b)
Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.
1910.106(g)(4)(i)(c)
Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open latch.
1910.106(g)(4)(ii)

"Tanks and pumps."

1910.106(g)(4)(ii)(a)
Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as provided in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii)(b) and (c) of this section.
1910.106(g)(4)(ii)(b)
Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100 gallons aggregate capacity.
1910.106(g)(4)(ii)(c)
Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks impractical.
1910.106(g)(4)(ii)(d)
Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ix)(b) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.
1910.106(g)(4)(iii)

"Piping."

1910.106(g)(4)(iii)(a)

Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in paragraph (c) of this section, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.

   TABLE H-19 - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS AREAS
              - SERVICE STATIONS
____________________________________________________________________
                       |        |
                       |Class I |
      Location         |Group D |     Extent of classified area
                       |division|
_______________________|________|___________________________________
                       |        |
Underground tank:      |        |
 Fill opening..........|      1 | Any pit, box or space below grade
                       |        |   level, any part of which is
                       |        |   within the Division 1 or 2
                       |        |   classified area.
                       |      2 | Up to 18 inches above grade level
                       |        |   within a horizontal radius of
                       |        |   10 feet from a loose fill
                       |        |   connection and and within a
                       |        |   horizontal radius of 5 feet
                       |        |   from a tight fill connection.
 Vent-Discharging      |        |
   Upward.             |      1 | Within 3 feet of open end of
                       |        |   vent, extending in all
                       |        |   directions.
                       |      2 | Area between 3 feet and 5 feet
                       |        |   of open end of vent, extending
                       |        |   in all directions.
Dispenser:             |        |
 Pits .................|      1 | Any pit, box or space below grade
                       |        |   level, any part of which is
                       |        |   within the Division 1 or 2
                       |        |   classified area.
 Dispenser enclosure ..|      1 | The area 4 feet vertically above
                       |        |   base within the enclosure and
                       |        |   18 inches horizontally in all
                       |        |   directions.
 Outdoor ..............|      2 | Up to 18 inches above grade level
                       |        |   within 20 feet horizontally of
                       |        |   any edge of enclosure.
Indoor:                |        |
 With mechanical       |        |
   ventilation ........|      2 | Up to 18 inches above grade or
                       |        |   floor level within 20 feet
                       |        |   horizontally of any edge of
                       |        |   enclosure.
 With gravity          |        |
   ventilation ........|      2 | Up to 18 inches above grade or
                       |        |   floor level within 25 feet
                       |        |   horizontally of any edge
                       |        |   of enclosure.
 Remote pump - Outdoor.|      1 | Any pit, box or space below grade
                       |        |   level if any part is within a
                       |        |   horizontal distance of 10 feet
                       |        |   from any edge of the pump.
                       |      2 | Within 3 feet of any edge of the
                       |        |   pump, extending in all
                       |        |   directions. Also up to 18
                       |        |   inches above grade level within
                       |        |   10 feet horizontally from any
                       |        |   edge of the pump.
 Remote pump - Indoor .|      1 | Entire area within any pit.
                       |      2 | Within 5 feet of any edg of pump,
                       |        |   extending in all directions.
                       |        |   Also up to 3 feet above floor
                       |        |   or grade level within 25 feet
                       |        |   horizontally from any edge of
                       |        |   pump.
 Lubrication or        |        |
   service room .......|      1 | Entire area within any pit.
                       |      2 | Area up to 18 inches above floor
                       |        |   or grade level within entire
                       |        |   lubrication room.
 Dispenser for         |        |
 Liquids with a        |        |
 flashpoint below      |        |
 100 °F (37.8 °C)(1)...|      2 | Within 3 feet of any fill or
                       |        |   dispensing point, extending in
                       |        |   all directions.
 Special enclosure     |        |
   inside building per |      1 | Entire enclosure.
   1910.106(f)(1)(ii). |        |
 Sales, storage and    |        |
   rest rooms..........|    (2) | If there is any opening to these
                       |        |   rooms within the extent of a
                       |        |   Division 1 area, the entire
                       |        |   room shall be classified as
                       |        |   Division 1.
_______________________|________|________________________________________
 Footnote (1) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or for Category 3 flammable
 liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C).
 Footnote (2) Ordinary

1910.106(g)(4)(iii)(b)
A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is attached.
1910.106(g)(4)(iii)(c)
Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.
1910.106(g)(4)(iii)(d)
Piping handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be grounded to control stray currents.
1910.106(g)(5)

"Electrical equipment" -

1910.106(g)(5)(i)
Application. This paragraph (g)(5) shall apply to areas where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are stored or handled. For areas where Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled the electrical equipment may be installed in accordance with the provisions of subpart S of this part, for ordinary locations.
1910.106(g)(5)(ii)
All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.
1910.106(g)(5)(iii)
So far as it applies. Table H-19 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition.
1910.106(g)(5)(iv)
The area classifications listed shall be based on the assumption that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.
1910.106(g)(6)

"Heating equipment" -

1910.106(g)(6)(i)

"Conformance." Heating equipment shall be installed as provided in paragraphs (g)(6)(ii) through (v) of this section.

1910.106(g)(6)(ii)

"Application." Heating equipment may be installed in the conventional manner in an area except as provided in paragraph (g)(6)(iii), (iv), or (v) of this section.

1910.106(g)(6)(iii)

"Special room." Heating equipment may be installed in a special room separated from an area classified by Table H-19 by walls having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour and without any openings in the walls within 8 feet of the floor into an area classified in Table H-19. This room shall not be used for combustible storage and all air for combustion purposes shall come from outside the building.

1910.106(g)(6)(iv)
Work areas. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel may be installed in the lubrication, sales, or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids or 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 18 inches above the floor and the heating equipment is protected from physical damage by vehicles. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel listed for use in garages may be installed in the lubrication or service room where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are dispensed provided the equipment is installed at least 8 feet above the floor.
1910.106(g)(6)(v)

"Electric heat." Electrical heating equipment shall conform to paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

1910.106(g)(7)
Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made in the area where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are dispensed to prevent spilled liquids from flowing into the interior of service station buildings. Such provision may be by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other equally effective means. Crankcase drainings and flammable liquids shall not be dumped into sewers but shall be stored in tanks or drums outside of any building until removed from the premises
1910.106(g)(8)

"Sources of ignition." In addition to the previous restrictions of this paragraph, the following shall apply: There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable liquids. Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.

1910.106(g)(9)

"Fire control." Each service station shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a minimum approved classification of 6 B, C, located so that an extinguisher, will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service room.

1910.106(h)

"Processing plants" -

1910.106(h)(1)

"Scope." This paragraph shall apply to those plants or buildings which contain chemical operations such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes but shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.

1910.106(h)(2)

"Location" -

1910.106(h)(2)(i)

"Classification." The location of each processing vessel shall be based upon its flammable liquid capacity.

1910.106(h)(3)

"Processing building" -

1910.106(h)(3)(i)

"Construction."

1910.106(h)(3)(i)(a)
Processing buildings shall be of fire-resistance or noncombustible construction, except heavy timber construction with load-bearing walls may be permitted for plants utilizing only stable Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section or in the case of explosion resistant walls used in conjunction with explosion relieving facilities, see paragraph (h)(3)(iv) of this section, load-bearing walls are prohibited. Buildings shall be without basements or covered pits.
1910.106(h)(3)(i)(b)
Areas shall have adequate exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire. Exits shall not be exposed by the drainage facilities described in paragraph (h)(ii) of this section.
1910.106(h)(3)(ii)

"Drainage."

1910.106(h)(3)(ii)(a)
Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire, see paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(b) of this section.
1910.106(h)(3)(ii)(b)
Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.
1910.106(h)(3)(iii)

"Ventilation."

1910.106(h)(3)(iii)(a)
Enclosed processing buildings shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.
1910.106(h)(3)(iii)(b)
Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than 5 feet from equipment which exposes Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.
1910.106(h)(3)(iv)
Explosion relief. Areas where Category 1 or unstable liquids are processed shall have explosion venting through one or more of the following methods:
1910.106(h)(3)(iv)(a)
Open air construction.
1910.106(h)(3)(iv)(b)
Lightweight walls and roof.
1910.106(h)(3)(iv)(c)
Lightweight wall panels and roof hatches.
1910.106(h)(3)(iv)(d)
Windows of explosion venting type.
1910.106(h)(4)

"Liquid handling" -

1910.106(h)(4)(i)

"Storage."

1910.106(h)(4)(i)(a)
The storage of flammable liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.
1910.106(h)(4)(i)(b)
If the storage of flammable liquids in outside aboveground or underground tanks is not practical because of temperature or production considerations, tanks may be permitted inside of buildings or structures in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.
1910.106(h)(4)(i)(c)
Storage tanks inside of buildings shall be permitted only in areas at or above grade which have adequate drainage and are separated from the processing area by construction having a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours.
1910.106(h)(4)(i)(d)
The storage of flammable liquids in containers shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (d) of this section.
1910.106(h)(4)(ii)

"Piping, valves, and fittings."

1910.106(h)(4)(ii)(a)
Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
1910.106(h)(4)(ii)(b)
Approved flexible connectors may be used where vibration exists or where frequent movement is necessary. Approved hose may be used at transfer stations.
1910.106(h)(4)(ii)(c)
Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified.
1910.106(h)(4)(iii)

"Transfer."

1910.106(h)(4)(iii)(a)
The transfer of large quantities of flammable liquids shall be through piping by means of pumps or water displacement. Except as required in process equipment, gravity flow shall not be used. The use of compressed air as a transferring medium is prohibited.
1910.106(h)(4)(iii)(b)
Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank or to pump suction.
1910.106(h)(4)(iv)

"Equipment."

1910.106(h)(4)(iv)(a)
Equipment shall be designed and arranged to prevent the unintentional escape of liquids and vapors and to minimize the quantity escaping in the event of accidental release.
1910.106(h)(4)(iv)(b)
Where the vapor space of equipment is usually within the flammable range, the probability of explosion damage to the equipment can be limited by inerting, by providing an explosion suppression system, or by designing the equipment to contain the peak explosion pressure which may be modified by explosion relief. Where the special hazards of operation, sources of ignition, or exposures indicate a need, consideration shall be given to providing protection by one or more of the above means.
1910.106(h)(5)
Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.
1910.106(h)(6)

"Fire control" -

1910.106(h)(6)(i)

"Portable extinguishers." Approved portable fire extinguishers of appropriate size, type, and number shall be provided.

1910.106(h)(6)(ii)

"Other controls." Where the special hazards of operation or exposure indicate a need, the following fire control provision shall be provided.

1910.106(h)(6)(ii)(a)
A reliable water supply shall be available in pressure and quantity adequate to meet the probable fire demands.
1910.106(h)(6)(ii)(b)
Hydrants shall be provided in accordance with accepted good practice.
1910.106(h)(6)(ii)(c)
Hose connected to a source of water shall be installed so that all vessels, pumps, and other equipment containing flammable liquids can be reached with at least one hose stream. Nozzles that are capable of discharging a water spray shall be provided.
1910.106(h)(6)(ii)(d)
Processing plants shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system or equivalent extinguishing system. If special extinguishing systems including but not limited to those employing foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical are provided, approved equipment shall be used and installed in an approved manner.
1910.106(h)(6)(iii)

"Alarm systems." An approved means for prompt notification of fire to those within the plant and any public fire department available shall be provided. It may be advisable to connect the plant system with the public system where public fire alarm system is available.

1910.106(h)(6)(iv)

"Maintenance." All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition and that they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.

1910.106(h)(7)

"Sources of ignition" -

1910.106(h)(7)(i)

"General."

1910.106(h)(7)(i)(a)
Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.
1910.106(h)(7)(i)(b)
Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.
1910.106(h)(7)(ii)

"Maintenance and repair."

1910.106(h)(7)(ii)(a)
When necessary to do maintenance work in a flammable liquid processing area, the work shall be authorized by a responsible representative of the employer.
1910.106(h)(7)(ii)(b)
Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge who shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.
1910.106(h)(7)(iii)

"Electrical."

1910.106(h)(7)(iii)(a)
All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.
1910.106(h)(7)(iii)(b)
Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(b) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend 5 feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.
1910.106(h)(7)(iii)(c)
Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. These locations include an area within 20 feet horizontally, 3 feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet, if indoors, or 10 feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids only are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.
1910.106(h)(7)(iii)(d)
Where the provisions of paragraphs (h)(7)(iii) (a), (b), and (c) of this section require the installation of explosion-proof equipment, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.
1910.106(h)(8)

"Housekeeping" -

1910.106(h)(8)(i)

"General." Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.

1910.106(h)(8)(ii)

"Access." Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of the processing equipment.

1910.106(h)(8)(iii)

"Waste and residues." Combustible waste material and residues in a building or operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in closed metal waste cans, and disposed of daily.

1910.106(h)(8)(iv)

"Clear zone." Ground area around buildings and operating areas shall be kept free of tall grass, weeds, trash, or other combustible materials.

1910.106(i)

"Refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries" -

1910.106(i)(1)

"Storage tanks." flammable liquids shall be stored in tanks, in containers, or in portable tanks. Tanks shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Tanks for the storage of flammable liquids in tank farms and in locations other than process areas shall be located in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.

1910.106(i)(2)

"Wharves." Wharves handling flammable liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

1910.106(i)(3)

"Fired and unfired pressure vessels" -

1910.106(i)(3)(i)

"Fired vessels." Fired pressure vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Fired Pressure Vessels, Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 1968.

1910.106(i)(3)(ii)
Unfired vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 1968.
1910.106(i)(4)

"Location of process units." Process units shall be located so that they are accessible from at least one side for the purpose of fire control.

1910.106(i)(5)

"Fire control" -

1910.106(i)(5)(i)

"Portable equipment." Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.

1910.106(i)(5)(ii)

"Water supply." Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

1910.106(i)(5)(iii)

"Special equipment." Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

1910.106(j)
Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C) unless otherwise noted. This section does not apply to:
1910.106(j)(1)
Bulk transportation of flammable liquids;
1910.106(j)(2)
Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burninge quipment;
1910.106(j)(3)
Storage of flammable liquids on farms;
1910.106(j)(4)
Liquids without flashpoints that may be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons;
1910.106(j)(5)
Mists, sprays, or foams, except flammable aerosols covered in paragraph (d) of this section; or
1910.106(j)(6)
Installations made in accordance with requirements of the following standards, that are incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6:
1910.106(j)(6)(i)
National Fire Protection Association Standard for Drycleaning Plants, NFPA No. 32-1970;
1910.106(j)(6)(ii)
National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, NFPA No. 35-1970;
1910.106(j)(6)(iii)
National Fire Protection Association Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, NFPA No. 36-1967; or
1910.106(j)(6)(iv)
National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA No. 37-1970.

For paragraphs 1910.106(a) to 1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(2), see 1910.106 - page 1.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 3982, Jan. 27, 1975; 40 FR 23743, June 2, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 43 FR 51759, Nov. 7, 1978; 47 FR 39164, Sept. 7, 1982; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 77 FR 17766, March 26, 2012; 81 FR 10490-10491, March 1, 2016]