• Publication Date:
  • Publication Type:
    Final Rule
  • Fed Register #:
    58:35512
  • Standard Number:
  • Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Shipyard Employment.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Part 1915

Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Shipyard Employment

AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor.

ACTION: Final rule; technical amendments and redesignation.

SUMMARY: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for shipyards are located principally in 29 CFR part 1915, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Shipyard Employment. However, most standards for toxic substances protecting shipyard employees are printed in either 29 CFR part 1910 or in the 1970 Threshold Limit Values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and cover shipyard employees by cross reference.

The Shipyard Employment Standards Advisory Committee has recommended generally that OSHA incorporate all toxic substance standards covering shipyards into 29 CFR part 1915. OSHA believes that direct incorporation of the existing toxic substance standards covering shipyard workers into 29 CFR part 1915 will be more convenient for and accessible to shipyard employers and therefore more protective of workers. There will be better knowledge of existing regulations and a higher level of compliance since almost all OSHA regulations covering the industry will be located in one, easily accessible place. Accordingly. OSHA is by this technical amendment incorporating into 29 CFR part 1915, a comprehensive subpart Z which includes the toxic substance standards and certain related standards applicable to shipyards.

EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 1993.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. James F. Foster, OSHA Office of Public Affairs, United States Department of Labor, Room N-3641, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW. Washington, DC 20210, telephone (202) 219- 8151.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE

Most OSHA standards governing occupational safety for shipyards are printed in 29 CFR Part 1915, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Shipyard Employment. However, part 1915 generally does not include the text of the health standards which cover shipyard employment. Rather, it incorporates those health standards by cross reference in other documents.

Specifically, part 1915 has incorporated by cross-

reference health standards from two sources. The first, incorporated in 1915.5, 1915.12(a)(3) and (b)(3), and 1915.32(b), consist of approximately 400 exposure limits for toxic substances which are listed in the 1970 Threshold Limit Values (TLV's) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

The second set of health standards incorporated into part 1915 by cross reference are the single substance standards and certain other health related standards located in 29 CFR part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry. The single substance standards are located in subpart Z of part 1910. Toxic and Hazardous Substances, at 29 CFR 1910.1001 to 1910.1048. These standards appear in a separate CFR volume, which contains most of the Shipyard Safety standards.

The Shipyard Employment Standards Advisory Committee (SESAC) was organized by OSHA pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act and section 7(b) of the OSH Act, to recommend one comprehensive set of standards and accompanying rationale for the shipbuilding, ship repair. and shipbreaking industries by combining part 1910 and 1915 standards, and by updating, reorganizing, clarifying and simplifying,those standards. The committee includes representatives from labor, management, government, and health and safety professionals. It holds public meetings which are announced in advance in the Federal Register. The general public may attend and address the committee. At its May 13, 1991. meeting. SESAC recommended that OSHA directly incorporate in part 1915 a subpart Z which would include the full text of the health and related standards applicable to shipyards (see transcript pp. 149 - 156). By printing the health standards applicable to shipyards in part 1915. knowledge of their requirements would increase and this would lead to better protection for employees and greater convenience and clarity for shipyard employers. OSHA concurs with the recommendations of SESAC (1). It believes that direct incorporation of the health standards, already applicable to shipyards by cross-reference, into part 1915, has important benefits.

--------

Footnote(1)

SESAC made several recommended revisions to the Access to employee exposure and medical records standard (1910.20), notably with regard to the disposition of these records after an employer ceased doing business. While these revisions may be valid and worthwhile, they nevertheless could have resulted in reduced access by employees to these records. As these revisions are substantive, they could not be included in this technical amendment. OSHA will carefully review these recommended revisions and determine whether they should be considered for future rulemaking.

First, shipyard employees will have better and more consistent health protection because all the health standards applicable to them will be readily accessible and easy to reference. There will be better knowledge of requirements necessary to protect health.

Second, the shipyard industry and its managers will have a much more convenient source for all the health requirements applicable to the industry. There will be less confusion over what regulations are applicable. This clarification also will result in a greater degree of voluntary compliance.

Third, OSHA's proposal to update the air contaminants levels for shipyards (57 FR 26002, June 12, 1992) will be delayed because of the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals decision to vacate similar standards for general industry in the case of AFL CIO v. OSHA, 965 F.2d 962 (1992). Consequently, convenient access to the 1970 TLV's for the shipyard industry will be necessary for a longer period and these technical amendments will be helpful for a longer period.

As stated, OSHA's standards for toxic and hazardous substances are contained in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z. The 29 CFR part 1910 substanc-specific standards apply to shipyard employment by virtue of two provisions. First, for some standards. 29 CFR 1910.19 directly makes the standard applicable to shipyard employment. For example. 29 CFR 1910.19(c) states that the acrylonitrile standard set forth in 1910.1045.applies to every employment and place of employment specified in 1910.13. 1910.14 and 1910.15. Those sections refer to ship repairing. shipbuilding and shipbreaking, the activities now covered by part 1915, the shipyard employment standards.

Application of the remainder of the substance-specific standards to shipyards is accomplished by virtue of 29 CFR 1910.5(c)(2). That paragraph provides that any standard will apply to employment and place of employment in any industry. even though particular standards are also prescribed for that industry, to,the extent that none of such particular standards applies. Thus, for example, because none of the particular standards applicable to the shipyard industry regulates exposure to beta Naphthylamine, the beta Naphthylamine standard, at 29 CFR 1910.1009, applies to shipyard employment.

In addition to the substance-specific standards, part 1915 also incorporates the 1970 TLVs of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Part 1915 refers to the TLVs In several locations. For example, 1915.12, 1915.32, and 1915.33 refer to the threshold limit values. Section 1915.5 then identifies these "threshold limit values" as the Threshold Limit Values, 1970, of the ACGIH.

As the first step in directly Incorporating into 29 CFR part 1915 the health standards applicable to shipyards. OSHA created a new subpart Z of part 1915 when it issued the cadmium standard on September 14, 1992, at 57 FR 42102, 42388-42389. OSHA incorporated the cadmium standard into that new subpart Z of part 1915 as 1915.1027.

Elements of This Technical Amendment

1. This technical amendment creates a complete subpart Z. Toxic and Hazardous Substances, for part 1915 Shipyards. It incorporates into this subpart Z the health standards already applicable to shipyards. These include the single substance standards at 29 CFR 1910.1001-1048, which will be given the corresponding section numbers of 29 CFR 1915.1001-1915.1048 respectively. No substantive changes have been made to the requirements, but certain formal changes have been made to reflect the new location and appropriate cross references. Consequently, this Incorporation is a technical amendment.

Excluded from this incorporation are the coke oven standard, 29 CFR 1910.1029, and the cotton dust standard, 29 CFR 1910.1043, because the operations covered by these standards would not be done in shipyards.

2. OSHA is placing the air contaminants levels for shipyards in a new 29 CFR 1915.1000, Table Z-Shipyards. This will follow the numeration and style used for general industry in part 1910. This format will make the table easier to use because it will follow the same pattern used for most industry. Section 1915.1000 and Table Z-Shipyards merely reprint in, convenient form the 1970 TLVs which are already applicable to most operations in shipyards. No substantive changes are made. Consequently, this is also a technical amendment.

As noted. most areas in shipyards are presently covered by the 1970 TLV's. However, since the shipyard regulations are an amalgam of three separate bodies of regulations for shipbuilding, ship repair. and shipbreaking. a few operations have been technically covered by the 1971 OSHA permissible exposure limits (PELs). See 47 FR 16984 (April 20,1982).

Specifically. the shipbreaking and ship repairing subsectors, and the exposure to toxic solvents and removers In the shipbuilding and ship repair subsectors, are covered by the 1970 TLV's of ACGIH. See 1915.5, 1915.11, 1915.12, 1915.32, and 1915.33. The 1971 OSHA PELs, which are contained in 1910.1000, will continue to apply to shipbuilding operations not involving toxic solvents and removers. See 29 CFR 1910.5(c).

3. ACGIH made clear that the 1970 TLV "Nuisance Particulate" standard covered both organic and inorganic particulates. Appendix D of the 1970 TLV booklet listed as examples of typical nuisance particulates, various organic particulates such as cellulose, vegetable oil mists, starch, and sucrose. Some confusion was created because ACGIH printed the nuisance particulate limit as part of a table which was headed "Mineral Dusts." To resolve this confusion and to make it clear that the "nuisance particulate" exposure limit covers both inorganic and organic nuisance particulates, OSHA is including a footnote to this effect after the "Inert or Nuisance Particulate" entry. OSHA is also including a duplicate listing titled "Particulates not otherwise regulated (PNOR)" with the same exposure limit. The purpose of this duplicate listing is to make the limit easier to find by using current terminology.

4. The hazard communication standard is currently included in part 1915 as 29 CFR 1915.99. As this is primarily a health-related standard, it is more convenient to redesignate it as 1915.1200 to reflect the same numeration as general idustry and to include it with the other health standards in subpart Z of part 1915.

5. Two other health-related standards already applicable to shipyards by cross reference are being incorporated in full text into subpart Z as recommended by SESAC These standards are 1910.20, Access to employee exposure and medical records, which will be incorporated as 1915.1120, and 1910.1450 Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories, which will be incorporated as 1915.1450.

Necessary consequential changes are made to 1915.5. 1915.12, and 1915.32 to reference subpart Z (which now includes the 1970 TLV's) rather then referencing the ACGIH publication.

6. The general industry asbestos standard at 29 CFR 1910.1001 now specifically applies to shipyards. It is being directly incorporated into part 1915 as 1915.1001. Shipyard representatives have recommended to OSHA in the asbestos remand rulemaking that an asbestos standard tailored to shipyards be developed. OSHA is presently considering this issue, but has not made a final decision. If OSHA concludes that changes in the asbestos standard for shipyards are appropriate, OSHA will amend 1915.1001 to reflect any such changes when the final rule on the asbestos remand is published in the Federal Register.

Conclusion

As this is a technical amendment, it is adopted for the convenience of the shipyard employers and employees. it effects no significant substantive changes, and it has also been supported by SESAC. OSHA concludes that it is unnecessary to provide for notice and comment, as permitted by section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553(b) and 1911.5.

As this is not a substantive rule, it may take effect upon publication in the Federal Register. OSHA finds good cause for this rule to take effect June 30, 1993, so that these technical amendments will be incorporated in the 1993 edition of the CFR and thereby increase the convenience to the public as soon as possible. See 5 U.S.C. 553(d).

For the same reasons, it is certified that no substantive changes are being made which would require analysis under the Regulatory Flexibility Act or under Executive Order 12291.

List of Subjects in 29 CFR Part 1915

Shipyards, Shipbuilding, Ship repairing, Shipbreaking, Toxic chemicals, Air contaminants, Coal tar pitch volatile, 4-Nitrobiphenyl, alpha-Naphthylamine, Methyl chloromethyl ether, 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts), bis-Chloromethyl ether, beta-Naphthylamine, Benzidine, 4-Aminodiphenyl, Ethyleneimine, betaPropiolactone, 2- Actylaminofluorene, 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Nitrosodimethylamine, Vinyl chloride, Inorganic arsenic, Lead, Benzene, Acrylonitrile, Ethylene oxide, Formaldehyde, Asbestos, Hazard Communication, Laboratories, Medical records, Monitoring records.

Authority and Signature

This document was prepared under the direction of David C. Zeigler, Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210.

Accordingly, pursuant to sections 6 and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 655, 657); section 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 941); section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553); and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-90 (55 FR 9033); OSHA is issuing these final technical amendments.

Signed at Washington. DC. this 24th day of June, 1993.

David C. Zeigler,
Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor.

29 CFR part 1915 is amended as follows:

PART 1915--(AMENDED)

1. The authority citation of part 1915 is revised to read as follows:

Authority: § 41, longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 941); § 4, 6, 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655. 657); § 4 of the Administrative procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35735) or 1-90 (55 FR 9033), as applicable; 29 CFR part 1911.

2. Section 1915.5 is amended by adding a sentence to the paragraph incorporating the Threshold Limit Values (the seventh paragraph that lists organizations that are not agencies of the U.S. government). As amended, this paragraph reads as follows:

1915.5 Reference specification, standards, and codes.

* * * * *

Threshold Limit Values, 1970, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, subpart 1915.12(a)(3); subpart C, 1915.32(b). These threshold limit values are contained in 1915.1000, Table Z.

* * * * *

3. Paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(3) of 1915.12 are revised to read as follows:

1915.12 Precautions before entering.

(a) Flammable atmospheres and residues.

* * * * *

(3) If the atmosphere in the space to be entered is found to contain a concentration of flammable vapor or gas below the level immediately dangerous to life as defined in 1915.152(b)(1), but above the permissible exposure limits specified In 29 CFR part 1915, table employees shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of 1915.152(a), and (c), (d). or whichever is applicable.

(b)Toxic atmospheres and residues. * * * * * (3) If the atmosphere In the space to be entered is found to contain a concentration of toxic contaminants below the level immediately dangerous to life as defined in 1915.152 but above the permissible exposure limits specified In 29 CFR part 1915, table Z, employees shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of 1915.152(a), and (c),(d), or wichever is applicable.

* * * * *

1915.99 [Redesignated as 1915.1200]

4. Section 1915.99 Hazard communication, is redesignated as 1915.1200.

5. Subparts M-Y are reserved and subpart Z is revised to read as follows:

* * * * *

Subparts M-Y [Reserved]

Subpart Z-Toxic and Hazardous Substances

§ 1915.1000 Air contaminants.
1915.1001 Asbestos.
1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.
1915.1003 4-Nitrobiphenyl.
1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine.
1915.1005 [Reserved]
1915.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether.
1915.1007 3,3'Dichlorobenzidiene (and its salts).
1915.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether.
1915.1009 beta-Naphthylamine.
1915.1010 Benzidine.
1915.1011 4-Aminodiphenyl.
1915.1012 Ethyleneimine.
1915.1013 beta-Propiolactone.
1915.1014 2-Acetylaminofluorene.
1915.1015 4-Dimethylaminoazohenzene.
1915.1016 N-Nitrosodimeyhylamine.
1915.1017 Vinyl chloride.
1915.1018 lnorganic arsenic.
1915.1025 Lead.
1915.1027 Cadmium.
1915.1028 Benzene.
1915.1030 Bloodborne pathogens
1915.1044 1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane
1915.1045 Acrylonitrile.
1915.1047 Ethylene oxide.
1915.1048 Formaldehyde.
1915.1050 Methylenedianiline
1915.1120 Access to employee exposure and medical records.
1915.1200 Hazard communication.
1915.1450 Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in
laboratories.

Authority: § 41 longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act (33 U.S.C 941); secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational Safety and Heath Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); §4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 F 8754, 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736) or 1-90 (55 FR 9033), as applicable; 29 CFR part 1911.

* * * * *

Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances

1915.1000 Air contaminants.

Wherever this section applies, an employees's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-Shipyards of this section shall be limited in accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs of this section.

(a) - (1) "Substances with limits preceded by 'C'" - "Ceiling Values."

An employee's exposure to any substance in Table Z-Shipyards, the exposure limit of which is preceded by a "C," shall at no time exceed the exposure limit given for that substance. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a 15-minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time over a working day.

(2) "Other Substances" - "8-hour Time Weighted Averages." An employee's exposure to any substance in Table Z-Shipyards , the exposure limit of which is not preceded by a "C," shall not exceed the 8-hour Time Weighted Average given for that substance in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week.

(b)-(c) [Reserved] (d) "Computation formulae." The computation formula which shall apply to employee exposure to more than one substance for which 8-hour time weighted averages are listed in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory limit is as follows:

(1) - (i) The cumulative exposure for an 8-hour work shift shall be computed as follows:

E = (C(a)T(a) + C(b) +...C(n)T(n)) + 8

Where:

E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift. C is the concentration during any period of time T where the concentration remains constant.

T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.

The value of E shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1915 for the material involved.

(ii) To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, assume that Substance A has an 8-hour time weighted average limit of 100 ppm noted in Table Z-Shipyards. Assume that an employee is subject to the following exposure:

Two hours exposure at 150 p/m
Two hours exposure at 75 p/m
Four hours exposure at 50 p/m
Substituting this information in the formula, we have

(2 X 150 +2 X 75 + 4 X 50) + 8 = 81.25 p/m

Since 81.25 ppm is less than 100 p.p.m., the 8-hour time weighted average limit, the exposure is acceptable.

(2)(i) in case of a mixture of air contaminants an employer shall compute the equivalent exposure as follows:

E(m) = (C(1) + L(1) +L(2)) +...(C(n) + L(n))

Where:
E(m) is the equivalent exposure for the mixture
C is the concentration of a particular contaminant
L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in Subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1915
The value of E(m) shall not exceed unity (1)
(ii) To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, consider the following exposures:
Substance Actual concentration of
8 hour exposure (ppm)
18 hr. TWA PEL (ppm)
B 500 1000
C 45 200
D 40 200
Substituting in the formula, we have:
Em = 500 + 1,000 + 45 + 200 + 40 + 200
Em = 0.500 + 0.225 + 0.200
Em = 0.925

Since Em is less than unity (1), the exposure combination is within acceptable limits.

__________

NOTE: Because of the length of the table, explanatory Footnotes applicable to all substances are given below as well as at the end of the table. Footnotes specific only to a limited number of substances are also shown within the table.

Footnote(1) [Reserved]

Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table.

Footnote(3) Use Asbestos Limit 1915.1001.

Footnote(4) See 1915.1001

Footnote(*) The PELs are 8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling limit. They are to be determined from breathing-zone air samples.

Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr.

Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact; when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate.

Footnote(c) [Reserved]

Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound, measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CAS numbers for the individual compounds.

Footnote(e) [Reserved]

Footnote(f) [Reserved]

Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1915.1028 the limit is 10 ppm TWA.

Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance but has not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existing limit is published.

Footnote(i) [Reserved]

Footnote(j) Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques.

Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in which other methods have been shown to be applicable.

Footnote(l) [Reserved]

Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise regulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.

The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as follows:

Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved]

Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products. Because these products decompose in part by hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in air as fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pending determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations should be minimal.

Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.

Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is the available oxygen which shall be at least 18 percent and be within the requirements addressing explosion in subpart B of part 1915.

TABLE Z-SHIPYARDS
Substance CAS No. (d) ppm (a) mg/m(3)(h) Skin Designation
Abate; see Temephos
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 200 360
Acetic acid 64-19-7 10 25
Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 5 20
Acetone 67-64-1 1000 2400
Acetonitrile 75-05-8 40 70
2-Acetylaminofluorine;
see 1915.1014 53-96-3
Acetylene 74-86-2 E
Acetylene dichloride;
see
1,2-Dichloroethylene
Acetylene tetrabromide 79-27-6 1 14
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.1 0.25
Acrylamide 79-06-1 0.3 X
Acrylonitrile;
see 1915.1045 107-13-1
Aldrin 309-00-2 0.25 X
Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 2 5 X
Allyl chloride 107-05-1 1 3
Allyl glycidyl ether
(AGE) 106-92-3 (C)10 (C)45
Allyl propyl disulfide 2179-59-1 2 12
alpha-Alumina 1344-28-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Aluminum (as Al) Metal 7429-90-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Alundum; see
alpha-Alumina
4-Aminodiphenyl;
see 1915.1011 92-67-1
2-Aminoethanol;
see Ethanolamine
2-Aminopyridine 504-29-0 0.5 2
Ammonia 7664-41-7 50 35
Ammonium sulfamate 7773-06-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
n-Amyl acetate 628-63-7 100 525
sec-Amyl acetate 626-38-0 125 650
Aniline and homologs 62-53-3 5 19 X
Anisidine
(o-,p-isomers) 29191-52-4 0.5 X
Antimony and compounds
(as Sb) 7440-36-0 0.5
ANTU (alpha
Naphthylthiourea) 86-88-4 0.3
Argon 7440-37-1 E
Arsenic, inorganic
compounds (as As);
see 1915.1018 7440-38-2
Arsenic, organic
compounds (as As) 7440-38-2 0.5
Arsine 7784-42-1 0.05 0.2
Asbestos;
see 1915.1001
Azinphos-methyl 86-50-0 0.2 X
Barium, soluble
compounds (as Ba) 7440-39-3 0.5
Barium sulfate 7727-43-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Benomyl 17804-35-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Benzene(g); See
1915.1028 71-43-2
Benzidine;
See 1915.1010 92-87-5
p-Benzoquinone;
see Quinone
Benzo(a)pyrene; see
Coal tar pitch
volatiles
Benzoyl peroxide 94-36-0 5
Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 1 5
Beryllium and
beryllium compounds
(as Be) 7440-41-7 0.002
Biphenyl; see Diphenyl
Bismuth telluride,
Undoped 1304-82-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Bisphenol A; see
Diglycidyl ether
Boron oxide 1303-86-2
Total dust 15
Boron tribromide 10294-33-4 1 10
Boron trifluoride 7637-07-2 (C)1 (C)3
Bromine 7726-95-6 0.1 0.7
Bromine pentafluoride 7789-30-2 0.1 0.7
Bromoform 75-25-2 0.5 5 X
Butadiene
(1,3-Butadiene)(h) 106-99-0 1000 2200
Butanethiol;
see Butyl mercaptan
2-Butanone
(Methyl ethyl ketone) 78-93-3 200 590
2-Butoxyethanol 111-76-2 50 240 X
n-Butyl-acetate 123-86-4 150 710
sec-Butyl acetate 105-46-4 200 950
tert-Butyl-acetate 540-88-5 200 950
n-Butyl alcohol 71-36-3 100 300
sec-Butyl alcohol 78-92-2 150 450
tert-Butyl alcohol 75-65-0 100 300
Butylamine 109-73-9 (C)5 (C)15 X
tert-Butyl chromate
(as CrO(3)) 1189-85-1 (C)0.1 X
n-Butyl glycidyl ether
(BGE) 2426-08-6 50 270
Butyl mercaptan 109-79-5 0.5 1.5
p-tert-Butyltoluene 98-51-1 10 60
Cadmium dust fume
(as Cd);
see 1915.1027 7440-43-9
Calcium Carbonate 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium oxide 1305-78-8 5
Calcium silicate 1344-95-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Calcium sulfate 7778-18-9
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Camphor, synthetic 76-22-2 2
Carbaryl (Sevin) 63-25-2 5
Carbon black 1333-86-4 3.5
Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 5000 9000
Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 20 60 X
Carbon monoxide 630-08-0 50 55
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 10 65 X
Cellulose 9004-34-6
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Chlordane 57-74-9 0.5 X
Chlorinated camphene 8001-35-2 0.5 X
Chlorinated diphenyl
oxide 55720-99-5 0.5
Chlorine 7782-50-5 1 3
Chlorine trifluoride 7790-91-2 (C)0.1 (C)0.4
Chloroacetaldehyde 107-20-0 (C)1 (C)3
a-Chloroacetophenone
(Phenacyl chloride) 532-27-4 0.05 0.3
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 75 350
o-Chlorobenzylidene
malononitrile 2698-41-1 0.05 0.4
Chlorobromomethane 74-97-5 200 1050
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene;
See beta-Chloroprene
Chlorodiphenyl
(42% Chlorine)(PCB) 53469-21-9 1 X
Chlorodiphenyl
(54% Chlorine)(PCB) 11097-69-1 0.5 X
1-Chloro-2,
3-epoxypropane;
See Epichlorohydrin
2-Chloroethanol; See
Ethylene chlorohydrin
Chloroethylene;
See Vinyl chloride
Chloroform
(Trichloromethane) 67-66-3 50 240
bis(Chloromethyl)
ether; see 1915.1008 542-88-1
Chloromethyl methyl
ether; see 1915.1006 107-30-2
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane 600-25-9 20 100
Chloropicrin 76-06-2 0.1 0.7
beta-Chloroprene 126-99-8 25 90 X
2-Chloro-6
(trichloromethyl)
pyridine 1929-82-4
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Chromic acid and
chromates (as CrO(3)) Varies with 0.1
compound
Chromium (II) compounds
(as Cr) 7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium (III)
compounds (as Cr) 7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium metal and
insol. salts (as Cr) 7440-47-3 1
Chrysene; see Coal tar
pitch volatiles
Clopidol 2971-90-6
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Coal tar pitch
volatiles (benzene
soluble fraction),
anthracene, BaP,
phenanthrene,
acridine, chrysene,
pyrene 65966-93-2 0.2
Cobalt metal, dust,
and fume (as Co) 7440-48-4 0.1
Copper 7440-50-8
Fume (as Cu) 0.1
Dusts and mists
(as Cu) 1
Corundum; see Emery
Cotton dust (raw) 1
Crag herbicide (Sesone) 136-78-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Cresol, all isomers 1319-77-3 5 22 X
Crotonaldehyde 123-73-9 2 6
4170-30-3
Cumene 98-82-8 50 245 X
Cyanides (as CN) Varies with 5
Compound
Cyanogen 460-19-5 10
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 300 1050
Cyclohexanol 108-93-0 50 200
Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 50 200
Cyclohexene 110-83-8 300 1015
Cyclonite 121-82-4 1.5 X
Cyclopentadiene 542-92-7 75 200
2,4-D (Dichlorophen-
oxyacetic acid) 94-75-7 10
Decaborane 17702-41-9 0.05 0.3 X
Demeton (Systox) 8065-48-3 0.1 X
Diacetone alcohol
(4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-
2-pentanone) 123-42-2 50 240
1,2-Diaminoethane;
see Ethylenediamine
Diazomethane 334-88-3 0.2 0.4
Diborane 19287-45-7 0.1 0.1
1,2-Dibromo-3-
chloropropane (CBCP);
see 1915.1044 96-12-8
1,2-Dibromoethane; see
Ethylene dibromide
Dibutyl phosphate 107-66-4 1 5
Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2 5
Dichloroacetylene 7572-29-4 (C)0.1 (C)0.4
o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 (C)50 (C)300
p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 75 450
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine;
see 1915.1007 91-94-1
Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 1000 4950
1,3-Dichloro-5,
5-dimethyl hydantoin 118-52-5 0.2
Dichlorodiphenyltri-
chloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 1 X
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 100 400
1,2-Dichloroethane; see
Ethylene dichloride
1,2-Dichloroethylene 540-59-0 200 790
Dichloroethyl ether 111-44-4 (C)15 (C)90 X
Dichloromethane; see
Methylene chloride
Dichloromonofluoro-
methane 75-43-4 1000 4200
1,1-Dichloro-1-
nitroethane 594-72-9 (C)10 (C)60
1,2-Dichloropropane;
see
Propylene dichloride
Dichlorotetrafluoro-
ethane 76-14-2 1000 7000
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 62-73-7 1 X
Dicyclopentadienyl iron 102-54-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Dieldrin 60-57-1 0.25 X
Diethylamine 109-89-7 25 75
2-Diethylaminoethanol 100-37-8 10 50
Diethylene triamine 111-40-0 (C)10 (C)42 X
Diethyl ether;
see Ethyl ether
Difluorodibromomethane 75-61-6 100 860
Diglycidyl ether (DGE) 2238-07-5 (C)0.5 (C)2.8
Dihydroxybenzene;
see Hydroquinone
Diisobutyl ketone 108-83-8 50 290
Diisopropylamine 108-18-9 5 20 X
4-Dimethylaminoazo-
benzene;
see 1915.1015 60-11-7
Dimethoxymethane;
see Methylal
Dimethyl acetamide 127-19-5 10 35 X
Dimethylamine 124-40-3 10 18
Dimethylaminobenzene;
see Xylidine
Dimethylaniline
(N,N-Dimethylaniline) 121-69-7 5 25 X
Dimethylbenzene;
see Xylene
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,
2-dichloroethyl
phosphate 300-76-5 3
Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 10 30 X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-
heptanone; see
Diisobutyl ketone
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7 0.5 1 X
Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 5
Dimethyl sulfate 77-78-3 1 5 X
Dinitrobenzene
(all isomers) 1 X
(ortho) 528-29-0
(meta) 99-65-0
(para) 100-25-4
Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 0.2 X
Dinitrotoluene 25321-14-6 1.5 X
Dioxane
(Diethylene dioxide) 123-91-1 100 360 X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl) 92-52-4 0.2 1
Diphenylamine 122-39-4 10
Diphenylmethane
diisocyanate; see
Methylene bisphenyl
isocyanate
Dipropylene glycol
methyl ether 34590-94-8 100 600 X
Di-sec octyl phthalate
(Di-(2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate) 117-81-7 5
Emery 12415-34-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Endosulfan 115-29-7 0.1 X
Endrin 72-20-8 0.1 X
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 5 19 X
EPN 2104-64-5 0.5 X
1,2-Epoxypropane; see
Propylene oxide
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol;
see Glycidol
Ethane 74-84-0 E
Ethanethiol; see
Ethyl mercaptan
Ethanolamine 141-43-5 3 6
2-Ethoxyethanol
(Cellosolve) 110-80-5 200 740 X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate
(Cellosolve acetate) 111-15-9 100 540 X
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 400 1400
Ethyl acrylate 140-88-5 25 100 X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) 64-17-5 1000 1900
Ethylamine 75-04-7 10 18
Ethyl amyl ketone
(5-Methyl-3-
heptanone) 541-85-5 25 130
Ethyl benzene 100-41-4 100 435
Ethyl bromide 74-96-4 200 890
Ethyl butyl ketone
(3-Heptanone) 106-35-4 50 230
Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 1000 2600
Ethyl ether 60-29-7 400 1200
Ethyl formate 109-94-4 100 300
Ethyl mercaptan 75-08-1 0.5 1
Ethyl silicate 78-10-4 100 850
Ethylene 74-85-1 E
Ethylene chlorohydrin 107-07-3 5 16 X
Ethylenediamine 107-15-3 10 25
Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 (C)25 (C)190 X
Ethylene dichloride
(1,2-Dichloroethane) 107-06-2 50 200
Ethylene glycol
dinitrate 628-96-6 (C)0.2 (C)1 X
Ethylene glycol methyl
acetate; see Methyl
cellosolve acetate
Ethyleneimine;
see 1915.1012 151-56-4
Ethylene oxide;
see 1915.1047 75-21-8
Ethylidene chloride;
see 1,1-Dichlorethane
N-Ethylmorpholine 100-74-3 20 94 X
Ferbam 14484-64-1
Total dust 15
Ferrovanadium dust 12604-58-9 1
Fibrous Glass
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Fluorides (as F) Varies with 2.5
compound
Fluorine 7782-41-4 0.1 0.2
Fluorotrichloromethane
(Trichloro-
fluoromethane) 75-69-4 1000 5600
Formaldehyde;
see 1915.1048 50-00-0
Formic acid 64-18-6 5 9
Furfural 98-01-1 5 20 X
Furfuryl alcohol 98-00-0 50 200
Gasoline 8006-61-9 A(3)
Glycerin (mist) 56-81-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Glycidol 556-52-5 50 150
Glycol monoethyl ether;
see 2-Ethoxyethanol
Graphite, natural
respirable dust 7782-42-5 (2) (2) (2)
Graphite, synthetic
Total dust 15
Respirable Fraction 5
Guthion;
see Azinphos methyl
Gypsum 13397-24-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Hafnium 7440-58-6 0.5
Helium 7440-59-7 E
Heptachlor 76-44-8 0.5 X
Heptane (n-Heptane) 142-82-5 500 2000
Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 1 10 X
Hexachloronaphthalene 1335-87-1 0.2 X
n-Hexane 110-54-3 500 1800
2-Hexanone (Methyl
n-butyl ketone) 591-78-6 100 410
Hexone (Methyl
isobutyl ketone) 108-10-1 100 410
sec-Hexyl acetate 108-84-9 50 300
Hydrazine 302-01-2 1 1.3 X
Hydrogen 1333-74-0 E
Hydrogen bromide 10035-10-6 3 10
Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 (C)5 (C)7
Hydrogen cyanide 74-90-8 10 11 X
Hydrogen fluoride
(as F) 7664-39-3 3 2
Hydrogen peroxide 7722-84-1 1 1.4
Hydrogen selenide
(as Se) 7783-07-5 0.05
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 10 15
Hydroquinone 123-31-9 2
Indene 95-13-6 10 45
Indium and compounds
(as in) 7440-74-6 0.1
Iodine 7553-56-2 (C)0.1 (C)1
Iron oxide fume 1309-37-1 10
Iron salts (soluble)
(as Fe) Varies with 1
compound
Isomyl acetate 123-92-2 100 525
Isomyl alcohol
(primary and
secondary) 123-51-3 100 360
Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 150 700
Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 100 300
Isophorone 78-59-1 25 140
Isopropyl acetate 108-21-4 250 950
Isopropyl alcohol 67-63-0 400 980
Isopropylamine 75-31-0 5 12
Isopropyl ether 108-20-3 500 2100
Isopropyl glycidyl
ether (IGE) 4016-14-2 50 240
Kaolin 1332-58-7
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Ketene 463-51-4 0.5 0.9
Lead inorganic (as Pb);
see 1915.1025 7439-92-1
Limestone 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Lindane 58-89-9 0.5 X
Lithium hydride 7580-67-8 0.025
L.P.G. (Liquified
petroleum gas) 68476-85-7 1000 1800
Magnesite 546-93-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Magnesium oxide fume 1309-48-4
Total Particulate 15
Malathion 121-75-5
Total dust 15 X
Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 0.25
Manganese compounds
(as Mn) 7439-96-5 (C)5
Manganese fume (as Mn) 7439-96-5 (C)5
Marble 1317-65-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Mercury (aryl and
inorganic)(as Hg) 7439-97-6 0.1 X
Mercury (organo) alkyl
compounds (as Hg) 7439-97-6 0.01 X
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg) 7439-97-6 0.1 X
Mesityl oxide 141-79-7 25 100
Methane 74-82-8 E
Methanethiol;
see Methyl mercaptan
Methoxychlor 72-43-5
Total dust 15
2-Methoxyethanol;
(Methyl cellosolve) 109-86-4 25 80 X
2- Methoxyethyl acetate
(Methyl cellosolve
acetate) 110-49-6 25 120 X
Methyl acetate 79-20-9 200 610
Methyl acetylene
(Propyne) 74-99-7 1000 1650
Methyl acetylene
propadiene mixture
(MAPP) 1000 1800
Methyl acrylate 96-33-3 10 35 X
Methylal
(Dimethoxy-methane) 109-87-5 1000 3100
Methyl alcohol 67-56-1 200 260
Methylamine 74-89-5 10 12
Methyl amyl alcohol;
see Methyl Isobutyl
carbinol
Methyl n-amyl ketone 110-43-0 100 465
Methyl bromide 74-83-9 (C)20 (C)80 X
Methyl butyl ketone;
see 2-Hexanone
Methyl cellosolve;
see 2-Methoxyethanol
Methyl cellosolve
acetate;
see 2-Methoxyethyl
acetate
Methyl chloride 74-87-3 100 210
Methyl chloroform
(1,1,1-Trichloro-
ethane) 71-55-6 350 1900
Methylcyclohexane 108-87-2 500 2000
Methylcyclohexanol 25639-42-3 100 470
o-Methylcyclohexanone 583-60-8 100 460 X
Methylene chloride 75-09-2 500 1740
Methyl ethyl ketone
(MEK); see 2-Butanone
Methyl formate 107-31-3 100 250
Methyl hydrazine
(Monomethyl
hydrazine) 60-34-4 (C)0.2 (C)0.35 X
Methyl iodide 74-88-4 5 28 X
Methyl isoamyl ketone 110-12-3 100 475
Methyl isobutyl
carbinol 108-11-2 25 100 X
Methyl isobutyl ketone;
see Hexone
Methyl isocyanate 624-83-9 0.02 0.05 X
Methyl mercaptan 74-93-1 0.5 1
Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 100 410 100
Methyl propyl ketone;
see 2-Pentanone
Methyl silicate 681-84-5 5 30
alpha-Methyl styrene 98-83-9 (C)100 (C)480
Methylene bisphenyl
isocyanate (MDI) 101-68-8 (C)0.02 (C)0.2
Mica; see Silicates
Mineral wool
Total dust 15
Respirable dust 5
Molybdenum (as Mo) 7439-98-7
Soluble compounds 5
Insoluble Compounds
Total dust 15
Monomethyl aniline 100-61-8 2 9 X
Monomethyl hydrazine;
see Methyl hydrazine
Morpholine 110-91-8 20 70 X
Naphtha (Coal tar) 8030-30-6 100 400
Naphthalene 91-20-3 10 50
alpha-Naphthylamine;
see 1915.1004 134-32-7
beta-Naphthylamine;
see 1915.1009 91-59-8
Neon 7440-01-9 E
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni) 13463-39-3 0.001 0.007
Nickel, metal and
insoluble compounds
(as Ni) 7440-02-0 1
Nickel, soluble
compounds (as Ni) 7440-02-0 1
Nicotine 54-11-5 0.5 X
Nitric acid 7697-37-2 2 5
Nitric oxide 10102-43-9 25 30
p-Nitroaniline 100-01-6 1 6 X
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 1 5 X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene 100-00-5 1 X
4-Nitrodiphenyl;
see 1915.1003 92-93-3
Nitroethane 79-24-3 100 310
Nitrogen 7727-37-9 E
Nitrogen dioxide 10102-44-0 (C)5 (C)9
Nitrogen trifluoride 7783-54-2 10 29
Nitroglycerin 55-63-0 (C)0.2 (C)2 X
Nitromethane 75-52-5 100 250
1-Nitropropane 108-03-2 25 90
2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 25 90
N-Nitrosodimethylamine;
see 1915.1016 62-79-9
Nitrotoluene
(all isomers) 5 30 X
o-isomer 88-72-2
m-isomer 99-08-1
p-isomer 99-99-0
Nitrotrichloromethane;
see Chloropicrin
Nitrous oxide 10024-97-2 E
Octachloronaphthalene 2234-13-1 0.1 X
Octane 111-65-9 400 1900
Oil mist, mineral 8012-95-1 5
Osmium tetroxide
(as Os) 20816-12-0 0.002
Oxalic acid 144-62-7 1
Oxygen difluoride 7783-41-7 0.05 0.1
Ozone 10028-15-6 0.1 0.2
Paraquat, respirable
dust 4685-14-7 0.5 X
1910-42-5
2074-50-2
Parathion 56-38-2 0.1
Particulates not
otherwise regulated
Total dust organic
and inorganic 15
PCB; see Chlorodiphenyl
(42% and 54%
chlorine)
Pentaborane 19624-22-7 0.005 0.01
Pentachloronaphthalene 1321-64-8 0.5 X
Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 0.5 X
Pentaerythritol 115-77-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Pentane 109-66-0 500 1500
2-Pentanone (Methyl
propyl ketone) 107-87-9 200 700
Perchloroethylene
(Tetrachloroethylene) 127-18-4 100 670
Perchloromethyl
mercaptan 594-42-3 0.1 0.8
Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6 3 13.5
Perlite 93763-70-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Petroleum distillates
(Naphtha)(Rubber
Solvent) A(3)
Phenol 108-95-2 5 19 X
p-Phenylene diamine 106-50-3 0.1 X
Phenyl ether, vapor 101-84-8 1 7
Phenyl ether-biphenyl
mixture, vapor 1 7
Phenylethylene;
see Styrene
Phenyl glycidyl ether
(PGE) 122-60-1 10 60
Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0 5 22 X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos) 7786-34-7 0.1 X
Phosgene (Carbonyl
chloride) 75-44-5 0.1 0.4
Phosphine 7803-51-2 0.3 0.4
Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2 1
Phosphorus (yellow) 7723-14-0 0.1
Phosphorus
pentachloride 10026-13-8 1
Phosphorus pentasulfide 1314-80-3 1
Phosphorus trichloride 7719-12-2 0.5 3
Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 2 12
Picloram 1918-02-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Picric acid 88-89-1 0.1
Piperazine
dihydrochloride 142-64-3 X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,
3-indandione) 83-26-1 0.1
Plaster of paris 26499-65-0
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Platinum (as Pt) 7440-06-4
Metal
Soluble Salts 0.002
Polytetrafluoroethylene
decomposition
products A(2)
Portland cement 65997-15-1
Total dust 15 10
Respirable fraction 5
Propargyl alcohol 107-19-7 1 X
beta-Propriolactone;
see 1915.1013 57-57-8
Propionic acid 79-09-4
n-Propyl acetate 109-60-4 200 840
n-Propyl alcohol 71-23-8 200 500
n-Propyl nitrate 627-13-4 25 110
Propylene dichloride 78-87-5 75 350
Propylene imine 75-55-8 2 5 X
Propylene oxide 75-56-9 100 240
Propyne; see Methyl
acetylene
Pyrethrum 8003-34-7 5
Pyridine 110-86-1 5 15
Quinone 106-51-4 0.1 0.4
RDX: see Cyclonite
Rhodium (as Rh), metal
fume and insoluble
compounds 7440-16-6 0.1
Rhodium (as Rh),
soluble compounds 7440-16-6 0.001
Ronnel 299-84-3 10
Rotenone 83-79-4 5
Rouge
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Selenium compounds
(as Se) 7782-49-2 0.2
Selenium hexafluoride
(as Se) 7783-79-1 0.05 0.4
Silica, amorphous,
precipitated and gel 112926-00-8 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, amorphous,
diatomaceous earth,
containing less than
1% crystalline silica 61790-53-2 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline
cristobalite,
respirable dust 14464-46-1 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline
quartz, respirable
dust 14808-60-7 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline
tripoli (as quartz),
respirable dust 1317-95-9 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline
tridymite,
respirable dust 15468-32-3 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, fused,
respirable dust 60676-86-0 (2) (2) (2)
Silicates (less than 1%
crystalline silica)
Mica (respirable
dust) 12001-26-2 (2) (2) (2)
Soapstone, total dust (2) (2) (2)
Soapstone, respirable
dust (2) (2) (2)
Talc (containing
asbestos) (3) (3) (3)
Talc (containing no
asbestos),
respirable dust 14807-96-6 (2) (2) (2)
Tremolite (3) (3) (3)
Silicon 7440-21-3
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Silicon carbide 409-21-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Silver, metal and
soluble compounds
(as Ag) 7440-22-4 0.01
Soapstone;
see Silicates
Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8 0.05 X
Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2 2
Starch 9005-25-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Stibine 7803-52-3 0.1 0.5
Stoddard solvent 8052-41-3 200 1150
Strychnine 57-24-9 0.15
Styrene 100-42-5 100 420 50
Sucrose 57-50-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Sulfur dioxide 7446-09-5 5 13
Sulfur hexafluoride 2551-62-4 1000 6000
Sulfuric acid 7664-93-9 1
Sulfur monochloride 10025-67-9 1 6
Sulfur pentafluoride 5714-22-7 0.025 0.25
Sulfuryl fluoride 2699-79-8 5 20
Systox; see Demeton
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-tri-
chlorophenoxyacetic
acid) 93-76-5 10
Talc; see Silicates
Tantalum, metal and
oxide dust 7440-25-7 5
TEDP (Sulfotep) 3689-24-5 0.2 X
Teflon decomposition
products A2
Tellurium and
compounds (as Te) 13494-80-9 0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride
(as Te) 7783-80-4 0.02 0.2
Temephos 3383-96-8
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
TEPP (Tetraethyl
pyrophosphaate) 107-49-3 0.05 X
Terphenylis 26140-60-3 (C)1 (C)9
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,
2-difluoroethane 76-11-9 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,
2-difluoroethane 76-12-0 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-
ethane 79-34-5 5 35 X
Tetrachoroethylene;
see Perchloroethylene
Tetrachloromethane; see
Carbon tetrachloride
Tetrachloronaphthalene 1335-88-2 2 X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) 78-00-2 0.1 X
Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 200 590
Tetramethyl lead,
(as Pb) 75-74-1 0.15 X
Tetramethyl
succinonitrile 3333-52-6 0.5 3 X
Tetranitromethane 509-14-8 1 8
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitro-
phenylmethyl-
nitramine) 479-45-8 1.5 X
Thallium, soluble
compounds (as Tl) 7440-28-0 0.1 X
4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert,
Butyl-m-cresol) 96-69-5
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Thiram 137-26-8 5
Tin, inorganic
compounds (except
oxides) (as Sn) 7440-31-5 2
Tin, organic compounds
(as Sn) 7440-31-5 0.1
Tin oxide (as Sn) 21651-19-4
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Titanium dioxide 13463-67-7
Total dust 15
Toluene 108-88-3 200 750 100
Toluene-2,
4-diisocyanate (TDI) 584-84-9 (C)0.02 (C)0.14
o-Toluidine 95-53-4 5 22 X
Toxaphene; see
Chlorinated camphene
Tremolite;
see Silicates
Tributyl phosphate 126-73-8 5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane;
see Methyl chloroform
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 10 45 X
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 100 535
Trichloromethane;
see Chloroform
Trichloronaphthalene 1321-65-9 5 X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 50 300
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,
2-trifluoroethane 76-13-1 1000 7600
Triethylamine 121-44-8 25 100
Trifluorobromomethane 75-63-8 1000 6100
Trimethyl benzene 25551-13-7 25 120
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl;
see Picric acid
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl-
methyl nitramine;
see Tetryl
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
(TNT) 118-96-7 1.5 X
Triorthocresyl
phosphate 78-30-8 0.1
Triphenyl phosphate 115-86-6 3
Tungsten (as W) 7440-33-7
Insoluble compounds 5
Soluble compounds 1
Turpentine 8006-64-2 100 560
Uranium (as U) 7440-61-1
Soluble compounds 0.2
Insoluble compounds 0.2
Vanadium 1314-62-1
Respirable dust
(as V(2)O(5)) (C)0.5
Fume (as V(2)O(5)) (C)0.1
Vegetable oil mist
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Vinyl benzene;
see Styrene
Vinyl chloride;
see 1915.1017 75-01-4
Vinyl cyanide;
see Acrylonitrile
Vinyl toluene 25013-15-4 100 480
Warfarin 81-81-2 0.1
Xylenes
(o-, m-, p-isomers) 1330-20-7 100 435
Xylidine 1300-73-8 5 25 X
Yttrium 7440-65-5 1
Zinc chloride fume 7646-85-7 1
Zinc oxide fume 1314-13-2 5
Zinc oxide 1314-13-2
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Zinc stearate 557-05-1
Total dust 15
Respirable fraction 5
Zirconium compounds
(as Zr) 7440-67-7 5
MINERAL DUSTS
Substance mppcf(j)
SILICA:
Crystalline
Quartz. Threshold limit calculated from the
formula 250(k)
percent SiO(2)+5
Cristobalite
Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous
earth 20
SILICATES (less than 1 percent crystalline
silica)
Mica 20
Portland cement 50
Soapstone 20
Talc (non-asbestiform) 20
Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit --
Graphite (natural) 15
Inert or Nuisance Particulates:(m) 50 (or 15 mg/m(3) whichever is the the smaller) of total dust less than 1 percent SiO(2)
Conversion factors
mppcf X 35.3 = million particles
per cubic meter = particles per c.c

Footnote(1) [Reserved] Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table. Footnote(3) Use Asbestos Limit 1915.1001. Footnote(4) See 1915.1001 Footnote(*) The PELs are 8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling limit. They are to be determined from breathing-zone air samples.

Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr.

Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact; when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate.

Footnote(c) [Reserved] Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound, measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CAS numbers for the individual compounds.

Footnote(e) [Reserved] Footnote(f) [Reserved] Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1915.1028 the limit is 10 ppm TWA. Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance but has not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existing limit is published.

Footnote(i) [Reserved] Footnote(j) Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques.

Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in which other methods have been shown to be applicable.

Footnote(l) [Reserved] Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise regulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.

The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as follows:

Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved] Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products. Because these products decompose in part by hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in air as fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pending determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations shaould be minimal.

Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.

Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is the available oxygen which shall be at least 18 percent and be within the requirements addressing explosion in subpart B of part 1915.

[58 FR 35514, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Asbestos

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all occupational exposures to asbestos in all industries covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). [Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.58.] (b) "Definitions." "Action level" means an airborne concentration of asbestos, of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) of air calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

"Asbestos" includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

"Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

"Authorized person" means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

"Director" means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

"Employee exposure" means that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

"Fiber" means a particulate form of asbestos, 5 micrometers or longer, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1.

"High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter" means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of 0.3 micrometer diameter mono-disperse particles.

"Regulated area" means an area established by the employer to demarcate areas where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure limit.

(c) "Permissible exposure limits (PELS)" - (1) "Time-weighted average limit (TWA)." The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.2 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average (TWA) as determined by the method prescribed in Appendix A of this section, or by an equivalent method.

(2) "Excursion limit." The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (1 f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of thirty (30) minutes.

(d) "Exposure monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposures for each shift for each employee in each job classification in each work area. Representative 30-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 30 minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(2) "Initial monitoring." (i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard, except as provided for in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (d)(2)(iii) of this section, shall perform initial monitoring of employees who are, or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to airborne concentrations at or above the action level and/or excursion limit.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored after December 20, 1985, for the TWA and after March 14, 1988, for the excursion limit, and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Where the employer has relied upon objective data that demonstrates that asbestos is not capable of being released in airborne concentrations at or above the action level and/or excursion limit under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, then no initial monitoring is required.

(3) "Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring) and patterns." After the initial determinations required by paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, samples shall be of such frequency and pattern as to represent with reasonable accuracy the levels of exposure of the employees. In no case shall sampling be at intervals greater than six months for employees whose exposures may reasonably be foreseen to exceed the action level and/or excursion limit.

(4) "Changes in monitoring frequency." If either the initial or the periodic monitoring required by paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section statistically indicates that employee exposures are below the action level and/or excursion limit, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(5) "Additional monitoring." Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (d)(4) of this section, the employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures above the action level and/or excursion limit or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures above the action level and/or excursion limit.

(6) "Method of monitoring." (i) All samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) shall be personal samples collected following the procedures specified in Appendix A.

(ii) All samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) shall be evaluated using the OSHA Reference Method (ORM) specified in Appendix A of this section, or an equivalent counting method.

(iii) If an equivalent method to the ORM is used, the employer shall ensure that the method meets the following criteria:

(A) Replicate exposure data used to establish equivalency are collected in side-by-side field and laboratory comparisons; and

(B) The comparison indicates that 90 percent of the samples collected in the range 0.5 to 2.0 times the permissible limit have an accuracy range of plus or minus 25 percent of the ORM results with a 95 percent confidence level as demonstrated by a statistically valid protocol; and

(C) The equivalent method is documented and the results of the comparison testing are maintained.

(iv) To satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, employers must use the results of monitoring analysis performed by laboratories which have instituted quality assurance programs that include the elements as prescribed in Appendix A.

(7) "Employee notification of monitoring results." (i) The employer shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under the standard, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The written notification required by paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section shall contain the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit, wherever monitoring results indicated that the TWA and/or excursion limit had been exceeded.

(e) "Regulated Areas" - (1) "Establishment." The employer shall establish regulated areas wherever airborne concentrations of asbestos are in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) "Demarcation." Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to asbestos.

(3) "Access." Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(4) "Provision of respirators." Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(5) "Prohibited activities." The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated areas.

(f) "Methods of compliance" - (1) "Engineering controls and work practices." (i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit, prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, except to the extent that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

(iii) For the following operations, wherever feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce the employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit, prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to or below 0.5 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (as an eight-hour time-weighted average) or 2.5 fibers/cc for 30 minutes (short-term exposure) and shall supplement them by the use of any combination of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section, work practices and feasible engineering controls that will reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section: Coupling cutoff in primary asbestos cement pipe manufacturing; sanding in primary and secondary asbestos cement sheet manufacturing; grinding in primary and secondary friction product manufacturing; carding and spinning in dry textile processes; and grinding and sanding in primary plastics manufacturing.

(iv) Local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation and dust collection systems shall be designed, constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with good practices such as those found in the American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, ANSI Z9.2-1979.

(v) "Particular tools." All hand-operated and power-operated tools with would produce or release fibers of asbestos so as to expose employees to levels in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, such as, but not limited to saws, scorers, abrasive wheels, and drills, shall be provided with local exhaust ventilation systems which comply with paragraph (f)(1)(iv) of this section.

(vi) "Wet methods." Insofar as practicable, asbestos shall be handled, mixed, applied, removed, cut, scored, or otherwise worked in a wet state sufficient to prevent the emission of airborne fibers so as to expose employees to levels in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit, prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, unless the usefulness of the product would be diminished thereby.

(vii) [Reserved] (viii) "Particular products and operations." No asbestos cement, mortar, coating, grout, plaster, or similar material containing asbestos shall be removed from bags, cartons, or other containers in which they are shipped, without being either wetted, or enclosed, or ventilated so as to prevent effectively the release of airborne fibers of asbestos so as to expose employees to levels in excess of the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(ix) "Compressed air." Compressed air shall not be used to remove asbestos or materials containing asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(2) "Compliance program." (i) Where the TWA and/or excursion limit is exceeded, the employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section.

(ii) Such programs shall be reviewed and updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iii) Written programs shall be submitted upon request for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(iv) The employer shall not use employee rotation as a means of compliance with the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(g) "Respiratory protection" - (1) "General." The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(i) During the interval necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(ii) In work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, or other activities for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) In work situations where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit; and

(iv) In emergencies. (2) "Respirator selection." (i) Where respirators are required under this section, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1. The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(ii) The employer shall provide a powered, air-purifying respirator in lieu of any negative pressure respirator specified in Table 1 whenever:

(A) An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

(B) This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

TABLE 1 - RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS
Airborne concentration of asbestos Required respirator
Not in excess of 2 f/cc (10 X PEL) 1. Half-mask air-purifying respirator, other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high-efficiency filters
Not in excess of 10 f/cc (50 X PEL) 1. Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters
Not in excess of 20 f/cc (100 X PEL) 1. Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters 2. Any supplied-air respirator operated in continuous flow mode
Not in excess of 200 f/cc (1000 X PEL) demand mode 1. Full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in pressure
Greater than 200 f/cc (less than 1,000 X PEL) or unknown concentration 1. Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus

Note: a. Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

b. A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers or larger.

(3) "Respirator program." (i) Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134(b), (d), (e), and (f).

(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall, be permitted to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(iv) No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally wearing a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employee shall be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position whose duties he or she is able to perform with the same employer, in the same geographical area and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer, if such a different position is available.

(4) "Respirator fit testing." (i) The employer shall ensure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(ii) For each employee wearing negative pressure respirators, employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, and shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I.

(h) "Protective work clothing and equipment" - (1) "Provision and use."

If an employee is exposed to asbestos above the TWA and/or excursion limit, or where the possibility of eye irritation exists, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and ensure that the employee uses appropriate work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with 1910.133 of this title.

(2) "Removal and storage." (i) The employer shall ensure that employees remove work clothing contaminated with asbestos only in change rooms provided in accordance with paragraph (i)(1) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that no employee takes contaminated work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(iii) Contaminated work clothing shall be placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of the asbestos outside the container.

(iv) Containers of contaminated protective devices or work clothing which are to be taken out of change rooms or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance or disposal, shall bear labels in accordance with paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

(3) "Cleaning and replacement." (i) The employer shall clean, launder, repair, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain their effectiveness. The employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(ii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of asbestos from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(iii) Laundering of contaminated clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section to effectively prevent the release of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(v) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with asbestos of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to asbestos.

(vi) Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and labeled in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section.

(i) "Hygiene facilities and practices" - (1) "Change rooms." (i) The employer shall provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to asbestos is above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that change rooms are in accordance with 1910.141(e) of this title, and are equipped with two separate lockers or storage facilities, so separated as to prevent contamination of the employee's street clothes from his protective work clothing and equipment.

(2) "Showers." (i) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the TWA and/or excursion limit shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities which comply with 1910.141(d)(3) of this title.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.

(3) "Lunchrooms." (i) The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the TWA and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that lunchroom facilities have a positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the TWA and/or excursion limit wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking or smoking.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface asbestos fibers have been removed from the clothing or equipment by vacuuming or other method that removes dust without causing the asbestos to become airborne.

(4) "Smoking in work areas." The employer shall ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos because of activities in that work area.

(j) "Communication of hazards to employees" - (1) "Warning signs." (i) Posting. Warning signs shall be provided and displayed at each regulated area. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(ii) Sign specifications. The warning signs required by paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section shall bear the following information:

DANGER ASBESTOS CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs and graphics.

(2) "Warning labels." (i) Labeling. Warning labels shall be affixed to all raw materials, mixtures, scrap, waste, debris, and other products containing asbestos fibers, or to their containers.

(ii) Label specifications. The labels shall comply with the requirements of 29 CFR 1915.1200(f) of OSHA's Hazard Communication standard, and shall include the following information:

DANGER CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS AVOID CREATING DUST CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

(3) "Material safety data sheets." Employers who are manufacturers or importers of asbestos or asbestos products shall comply with the requirements regarding development of material safety data sheets as specified in 29 CFR 1915.1200(g) of OSHA's Hazard Communication standard, except as provided by paragraph (j)(4) of this section.

(4) The provisions for labels required by paragraph (j)(2) or for material safety data sheets required by paragraph (j)(3) do not apply where:

(i) Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos in excess of the action level and/or excursion limit will be released or (ii) Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 0.1 percent.

(5) "Employee information and training." (i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the action level and/or excursion limit and ensure their participation in the program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner which the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;

(B) The relationship between smoking and exposure to asbestos in producing lung cancer:

(C) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of asbestos, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to asbestos;

(D) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(E) The specific procedures implemented to protect employees from exposure to asbestos, such as appropriate work practices, emergency and clean-up procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used;

(F) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(G) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (l) of this section;

(H) The content of this standard, including appendices.

(I) The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials, and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in Appendix I, to comply with this requirement.

(J) The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels.

(iv) Access to information and training materials.

(A) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees.

(B) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(C) The employer shall inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer shall distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No. 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in appendix I.

(k) "Housekeeping." (1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of dusts and waste containing asbestos.

(2) All spills and sudden releases of material containing asbestos shall be cleaned up as soon as possible.

(3) Surfaces contaminated with asbestos may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.

(4) Vacuuming. HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment shall be used for vacuuming. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.

(5) Shoveling, dry sweeping and dry clean-up of asbestos may be used only where vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible.

(6) Waste disposal. Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing contaminated with asbestos consigned for disposal, shall be collected and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers.

(l) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General." (i) The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the action level and/or excursion limit.

(ii) "Examination by a physician." (A) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.

(B) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section, shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.

(2) "Preplacement examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to an occupation exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers, a preplacement medical examination shall be provided or made available by the employer.

(ii) Such examination shall include, as a minimum, a medical and work history; a complete physical examination of all systems with emphasis on the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system and digestive tract; completion of the respiratory disease standardized questionnaire in Appendix D, Part 1; a chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior 14 x 17 inches); pulmonary function tests to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV(1.0)); and any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician. Interpretation and classification of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix E.

(3) "Periodic examinations." (i) Periodic medical examinations shall be made available annually.

(ii) The scope of the medical examination shall be in conformance with the protocol established in paragraph (l)(2)(ii) of this section, except that the frequency of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with Table 2, and the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in Appendix D, Part 2, shall be administered to the employee.

TABLE 2 - FREQUENCY OF CHEST ROENTGENOGRAMS
Years since Age of employee
first
exposure 15 to 35 35+ to 45 45+
0 to 10 Every 5 years Every 5 years Every 5 years
10+ Every 5 years Every 2 years Every 1 year

(4) "Termination of employment examinations." (i) The employer shall provide, or make available, a termination of employment medical examination for any employee who has been exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the action level and/or excursion limit.

(ii) The medical examination shall be in accordance with the requirements of the periodic examinations stipulated in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and shall be given within 30 calendar days before or after the date of termination of employment.

(5) "Recent examinations." No medical examination is required of any employee, if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with any of the preceding paragraphs [(l)(2)-(l)(4)] within the past 1 year period.

(6) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and Appendices D and E.

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level.

(iv) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used.

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(7) "Physician's written opinion." (i) The employer shall obtain a written signed opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:

(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;

(B) Any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as clothing or respirators; and

(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions resulting from asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within 30 days from its receipt.

(m) "Recordkeeping" - (1) "Exposure measurements." (i) The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to asbestos which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(F) Name, social security number and exposure of the employees whose exposure are represented.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120.

(2) "Objective data for exempted operations." (i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing asbestos is exempted from other requirements of this section under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following:

(A) The product qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

Note: The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.

(3) "Medical surveillance." (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and social security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's written opinions;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos; and

(D) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (l)(6) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120.

(4) "Training." The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment of that employee.

(5) "Availability." (i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.

(ii) The employer, upon request shall make any exposure records required by paragraph (m)(1) of this section available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i).

(iii) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required by paragraph (m)(2) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120.

(6) "Transfer of records." (i) The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1915.1120(h).

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall notify the Director at least 90 days prior to disposal of records and, upon request, transmit them to the Director.

(n) "Observation of monitoring" - (1) "Employee observation." The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) "Observation procedures." When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall be provided with and be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(o) "Dates" - (1) "Effective date." This standard shall become effective July 21, 1986. The requirements in the amended paragraphs in this section which pertain only to or are triggered by the excursion limit shall become effective October 14, 1988.

(2) "Start-up dates." All obligations of this standard commence on the effective date except as follows:

(i) "Exposure monitoring." Initial monitoring required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section shall be completed as soon as possible but no later than October 20, 1986.

(ii) "Regulated areas." Regulated areas required to be established by paragraph (e) of this section as a result of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after the results of that monitoring are known and not later than November 17, 1986.

(iii) "Respiratory protection." Respiratory protection required by paragraph (g) of this section shall be provided as soon as possible but no later than the following schedule:

(A) Employees whose 8-hour TWA exposure exceeds 2 fibers/cc - July 21, 1986.

(B) Employees whose 8-hour TWA exposure exceeds the PEL but is less than 2 fibers/cc - November 17, 1986.

(C) Powered air-purifying respirators provided under paragraph (g)(2)(ii) - January 16, 1987.

(iv) "Hygiene and lunchroom facilities." Construction plans for changerooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed no later than January 16, 1987; and these facilities shall be constructed and in use no later than July 20, 1987. However, if as part of the compliance plan it is predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls and work practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit by July 20, 1988, for affected employees, then such facilities need not be completed until 1 year after the engineering controls are completed, if such controls have not in fact succeeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.

(v) "Employee information and training." Employee information and training required by paragraph (j)(5) of this section shall be provided as soon as possible but no later than October 20, 1986.

(vi) "Medical surveillance." Medical examinations required by paragraph (l) of this section shall be provided as soon as possible but no later than November 17, 1986.

(vii) "Compliance program." Written compliance programs required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section as a result of initial monitoring shall be completed and available for inspection and copying as soon as possible but no later than July 20, 1987.

(viii) "Methods of compliance." The engineering and work practice controls as required by paragraph (f)(1) shall be implemented as soon as possible but no later than July 20, 1988.

(3) "Start-up dates for excursion limit." Compliance with the excursion limit requirements in this section shall be as follows:

(i) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), (g), (h), (j), (k), (l), (m) of this section, shall be complied with by December 13, 1988.

(ii) Paragraph (f) of this section, shall be complied with by March 13, 1989.

(iii) Paragraph (i) of this section, shall be complied with by September 14, 1989.

(4) "Compliance date." The requirements of paragraphs (i)(4), (j)(l)(iv), (j)(5)(iii)(I), (j)(5)(iii)(J), (j)(5)(iv)(C), and (l)(7)(i)(D) shall be complied with by May 7, 1990.

(p) "Appendices." (1) Appendices A, C, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these Appendices are mandatory.

(2) Appendices B, F, G, H, and I to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligation not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.

[58 FR 35525, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 App A OSHA Reference Method - Mandatory

This mandatory appendix specifies the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis. The sampling and analytical methods described below represent the elements of the available monitoring methods (such as the NIOSH 7400 method) which OSHA considers to be essential to achieve adequate employee exposure monitoring while allowing employers to use methods that are already established within their organizations. All employers who are required to conduct air monitoring under paragraph (d) of the standard are required to utilize analytical laboratories that use this procedure, or an equivalent method, for collecting and analyzing samples.

"Sampling and Analytical Procedure"

1. The sampling medium for air samples shall be mixed cellulose ester filter membranes. These shall be designated by the manufacturer as suitable for asbestos counting. See below for rejection of blanks.

2. The preferred collection device shall be the 25-mm diameter cassette with an open-faced 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl. The 37-mm cassette may be used if necessary but only if written justification for the need to use the 37-mm filter cassette accompanies the sample results in the employee's exposure monitoring record.

3. An air flow rate between 0.5 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected for the 25-mm cassette. If the 37-mm cassette is used, an air flow rate between 1 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected.

4. Where possible, a sufficient air volume for each air sample shall be collected to yield between 100 and 1,300 fibers per square millimeter on the membrane filter. If a filter darkens in appearance or if loose dust is seen on the filter, a second sample shall be started.

5. Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent dislodging the collected fibers. Packing material that has a high electrostatic charge on its surface (e.g., expanded polystyrene) cannot be used because such material can cause loss of fibers to the sides of the cassette.

6. Calibrate each personal sampling pump before and after use with a representative filter cassette installed between the pump and the calibration devices.

7. Personal samples shall be taken in the "breathing zone" of the employee (i.e., attached to or near the collar or lapel near the worker's face).

8. Fiber counts shall be made by positive phase contrast using a microscope with an 8 to 10 X eyepiece and a 40 to 45 X objective for a total magnification of approximately 400 X and a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75. The microscope shall also be fitted with a green or blue filter.

9. The microscope shall be fitted with a Walton-Beckett eyepiece graticule calibrated for a field diameter of 100 micrometers (+/- 2 micrometers).

10. The phase-shift detection limit of the microscope shall be about 3 degrees measured using the HSE phase shift test slide as outlined below.

a. Place the test slide on the microscope stage and center it under the phase objective.

b. Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus. Note: The slide consists of seven sets of grooved lines (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets 1 to 7, seven being the least visible. The requirements for asbestos counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set 3 completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets 6 and 7 must be invisible. Sets 4 and 5 must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope that fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos counting.

c. If the image deteriorates, clean and adjust the microscope optics. If the problem persists, consult the microscope manufacturer.

11. Each set of samples taken will include 10 percent blanks or a minimum of 2 blanks. The blank results shall be averaged and subtracted from the analytical results before reporting. Any samples represented by a blank having a fiber count in excess of 7 fibers/100 fields shall be rejected.

12. The samples shall be mounted by the acetone/triacetin method or a method with an equivalent index of refraction and similar clarity.

13. Observe the following counting rules. a. Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 micrometers. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

b. In the absence of other information, count all particles as asbesto that have a length-to-width ratio (aspect ratio) of 3:1 or greater.

c. Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle, shall receive the count of one half (1/2). Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area.

d. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of an individual fiber.

e. Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields; stop counting at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.

14. Blind recounts shall be conducted at the rate of 10 percent.

"Quality Control Procedures"

1. Intralaboratory program. Each laboratory and/or each company with more than one microscopist counting slides shall establish a statistically designed quality assurance program involving blind recounts and comparisons between microscopists to monitor the variability of counting by each microscopist and between microscopists. In a company with more than one laboratory, the program shall include all laboratories and shall also evaluate the laboratory-to-laboratory variability.

2. Interlaboratory program. Each laboratory analyzing asbestos samples for compliance determination shall implement an interlaboratory quality assurance program that as a minimum includes participation of at least two other independent laboratories. Each laboratory shall participate in round robin testing at least once every 6 months with at least all the other laboratories in its interlaboratory quality assurance group. Each laboratory shall submit slides typical of its own work load for use in this program. The round robin shall be designed and results analyzed using appropriate statistical methodology.

3. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos dust or an equalivalent course.

4. When the use of different microscopes contributes to differences between counters and laboratories, the effect of the different microscope shall be evaluated and the microscope shall be replaced, as necessary.

5. Current results of these quality assurance programs shall be posted in each laboratory to keep the microscopists informed.

[58 FR 35531, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix B Detailed Procedure for Asbestos Sampling and Analysis - Non-Mandatory

This appendix contains a detailed procedure for sampling and analysis and includes those critical elements specified in Appendix A. Employers are not required to use this procedure, but they are required to use Appendix A. The purpose of Appendix B is to provide a detailed step-by-step sampling and analysis procedure that conforms to the elements specified in Appendix A. Since this procedure may also standardize the analysis and reduce variability, OSHA encourages employers to use this appendix.

"Asbestos Sampling and Analysis Method"

Technique: Microscopy, Phase Contrast Analyte: Fibers (manual count) Sample Preparation: Acetone/triacetin method Calibration: Phase-shift detection limit about 3 degrees Range: 100 to 1300 fibers/mm(2) filter area Estimated limit of detection: 7 fibers/mm(2) filter area Sampler: Filter (0.8-1.2 um mixed cellulose ester membrane, 25-mm diameter) Flow rate: 0.5 L/min to 2.5 L/min (25-mm cassette) 1.0 L/min to 2.5 L/min (37-mm cassette) Sample volume: Adjust to obtain 100 to 1300 fibers/mm(2) Shipment: Routine Sample stability: Indefinite Blanks: 10 percent of samples (minimum 2) Standard analytical error: 0.25.

Applicability: The working range is 0.02 f/cc (1920-L air sample) to 1.25 f/cc (400-L air sample). The method gives an index of airborne asbestos fibers but may be used for other materials such as fibrous glass by inserting suitable parameters into the counting rules. The method does not differentiate between asbestos and other fibers. Asbestos fibers less than ca. 0.25 um diameter will not be detected by this method.

Interferences: Any other airborne fiber may interfere since all particles meeting the counting criteria are counted. Chainlike particles may appear fibrous. High levels of nonfibrous dust particles may obscure fibers in the field of view and raise the detection limit.

Reagents: 1. Acetone. 2. Triacetin (glycerol triacetate), reagent grade Special precautions: Acetone is an extremely flammable liquid and precautions must be taken not to ignite it. Heating of acetone must be done in a ventilated laboratory fume hood using a flameless, spark-free heat source.

Equipment: 1. Collection device: 25-mm cassette with 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl with cellulose ester filter, 0.8 to 1.2 mm pore size and backup pad.

Note: Analyze representative filters for fiber background before use and discard the filter lot if more than 5 fibers/100 fields are found.

2. Personal sampling pump, greater than or equal to 0.5 L/min. with flexible connecting tubing.

3. Microscope, phase contrast, with green or blue filter, 8 to 10X eyepiece, and 40 to 45X phase objective (total magnification ca 400X; numerical aperture = 0.65 to 0.75.

4. Slides, glass, single-frosted, pre-cleaned, 25 x 75 mm.

5. Cover slips, 25 x 25 mm, no. 1 1/2 unless otherwise specified by microscope manufacturer.

6. Knife, No. 1 surgical steel, curved blade.

7. Tweezers.

8. Flask, Guth-type, insulated neck, 250 to 500 mL (with single-holed rubber stopper and elbow-jointed glass tubing, 16 to 22 cm long).

9. Hotplate, spark-free, stirring type; heating mantle; or infrared lamp and magnetic stirrer.

10. Syringe, hypodermic, with 22-gauge needle.

11. Graticule, Walton-Beckett type with 100 um diameter circular field at the specimen plane (area = 0.00785 mm(2)). (Type G-22).

Note: the graticule is custom-made for each microscope.

12. HSE/NPL phase contrast test slide, Mark II.

13. Telescope, ocular phase-ring centering.

14. Stage micrometer (0.01 mm divisions).

Sampling

1. Calibrate each personal sampling pump with a representative sampler in line.

2. Fasten the sampler to the worker's lapel as close as possible to the worker's mouth. Remove the top cover from the end of the cowl extension (open face) and orient face down. Wrap the joint between the extender and the monitor's body with shrink tape to prevent air leaks.

3. Submit at least two blanks (or 10 percent of the total samples, whichever is greater) for each set of samples. Remove the caps from the field blank cassettes and store the caps and cassettes in a clean area (bag or box) during the sampling period. Replace the caps in the cassettes when sampling is completed.

4. Sample at 0.5 L/min or greater. Do not exceed 1 mg total dust loading on the filter. Adjust sampling flow rate, Q (L/min), and time to produce a fiber density, E (fibers/mm(2)), of 100 to 1300 fibers/m(2) [3.85 X 10(4) to 5 X 10(5) fibers per 25-mm filter with effective collection area (A(c)=385 mm(2))] for optimum counting precision (see step 21 below). Calculate the minimum sampling time, t(minimum) (min) at the action level (one-half of the current standard), L (f/cc) of the fibrous aerosol being sampled:

t(minimum) = (Ac)(E)
_____________
(Q)(L)10(3)

5. Remove the field monitor at the end of sampling, replace the plastic top cover and small end caps, and store the monitor.

6. Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent jostling or damage.

Note: Do not use polystyrene foam in the shipping container because of electrostatic forces which may cause fiber loss from the sample filter.

"Sample Preparation"

Note: The object is to produce samples with a smooth (non-grainy) background in a medium with a refractive index equal to or less than 1.46. The method below collapses the filter for easier focusing and produces permanent mounts which are useful for quality control and interlaboratory comparison. Other mounting techniques meeting the above criteria may also be used, e.g., the nonpermanent field mounting technique used in P & CAM 239.

7. Ensure that the glass slides and cover slips are free of dust and fibers.

8. Place 40 to 60 ml of acetone into a Guth-type flask. Stopper the flask with a single-hole rubber stopper through which a glass tube extends 5 to 8 cm into the flask. The portion of the glass tube that exits the top of the stopper (8 to 10 cm) is bent downward in an elbow that makes an angle of 20 to 30 degrees with the horizontal.

9. Place the flask in a stirring hotplate or wrap in a heating mantle. Heat the acetone gradually to its boiling temperature (ca. 58 deg. C).

Caution. - The acetone vapor must be generated in a ventilated fume hood away from all open flames and spark sources. Alternate heating methods can be used, providing no open flame or sparks are present.

10. Mount either the whole sample filter or a wedge cut from the sample filter on a clean glass slide.

a. Cut wedges of ca. 25 percent of the filter area with a curved-blade steel surgical knife using a rocking motion to prevent tearing.

b. Place the filter or wedge, dust side up, on the slide. Static electricity will usually keep the filter on the slide until it is cleared.

c. Hold the glass slide supporting the filter approximately 1 to 2 cm from the glass tube port where the acetone vapor is escaping from the heated flask. The acetone vapor stream should cause a condensation spot on the glass slide ca. 2 to 3 cm in diameter. Move the glass slide gently in the vapor stream. The filter should clear in 2 to 5 § If the filter curls, distorts, or is otherwise rendered unusable, the vapor stream is probably not strong enough. Periodically wipe the outlet port with tissue to prevent liquid acetone dripping onto the filter.

d. Using the hypodermic syringe with a 22-gauge needle, place 1 to 2 drops of triacetin on the filter. Gently lower a clean 25-mm square cover slip down onto the filter at a slight angle to reduce the possibility of forming bubbles. If too many bubbles form or the amount of triacetin is insufficient, the cover slip may become detached within a few hours.

e. Glue the edges of the cover slip to the glass slide using a lacquer or nail polish.

Note: If clearing is slow, the slide preparation may be heated on a hotplate (surface temperature 50 deg. C) for 15 min to hasten clearing. Counting may proceed immediately after clearing and mounting are completed.

Calibration and Quality Control

11. Calibration of the Walton-Beckett graticule. The diameter, d(c)(mm), of the circular counting area and the disc diameter must be specified when ordering the graticule.

a. Insert any available graticule into the eyepiece and focus so that the graticule lines are sharp and clear.

b. Set the appropriate interpupillary distance and, if applicable, reset the binocular head adjustment so that the magnification remains constant.

c. Install the 40 to 45X phase objective.

d. Place a stage micrometer on the microscope object stage and focus the microscope on the graduated lines.

e. Measure the magnified grid length, L(o)(mm), using the stage micrometer.

f. Remove the graticule from the microscope and measure its actual grid length, L(a)(mm). This can best be accomplished by using a stage fitted with verniers.

g. Calculate the circle diameter, d(c)(mm), for the Walton-Beckett graticule:

Example. - If L(o) = 108 um, L(a) = 2.93 mm and D = 100 um, then d(c) = 2.71 mm.

h. Check the field diameter, D(acceptable range 100 mm plus or minus 2 mm) with a stage micrometer upon receipt of the graticule from the manufacturer. Determine field area (mm(2)).

12. Microscope adjustments. Follow the manufacturer's instructions and also the following:

a. Adjust the light source for even illumination across the field of view at the condenser iris.

Note: Kohler illumination is preferred, where available.

b. Focus on the particulate material to be examined.

c. Make sure that the field iris is in focus, centered on the sample, and open only enough to fully illuminate the field of view.

d. Use the telescope ocular supplied by the manufacturer to ensure that the phase rings (annular diaphragm and phase-shifting elements) are concentric.

13. Check the phase-shift detection limit of the microscope periodically.

a. Remove the HSE/NPL phase-contrast test slide from its shipping container and center it under the phase objective.

b. Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus.

Note: The slide consists of seven sets of grooves (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets 1 to 7. The requirements for counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set 3 completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets 6 to 7 must be invisible. Sets 4 and 5 must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope which fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos counting.

c. If the image quality deteriorates, clean the microscope optics and, if the problem persists, consult the microscope manufacturer. 14. Quality control of fiber counts.

a. Prepare and count field blanks along with the field samples. Report the counts on each blank. Calculate the mean of the field blank counts and subtract this value from each sample count before reporting the results.

Note 1: The identity of the blank filters should be unknown to the counter until all counts have been completed.

Note 2: If a field blank yields fiber counts greater than 7 fibers/100 fields, report possible contamination of the samples.

b. Perform blind recounts by the same counter on 10 percent of filters counted (slides relabeled by a person other than the counter).

15. Use the following test to determine whether a pair of counts on the same filter should be rejected because of possible bias. This statistic estimates the counting repeatability at the 95 percent confidence level. Discard the sample if the difference between the two counts exceeds 2.77(F)s(r), where F=average of the two fiber counts and s(r)=relative standard deviation, which should be derived by each laboratory based on historical in-house data.

Note: If a pair of counts is rejected as a result of this test, recount the remaining samples in the set and test the new counts against the first counts. Discard all rejected paired counts.

16. Enroll each new counter in a training course that compares performance of counters on a variety of samples using this procedure.

Note: To ensure good reproducibility, all laboratories engaged in asbestos counting are required to participate in the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program and should routinely participate with other asbestos fiber counting laboratories in the exchange of field samples to compare performance of counters.

Measurement

17. Place the slide on the mechanical stage of the calibrated microscope with the center of the filter under the objective lens. Focus the microscope on the plane of the filter.

18. Regularly check phase-ring alignment and Kohler illumination.

19. The following are the counting rules: a. Count only fibers longer than 5 um. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

b. Count only fibers with a length-to-width ratio equal to or greater than 3:1.

c. For fibers that cross the boundary of the graticule field, do the following:

1. Count any fiber longer than 5 um that lies entirely within the graticule area.

2. Count as 1/2 fiber any fiber with only one end lying within the graticule area.

3. Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once.

4. Reject and do not count all other fibers.

d. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of a fiber.

e. Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields. Stop at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.

20. Start counting from one end of the filter and progress along a radial line to the other end, shift either up or down on the filter, and continue in the reverse direction. Select fields randomly by looking away from the eyepiece briefly while advancing the mechanical stage. When an agglomerate covers ca. 1/6 or more of the field of view, reject the field and select another. Do not report rejected fields in the number of total fields counted.

Note: When counting a field, continuously scan a range of focal planes by moving the fine focus knob to detect very fine fibers which have become embedded in the filter. The small-diameter fibers will be very faint but are an important contribution to the total count.

Calculations

21. Calculate and report fiber density on the filter, E (fibers/mm(2)); by dividing the total fiber count, F; minus the mean field blank count, B, by the number of fields, n; and the field area, A(f)(0.00785 mm(2) for a properly calibrated Walton-Beckett graticule):

d(c) = L(a) X D
________________
l(o)
E = (F/n(f) - (B/n(b))
________________________
A(f)
fibers/mm(2)

where:

n(f)=number of fields in submission sample n(b)=number of fields in blank sample

22. Calculate the concentration, C (f/cc), of fibers in the air volume sampled, V (L), using the effective collection area of the filter, A(c) (385 mm(2) for a 25-mm filter):

C = (E)(Ac)
_________________
V(10(3))

Note: Periodically check and adjust the value of A(c), if necessary.

[58 FR 35532, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix C Qualitative and Quantitative Fit Testing Procedures - Mandatory

Qualitative Fit Test Protocols

I. "Isoamyl Acetate Protocol."

A. Odor Threshold Screening

1. Three 1-liter glass jars with metal lids (e.g. Mason or Bell jars) are required.

2. Odor-free water (e.g. distilled or spring water) at approximately 25 deg. C shall be used for the solutions.

3. The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known as isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1 cc of pure IAA to 800 cc of odor free water in a 1-liter jar and shaking for 30 seconds. This solution shall be prepared new at least weekly.

4. The screening test shall be conducted in a room separate from the room used for actual fit testing. The two rooms shall be well ventilated but shall not be connected to the same recirculating ventilation system.

5. The odor test solution is prepared in a second jar by placing 0.4 cc of the stock solution into 500 cc of odor free water using a clean dropper or pipette. Shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium. This solution may be used for only one day.

6. A test blank is prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor free water.

7. The odor test and test blank jars shall be labelled 1 and 2 for jar identification. If the labels are put on the lids they can be periodically peeled, dried off and switched to maintain the integrity of the test.

8. The following instructions shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e. 1 and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration. The two bottles in front of you contain water. One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil."

9. The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection test shall be prepared in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory fatigue in the subject.

10. If the test subject is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, the IAA qualitative fit test may not be used.

11. If the test subject correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the test subject may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing.

B. Respirator Selection

1. The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most comfortable respirator from a selection including respirators of various sizes from different manufacturers. The selection shall include at least five sizes of elastomeric half facepieces, from at least two manufacturers.

2. The selection process shall be conducted in a room separate from the fit-test chamber to prevent odor fatigue. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine a "comfortable" respirator. A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning of the respirator. This instruction may not constitute the subject's formal training on respirator use, as it is only a review.

3. The test subject should understand that the employee is being asked to select the respirator which provides the most comfortable fit. Each respirator represents a different size and shape and, if fit properly and used properly will provide adequate protection.

4. The test subject holds each facepiece up to the face and eliminates those which obviously do not give a comfortable fit. Normally, selection will begin with a half-mask and if a good fit cannot be found, the subject will be asked to test the full facepiece respirators. (A small percentage of users will not be able to wear any half-mask.) 5. The more comfortable facepieces are noted; the most comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five minutes to assess comfort. All donning and adjustments of the facepiece shall be performed by the test subject without assistance from the test conductor or other person. Assistance in assessing comfort can be given by discussing the points in number 6 below. If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject shall be directed to don the mask several times and to adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps.

6. Assessment of comfort shall include reviewing the following points with the test subject and allowing the test subject adequate time to determine the comfort of the respirator:

. Positioning of mask on nose.
. Room for eye protection.
. Room to talk.
. Positioning mask on face and cheeks.

7. The following criteria shall be used to help determine the adequacy of the respirator fit:

. Chin properly placed.
. Strap tension.
. Fit across nose bridge.
. Distance from nose to chin.
. Tendency to slip.
. Self-observation in mirror.

8. The test subject shall conduct the conventional negative and positive-pressure fit checks (e.g. see ANSI Z88.2-1980). Before conducting the negative- or positive-pressure test the subject shall be told to "seat" the mask by rapidly moving the head from side-to-side and up and down, while taking a few deep breaths.

9. The test subject is now ready for fit testing.

10. After passing the fit test, the test subject shall be questioned again regarding the comfort of the respirator. If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

11. The employee shall be given the opportunity to select a different facepiece and be retested if the chosen facepiece becomes increasingly uncomfortable at any time.

C. Fit Test

1. The fit test chamber shall be similar to a clear 55 gal drum liner suspended inverted over a 2 foot diameter frame, so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject's head. The inside top center of the chamber shall have a small hook attached.

2. Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors. The cartridges or masks shall be changed at least weekly.

3. After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room. This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection, and shall be well ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination.

4. A copy of the following test exercises and rainbow passage shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber:

"Test Exercises"

i. Breathe normally.

ii. Breathe deeply. Be certain breaths are "deep" and "regular."

iii. Turn head all the way from one side to the other. Inhale on each side. Be certain movement is complete. Do not bump the respirator against the shoulders.

iv. Nod head up-and-down. Inhale when head is in the full up position (looking toward ceiling). Be certain motions are complete and made about every second. Do not bump the respirator on the chest.

v. Talking. Talk aloud and slowly for several minutes. The following paragraph is called the Rainbow Passage. Reading it will result in a wide range of facial movements, and thus be useful to satisfy this requirement. Alternative passages which serve the same purpose may also be used.

vi. Jogging in place.

vii. Breathe normally.

"Rainbow Passage"

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

5. Each test subject shall wear the respirator for at least 10 minutes before starting the fit test.

6. Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given a 6 inch by 5 inch piece of paper towel or other porous absorbent single ply material, folded in half and wetted with three-quarters of one cc of pure IAA. The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber.

7. Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to be reached before starting the fit-test exercises. This would be an appropriate time to talk with the test subject, to explain the fit test, the importance of cooperation, the purpose for the head exercises, or to demonstrate some of the exercises.

8. Each exercise described in number 4 above shall be performed for at least one minute.

9. If at any time during the test, the subject detects the banana-like odor of IAA, the test has failed. The subject shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory fatigue.

10. If the test is failed, the subject shall return to the selection room and remove the respirator, repeat the odor sensitivity test, select and put on another respirator, return to the test chamber, and again begin the procedure described in the c(4) through c(8) above. The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found. Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the subject shall wait about 5 minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time.

11. If a person cannot pass the fit test described above wearing a half-mask respirator from the available selection, full facepiece models must be used.

12. When a respirator is found that passes the test, the subject breaks the faceseal and takes a breath before exiting the chamber. This is to assure that the reason the test subject is not smelling the IAA is the good fit of the respirator facepiece seal and not olfactory fatigue.

13. When the test subject leaves the chamber, the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test. To keep the area from becoming contaminated, the used towels shall be kept in a self-sealing bag so there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the test chamber during subsequent tests.

14. At least two facepieces shall be selected for the IAA test protocol. The test subject shall be given the opportunity to wear them for one week to choose the one which is more comfortable to wear.

15. Persons who have successfully passed this fit test with a half-mask respirator may be assigned the use of the test respirator in atmospheres with up to 10 times the PEL of airborne asbestos.

16. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin the facepiece sealing surface.

17. If hair growth or apparel interfere with a satisfactory fit, then they shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference and allow a satisfactory fit. If a satisfactory fit is still not attained, the test subject must use a positive-pressure respirator such as powered air-purifying respirators, supplied air respirator, or self-contained breathing apparatus.

18. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician trained in respirator diseases or pulmonary medicine to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

19. Qualitative fit testing shall be repeated at least every six months.

20. In addition, because the sealing of the respirator may be affected, qualitative fit testing shall be repeated immediately when the test subject has a:

(1) Weight change of 20 pounds or more, (2) Significant facial scarring in the area of the facepiece seal, (3) Significant dental changes; i.e., multiple extractions without prothesis, or acquiring dentures, (4) Reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or (5) Any other condition that may interfere with facepiece sealing.

D. Recordkeeping

A summary of all test results shall be maintained in each office for 3 years. The summary shall include:

(1) Name of test subject.

(2) Date of testing.

(3) Name of the test conductor.

(4) Respirators selected (indicate manufacturer, model, size and approval number).

(5) Testing agent.

II. "Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol"

A. Respirator Selection

Respirators shall be selected as described in section IB (respirator selection) above, except that each respirator shall be equipped with a particulate filter.

B. Taste Threshold Screening

1. An enclosure about head and shoulders shall be used for threshold screening (to determine if the individual can taste saccharin) and for fit testing. The enclosure shall be approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front clear to allow free movement of the head when a respirator is worn.

2. The test enclosure shall have a three-quarter inch hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

3. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to conducting the screening test.

4. During the threshold screening test, the test subject shall don the test enclosure and breathe with open mouth with tongue extended.

5. Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conductor shall spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

6. The threshold check solution consists of 0.83 grams of sodium saccharin, USP in water. It can be prepared by putting 1 cc of the test solution (see C 7 below) in 100 cc of water.

7. To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then is released and allowed to fully expand.

8. Ten squeezes of the nebulizer bulb are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted.

9. If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes of the nebulizer bulb are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin can be tasted.

10. If the second response is negative ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin can be tasted.

11. The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response.

12. If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (Step 10), the saccharin fit test cannot be performed on the test subject.

13. If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

14. Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 cc of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

15. The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least every four hours.

C. Fit Test

1. The test subject shall don and adjust the respirator without the assistance from any person.

2. The fit test uses the same enclosure described in IIB above.

3. Each test subject shall wear the respirator for at least 10 minutes before starting the fit test.

4. The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in section 1B above. This respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter.

5. The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

6. A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

7. The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 cc of warm water.

8. As before, the test subject shall breathe with mouth open and tongue extended.

9. The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and the fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same technique as for the taste threshold screening and the same number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response in the screening. (See B8 through B10 above).

10. After generation of the aerosol read the following instructions to the test subject. The test subject shall perform the exercises for one minute each.

i. Breathe normally.

ii. Breathe deeply. Be certain breaths are "deep" and "regular."

iii. Turn head all the way from "one side to the other." Be certain movement is complete. Inhale on each side. Do not bump the respirator against the shoulders.

iv. Nod head up-and-down. Be certain motions are complete. Inhale when head is in the full up position (when looking toward the ceiling). Do not bump the respirator on the chest.

v. Talking. Talk aloud and slowly for several minutes. The following paragraph is called the Rainbow Passage. Reading it will result in a wide range of facial movements, and thus be useful to satisfy this requirement. Alternative passages which serve the same purpose may also be used.

vi. Jogging in place.

vii. Breathe normally.

"Rainbow Passage"

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond his reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

11. At the beginning of each exercise, the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one-half the number of squeezes as initially described in C9.

12. The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected.

13. If the saccharin is detected the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and a different respirator shall be tried.

14. At least two facepieces shall be selected by the saccharin solution aerosol test protocol. The test subject shall be given the opportunity to wear them for one week to choose the one which is more comfortable to wear.

15. Successful completion of the test protocol shall allow the use of the half mask tested respirator in contaminated atmospheres up to 10 times the PEL of asbestos. In other words this protocol may be used to assign protection factors no higher than ten.

16. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface.

17. If hair growth or apparel interfere with a satisfactory fit, then they shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference and allow a satisfactory fit. If a satisfactory fit is still not attained, the test subject must use a positive-pressure respirator such as powered air-purifying respirators, supplied air respirator, or self-contained breathing apparatus.

18. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician trained in respirator diseases or pulmonary medicine to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

19. Qualitative fit testing shall be repeated at least every six months.

20. In addition, because the sealing of the respirator may be affected, qualitative fit testing shall be repeated immediately when the test subject has a:

(1) Weight change of 20 pounds or more, (2) Significant facial scarring in the area of the facepiece seal, (3) Significant dental changes; i.e.; multiple extractions without prothesis, or acquiring dentures, (4) Reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or (5) Any other condition that may interfere with facepiece sealing.

D. Recordkeeping

A summary of all test results shall be maintained in each office for 3 years. The summary shall include:

(1) Name of test subject.

(2) Date of testing.

(3) Name of test conductor.

(4) Respirators selected (indicate manufacturer, model, size and approval number).

(5) Testing agent.

III. "Irritant Fume Protocol"

A. Respirator selection

Respirators shall be selected as described in section IB above, except that each respirator shall be equipped with a high-efficiency cartridge.

B. Fit test

1. The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke to familiarize the subject with the characteristic odor.

2. The test subject shall properly don the respirator selected as above, and wear it for at least 10 minutes before starting the fit test.

3. The test conductor shall review this protocol with the test subject before testing.

4. The test subject shall perform the conventional positive pressure and negative pressure fit checks (see ANSI Z88.2 1980). Failure of either check shall be cause to select an alternate respirator.

5. Break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic oxychloride, such as the MSA part number 5645, or equivalent. Attach a short length of tubing to one end of the smoke tube. Attach the other end of the smoke tube to a low pressure air pump set to deliver 200 milliliters per minute.

6. Advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes and instruct the subject to keep the eyes closed while the test is performed.

7. The test conductor shall direct the stream of irritant smoke from the tube towards the faceseal area of the test subject. The person conducting the test shall begin with the tube at least 12 inches from the facepiece and gradually move to within one inch, moving around the whole perimeter of the mask.

8. The test subject shall be instructed to do the following exercises while the respirator is being challenged by the smoke. Each exercise shall be performed for one minute.

i. Breathe normally.

ii. Breathe deeply. Be certain breaths are "deep" and "regular."

iii. Turn head all the way from one side to the other. Be certain movement is complete. Inhale on each side. Do not bump the respirator against the shoulders.

iv. Nod head up-and-down. Be certain motions are complete and made every second. Inhale when head is in the full up position (looking toward ceiling). Do not bump the respirator against the chest.

v. Talking. Talk aloud and slowly for several minutes. The following paragraph is called the Rainbow Passage. Repeating it after the test conductor (keeping eyes closed) will result in a wide range of facial movements, and thus be useful to satisfy this requirement. Alternative passages which serve the same purpose may also be used.

"Rainbow Passage"

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond his reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

vi. Jogging in Place.

vii. Breathe normally.

9. The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if the irritant smoke is detected. If smoke is detected, the test conductor shall stop the test. In this case, the tested respirator is rejected and another respirator shall be selected.

10. Each test subject passing the smoke test (i.e. without detecting the smoke) shall be given a sensitivity check of smoke from the same tube to determine if the test subject reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test.

11. Steps B4, B9, B10 of this fit test protocol shall be performed in a location with exhaust ventilation sufficient to prevent general contamination of the testing area by the test agents.

12. At least two facepieces shall be selected by the irritant fume test protocol. The test subject shall be given the opportunity to wear them for one week to choose the one which is more comfortable to wear.

13. Respirators successfully tested by the protocol may be used in contaminated atmospheres up to ten times the PEL of asbestos.

14. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface.

15. If hair growth or apparel interfere with a satisfactory fit, then they shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference and allow a satisfactory fit. If a satisfactory fit is still not attained, the test subject must use a positive-pressure respirator such as powered air-purifying respirators, supplied air respirator, or self-contained breathing apparatus.

16. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician trained in respirator diseases or pulmonary medicine to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

17. Qualitative fit testing shall be repeated at least every six months.

18. In addition, because the sealing of the respirator may be affected, qualitative fit testing shall be repeated immediately when the test subject has a:

(1) Weight change of 20 pounds or more, (2) Significant facial scarring in the area of the facepiece seal, (3) Significant dental changes; i.e.; multiple extractions without prothesis, or acquiring dentures, (4) Reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or (5) Any other condition that may interfere with facepiece sealing.

C. Recordkeeping

A summary of all test results shall be maintained in each office for 3 years. The summary shall include:

(1) Name of test subject.

(2) Date of testing.

(3) Name of test conductor.

(4) Respirators selected (indicate manufacturer, model, size and approval number).

(5) Testing agent

"Quantitative Fit Test Procedures"

1. General.

a. The method applies to the negative-pressure nonpowered air-purifying respirators only.

b. The employer shall assign one individual who shall assume the full responsibility for implementing the respirator quantitative fit test program.

2. "Definition."

a. "Quantitative Fit Test" means the measurement of the effectiveness of a respirator seal in excluding the ambient atmosphere. The test is performed by dividing the measured concentration of challenge agent in a test chamber by the measured concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator facepiece when the normal air purifying element has been replaced by an essentially perfect purifying element.

b. "Challenge Agent" means the air contaminant introduced into a test chamber so that its concentration inside and outside the respirator may be compared.

c. "Test Subject" means the person wearing the respirator for quantitative fit testing.

d. "Normal Standing Position" means standing erect and straight with arms down along the sides and looking straight ahead.

e. "Fit Factor" means the ratio of challenge agent concentration outside with respect to the inside of a respirator inlet covering (facepiece or enclosure).

3. "Apparatus."

a. "Instrumentation." Corn oil, sodium chloride or other appropriate aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems shall be used for quantitative fit test.

b. "Test chamber." The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to freely perform all required exercises without distributing the challenge agent concentration or the measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the challenge agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber.

c. When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high-efficiency particulate filter supplied by the same manufacturer.

d. The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of challenge agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000.

e. The combination of substitute air-purifying elements (if any), challenge agent, and challenge agent concentration in the test chamber shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of PEL to the challenge agent at any time during the testing process.

f. The sampling port on the test specimen respirator shall be placed and constructed so that there is no detectable leak around the port, a free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times and so there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator.

g. The test chamber and test set-up shall permit the person administering the test to observe one test subject inside the chamber during the test.

h. The equipment generating the challenge atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of challenge agent constant within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.

i. The time lag (interval between an event and its being recorded on the strip chart) of the instrumentation may not exceed 2 seconds.

j. The tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be the same diameter, length and material. It shall be kept as short as possible. The smallest diameter tubing recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.

k. The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through a high-efficiency filter before release to the room.

l. When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent.

4. "Procedural Requirements."

a. The fitting of half-mask respirators should be started with those having multiple sizes and a variety of interchangeable cartridges and canisters such as the MSA Comfo II-M, North M. Survivair M, A-O M, or Scott-M. Use either of the tests outlined below to assure that the facepiece is properly adjusted.

(1) "Positive pressure test." With the exhaust port(s) blocked, the negative pressure of slight inhalation should remain constant for several seconds. (2) "Negative pressure test." With the intake port(s) blocked, the negative pressure slight inhalation should remain constant for several seconds.

b. After a facepiece is adjusted, the test subject shall wear the facepiece for at least 5 minutes before conducting a qualitive test by using either of the methods described below and using the exercise regime described in 5.a., b., c., d, and e.

(1) "Isoamyl acetate test." When using organic vapor cartridges, the test subject who can smell the odor should be unable to detect the odor of isoamyl acetate squirted into the air near the most vulnerable portions of the facepiece seal. In a location which is separated from the test area, the test subject shall be instructed to close her/his eyes during the test period. A combination cartridge or canister with organic vapor and high-efficiency filters shall be used when available for the particular mask being tested. The test subject shall be given an opportunity to smell the odor of isoamyl acetate before the test is conducted.

(2) "Irritant fume test." When using high-efficiency filters, the test subject should be unable to detect the odor of irritant fume (stannic chloride or titanium tetrachloride ventilation smoke tubes) squirted into the air near the most vulnerable portions of the facepiece seal. The test subject shall be instructed to close her/his eyes during the test period.

c. The test subject may enter the quantitative testing chamber only if she or he has obtained a satisfactory fit as stated in 4.b. of this Appendix.

d. Before the subject enters the test chamber, a reasonably stable challenge agent concentration shall be measured in the test chamber.

e. Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the challenge agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half-mask and 1 percent for a full facepiece.

f. A stable challenge agent concentration shall be obtained prior to the actual start of testing.

(1) Respirator restraining straps may not be overtightened for testing. The straps shall be adjusted by the wearer to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use.

5. "Exercise Regime." Prior to entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given complete instructions as to her/his part in the test procedures. The test subject shall perform the following exercises, in the order given, for each independent test.

a. "Normal Breathing (NB)." In the normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for at least one minute.

b. "Deep Breathing (DB)." In the normal standing position the subject shall do deep breathing for at least one minute pausing so as not to hyperventilate.

c. "Turning head side to side (SS)." Standing in place the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side between the extreme positions to each side. The head shall be held at each extreme position for at least 5 seconds. Perform for at least three complete cycles.

d. "Moving head up and down (UD)." Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down between the extreme position straight up and the extreme position straight down. The head shall be held at each extreme position for at least 5 seconds. Perform for at least three complete cycles.

e. "Reading (R)." The test subject (keeping eyes closed) shall repeat after the test conductor the `rainbow passage' at the end of this section. The subject shall talk slowly and aloud so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor or monitor.

f. "Grimace (G)." The test subject shall grimace, smile, frown, and generally contort the face using the facial muscles. Continue for at least 15 seconds.

g. "Bend over and touch toes (B)." The test subject shall bend at the waist and touch toes and return to upright position. Repeat for at least 30 seconds.

h. "Jogging in place (J)." The test subject shall perform jog in place for at least 30 seconds.

i. "Normal Breathing (NB)." Same as exercise a.

"Rainbow Passage"

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

6. The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half-masks and 1 percent for full facepieces. The test subject may be refitted and retested. If two of the three required tests are terminated, the fit shall be deemed inadequate.

7. "Calculation of Fit Factors."

a. The fit factor determined by the quantitative fit test equals the average concentration inside the respirator.

b. The average test chamber concentration is the arithmetic average of the test chamber concentration at the beginning and of the end of the test.

c. The average peak concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be the arithmetic average peak concentrations for each of the nine exercises of the test which are computed as the arithmetic average of the peak concentrations found for each breath during the exercise.

d. The average peak concentration for an exercise may be determined graphically if there is not a great variation in the peak concentrations during a single exercise.

8. "Interpretation of Test Results." The fit factor measured by the quantitative fit testing shall be the lowest of the three protection factors resulting from three independent tests.

9. "Other Requirements."

a. The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half-mask or full facepiece mask if the minimum fit factor of 100 or 1,000, respectively, cannot be obtained. If hair growth or apparel interfere with a satisfactory fit, then they shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference and allow a satisfactory fit. If a satisfactory fit is still not attained, the test subject must use a positive-pressure respirator such as powered air-purifying respirators, supplied air respirator, or self-contained breathing apparatus.

b. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface.

c. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician trained in respirator diseases or pulmonary medicine to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

d. The test subject shall be given the opportunity to wear the assigned respirator for one week. If the respirator does not provide a satisfactory fit during actual use, the test subject may request another QNFT which shall be performed immediately.

e. A respirator fit factor card shall be issued to the test subject with the following information:

(1) Name. (2) Date of fit test. (3) Protection factors obtained through each manufacturer, model and approval number of respirator tested.(4) Name and signature of the person that conducted the test. f. Filters used for qualitative or quantitative fit testing shall be replaced weekly, whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media. Organic vapor cartridges/canisters shall be replaced daily or sooner if there is any indication of breakthrough by the test agent.

10. In addition, because the sealing of the respirator may be affected, quantitative fit testing shall be repeated immediately when the test subject has a:

(1) Weight change of 20 pounds or more, (2) Significant facial scarring in the area of the facepiece seal, (3) Significant dental changes; i.e., multiple extractions without prothesis, or acquiring dentures.(4) Reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or (5) Any other condition that may interfere with facepiece sealing.

11. "Recordkeeping." A summary of all test results shall be maintained for 3 years. The summary shall include:

(1) Name of test subject. (2) Date of testing. (3) Name of the test conductor. (4) Fit factors obtained from every respirator tested (indicate manufacturer, model, size and approval number).

[58 FR 35534, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix D Medical Questionnaires; Mandatory

This mandatory appendix contains the medical questionnaires that must be administered to all employees who are exposed to asbestos above the action level, and who will therefore be included in their employer's medical surveillance program. Part 1 of the appendix contains the Initial Medical Questionnaire, which must be obtained for all new hires who will be covered by the medical surveillance requirements. Part 2 includes the abbreviated Periodical Medical Questionnaire, which must be administered to all employees who are provided periodic medical examinations under the medical surveillance provisions of the standard.

                             Part 1
               INITIAL MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRE

1.  NAME ________________________________________________________________

2.  SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
                            1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9

3.  CLOCK NUMBER                          ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
                                          10   11   12   13   14   15

4.  PRESENT OCCUPATION __________________________________________________

5.  PLANT _______________________________________________________________

6.  ADDRESS _____________________________________________________________

7.  _____________________________________________________________________
                                                          (Zip Code)

8.  TELEPHONE NUMBER ____________________________________________________

9.  INTERVIEWER _________________________________________________________

10. DATE _________________________________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
                                            16   17   18   19   20   21

11. Date of Birth ________________________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
                  Month      Day     Year   22   23   24   25   26   27

12. Place of Birth ______________________________________________________

13. Sex                                 1. Male    ___
                                        2. Female  ___

14. What is your marital status?        1. Single  ___  4. Separated/
                                        2. Married ___      Divorced ___
                                        3. Widowed ___

15. Race                                1. White ___   4. Hispanic ___
                                        2. Black ___   5. Indian   ___
                                        3. Asian ___   6. Other    ___


16.  What is the highest grade completed in school? _____________________
     (For example 12 years is completion of high school)

OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY

17A.  Have you ever worked full time (30 hours     1. Yes ___  2. No ___
      per week or more) for 6 months or more?

      IF YES TO 17A:

  B.  Have you ever worked for a year or more in   1. Yes ___  2. No ___
      any dusty job?                               3. Does Not Apply ___

      Specify job/industry _______________ Total Years Worked __________

      Was dust exposure: 1. Mild  ____  2. Moderate ____  3. Severe ____

  C.  Have you ever been exposed to gas or         1. Yes ___  2. No ___
      chemical fumes in your work?
      Specify job/industry ______________________ Total Years Worked ___

      Was exposure :     1. Mild  ____  2. Moderate ____  3. Severe ____

  D.  What has been your usual occupation or job -- the one you have
      worked at the longest?

      1. Job occupation ________________________________________________

      2. Number of years employed in this occupation ___________________

      3. Position/job title ____________________________________________

      4. Business, field or
industry _______________________________________________________________

(Record on lines the years in which you have worked in any of these
industries, e.g. 1960-1969)

Have you ever worked:                                 YES        NO

  E.   In a mine? .........................          _____      _____

  F.   In a quarry? .......................          _____      _____

  G.   In a foundry? ......................          _____      _____

  H.   In a pottery? ......................          _____      _____

  I.   In a cotton, flax or hemp mill? ....          _____      _____

  J.   With asbestos? .....................          _____      _____

18.  PAST MEDICAL HISTORY
                                                      YES        NO

  A. Do you consider yourself to be in good health?  _____      _____

         If "NO" state reason __________________________________________

  B. Have you any defect of vision? ...............  _____      _____

         If "YES" state nature of defect _______________________________

  C. Have you any hearing defect? .................  _____      _____

         If "YES" state nature of defect ______________________________

  D. Are you suffering from or have you ever suffered from:

     a.  Epilepsy (or fits, seizures, convulsions)?  _____      _____

     b.  Rheumatic fever?                            _____      _____

     c.  Kidney disease?                             _____      _____

     d.  Bladder disease?                            _____      _____

     e.  Diabetes?                                   _____      _____

     f.  Jaundice?                                   _____      _____

19.  CHEST COLDS AND CHEST ILLNESSES

19A. If you get a cold, does it "usually" go to your 1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     chest?  (Usually means more than 1/2 the time)  3. Don't get colds __

20A. During the past 3 years, have you had any chest 1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     illnesses that have kept you off work, indoors at
     home, or in bed?

        IF YES TO 20A:
  B. Did you produce phlegm with any of these chest  1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     illnesses?                                      3. Does Not Apply ___

  C. In the last 3 years, how many such illnesses  Number of illnesses ___
     with (increased) phlegm did you have which    No such illnesses   ___
     lasted a week or more?

21.  Did you have any lung trouble before the age of 1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     16?

22.  Have you ever had any of the following?

     1A.  Attacks of bronchitis?                     1. Yes ___  2. No ___

          IF YES TO 1A:
      B. Was it confirmed by a doctor?               1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

      C. At what age was your first attack?             Age in Years   ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___

     2A. Pneumonia (include bronchopneumonia)?       1. Yes ___  2. No ___

         IF YES TO 2A:
      B. Was it confirmed by a doctor?               1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

      C. At what age did you first have it?             Age in Years   ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___

     3A. Hay Fever?                                  1. Yes ___  2. No ___

         IF YES TO 3A:
      B. Was it confirmed by a doctor?               1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

      C. At what age did it start?                      Age in Years   ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___


23A. Have you ever had chronic bronchitis?           1. Yes ___  2. No ___

         IF YES TO 23A:
  B. Do you still have it?                           1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

  C.  Was it confirmed by a doctor?                  1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

  D. At what age did it start?                          Age in Years   ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___

24A. Have you ever had emphysema?                    1. Yes ___  2. No ___

          IF YES TO 24A:
  B. Do you still have it?                           1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

  C.  Was it confirmed by a doctor?                  1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does Not Apply ___

  D. At what age did it start?                          Age in Years   ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___

  E. If you no longer have it, at what age did it       Age stopped    ___
                                                        Does Not Apply ___

26.  Have you ever had:

  A. Any other chest illness?                        1. Yes ___  2. No ___

        If yes, please specify ___________________________________________

  B. Any chest operations?                           1. Yes ___  2. No ___

        If yes, please specify ___________________________________________

  C. Any chest injuries?                             1. Yes ___  2. No ___

        If yes, please specify ___________________________________________

27A. Has a doctor ever told you that you had heart   1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     trouble?

         IF YES TO 27A:
  B. Have you ever had treatment for heart trouble   1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     in the past 10 years?                           3. Does Not Apply ___

28A. Has a doctor told you that you had high         1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     blood pressure?

         IF YES TO 28A:
  B. Have you had any treatment for high blood       1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     pressure (hypertension) in the past 10 years?   3. Does Not Apply ___

29.  When did you last have your chest X-rayed?  (Year) ___  ___  ___  ___
                                                        25   26   27   28

30.  Where did you last have your chest X-rayed (if known)? ______________

     What was the outcome? _______________________________________________

FAMILY HISTORY

31.  Were either of your natural parents ever told by a doctor that they
     had a chronic lung condition such as:

                             FATHER                     MOTHER
                    1. Yes  2. No  3. Don't    1. Yes  2. No  3. Don't
                                      know                       know

  A. Chronic
     Bronchitis?       ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  B. Emphysema?        ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  C. Asthma?           ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  D. Lung cancer?      ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  E. Other chest
     conditions        ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  F. Is parent currently alive?
                       ___    ___     ___         ___     ___    ___

  G. Please Specify    ___ Age if Living          ___ Age if Living
                       ___ Age at Death           ___ Age at Death
                       ___ Don't Know             ___ Don't Know

  H. Please specify cause of death
     ____________________________________     __________________________

COUGH

32A. Do you usually have a cough? (Count             1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     a cough with first smoke or on first
     going out of doors.  Exclude clearing
     of throat.) (If no, skip to question
     32C.)

  B. Do you usually cough as much as 4 to            1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     6 times a day 4 or more days out of
     the week?

  C. Do you usually cough at all on getting          1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     up or first thing in the morning?

  D. Do you usually cough at all during the          1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     rest of the day or at night?

IF YES TO ANY OF ABOVE (32A, B, C, OR D,), ANSWER THE FOLLOWING.  IF NO
TO ALL, CHECK "DOES NOT APPLY" AND SKIP TO NEXT PAGE

  E. Do you usually cough like this on most          1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     days for 3 consecutive months or more           3. Does not apply ___
     during the year?

  F. For how many years have you had the cough?        Number of years ___
                                                       Does not apply  ___

33A. Do you usually bring up phlegm from your        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     chest?
     (Count phlegm with the first smoke or
     on first going out of doors.  Exclude
     phlegm from the nose.  Count swallowed
     phlegm.)  (If no, skip to 33C)

  B. Do you usually bring up phlegm like this        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     as much as twice a day 4 or more days
     out of the week?

  C. Do you usually bring up phlegm at all on        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     getting up or first thing in the morning?


  D. Do you usually bring up phlegm at all on        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     during the rest of the day or at night?

IF YES TO ANY OF THE ABOVE (33A, B, C, OR D), ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:
IF NO TO ALL, CHECK "DOES NOT APPLY" AND SKIP TO 34A

  E. Do you bring up phlegm like this on most        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     days for 3 consecutive months or more           3. Does not apply ___
     during the year?

  F. For how many years have you had trouble           Number of years ___
     with phlegm?                                      Does not apply  ___

EPISODES OF COUGH AND PHLEGM

34A. Have you had periods or episodes of             1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     (increased*) cough and phlegm lasting
     for 3 weeks or more each year?
     *(For persons who usually have cough and/or
       phlegm)

     IF YES TO 34A
  B. For how long have you had at least 1 such         Number of years ___
     episode per year?                                 Does not apply  ___

WHEEZING

35A. Does your chest ever sound wheezy or
     whistling
              1. When you have a cold?               1. Yes ___  2. No ___
              2. Occasionally apart from colds?      1. Yes ___  2. No ___
              3. Most days or nights?                1. Yes ___  2. No ___

         IF YES TO 1, 2, or 3 in 35A
  B. For how many years has this been present?         Number of years ___
                                                       Does not apply  ___

36A. Have you ever had an attack of wheezing         1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     that has made you feel short of breath?

         IF YES TO 36A
  B. How old were you when you had your first          Age in years   ___
     such attack?                                      Does not apply ___

  C. Have you had 2 or more such episodes?           1. Yes ___  2. No ___
                                                     3. Does not apply ___

  D. Have you ever required medicine or              1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     treatment for the(se) attack(s)?                3. Does not apply ___

BREATHLESSNESS

37.  If disabled from walking by any condition
     other than heart or lung disease, pleas
     describe and proceed to question 39A.
     Nature of condition(s) ______________________________________________

38A. Are you troubled by shortness of breath when    1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     hurrying on the level or walking up a
     slight hill?

     IF YES TO 38A
  B. Do you have to walk slower than people of       1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     your age on the level because of breath         3. Does not apply ___
     lessness?

  C. Do you ever have to stop for breath when        1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     walking at your own pace on the level?          3. Does not apply ___

  D. Do you ever have to stop for breath             1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     after walking about 100 yards (or               3. Does not apply ___
     after a few minutes) on the level?

  E. Are you too breathless to leave the             1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     house or breathless on dressing or              3. Does not apply ___
     climbing one flight of stairs?

TOBACCO SMOKING

39A. Have you ever smoked cigarettes?  (No           1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     means less than 20 packs of cigarettes
     or 12 oz. of tobacco in a lifetime or less
     than 1 cigarette a day for 1 year.)

     IF YES TO 39A

  B. Do you now smoke cigarettes (as of              1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     one month ago)                                  3. Does not apply ___

  C. How old were you when you first started            Age in years   ___
     regular cigarette smoking?                         Does not apply ___

  D. If you have stopped smoking cigarettes     Age stopped            ___
     completely, how old were you when you      Check if still smoking ___
     stopped?                                   Does not apply         ___

  E. How many cigarettes do you smoke per       Cigarettes per day     ___
     day now?                                   Does not apply         ___

  F. On the average of the entire time you      Cigarettes per day     ___
     smoked, how many cigarettes did you        Does not apply         ___
     smoke per day?

  G. Do or did you inhale the cigarette smoke?  1. Does not apply      ___
                                                2. Not at all          ___
                                                3. Slightly            ___
                                                4. Moderately          ___
                                                5. Deeply              ___

40A. Have you ever smoked a pipe regularly?          1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     (Yes means more than 12 oz. of tobacco
     In a lifetime.)

     IF YES TO 40A:
FOR PERSONS WHO HAVE EVER SMOKED A PIPE

  B. 1. How old were you when you started to
        smoke a pipe regularly?                   Age ___

     2. If you have stopped smoking a pipe        Age stopped         ___
        completely, how old were you when you     Check if still
        stopped?                                  smoking pipe        ___
                                                  Does not apply      ___

   C. On the average over the entire time you  ___ oz. per week (a standard
      smoked a pipe, how much pipe tobacco did     pouch of tobacco
      you smoke per week?                          contains 1 1/2 oz.)
                                               ___ Does not apply

   D. How much pipe tobacco are you smoking now?   oz. per week       ___
                                                   Not currently
                                                   smoking a pipe     ___

   E. Do you or did you inhale the pipe smoke?      1. Never smoked   ___
                                                    2. Not at all     ___
                                                    3. Slightly       ___
                                                    4. Moderately     ___
                                                    5. Deeply         ___

41A. Have you ever smoked cigars regularly?         1. Yes ___  2. No ___
     (Yes means more than 1 cigar a week for a
      year)

     IF YES TO 41A
FOR PERSONS WHO HAVE EVER SMOKED A PIPE

  B. 1. How old were you when you started           Age ___
        smoking cigars regularly?

     2. If you have stopped smoking cigars          Age stopped       ___
        completely, how old were you when           Check if still
        you stopped.                                smoking cigars    ___
                                                    Does not apply    ___

  C. On the average over the entire time you        Cigars per week   ___
     smoked cigars, how many cigars did you         Does not apply    ___
     smoke per week?

  D. How many cigars are you smoking per week       Cigars per week   ___
     now?                                           Check if not
                                                    smoking cigars
                                                    currently         ___

  E. Do or did you inhale the cigar smoke?       1. Never smoked      ___
                                                 2. Not at all        ___
                                                 3. Slightly          ___
                                                 4. Moderately        ___
                                                 5. Deeply            ___

Signature ____________________________   Date _____________________
                          Part 2
                  PERIODIC MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRE

1.   NAME _______________________________________________________________

2.   SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___    ___  ___
                             1    2    3    4    5    6    7  8  9

3.   CLOCK NUMBER                          ---  ---  ---  ---    ---  ---
                                           10   11   12   13  14 15

4.   PRESENT OCCUPATION __________________________________________________

5.   PLANT ______________________________________________________________

6.   ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

7.   ____________________________________________________________________
                                                         (Zip Code)

8.   TELEPHONE NUMBER ___________________________________________________

9.   INTERVIEWER  _______________________________________________________

10.  DATE ___________________________  ___   ___   ___   ___     ___  ___
                                       16    17    18    19  20  21

11.  What is your marital status?      1. Single  ___   4. Separated/.
                                       2. Married ___      Divorced ___
                                       3. Widowed ___

12.  OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY

12A. In the past year, did you work    1. Yes ___       2. No ___
     full time (30 hours per week
     or more) for 6 months or more?

     IF YES TO 12A:

12B. In the past year, did you work    1. Yes ___       2. No ___
     in a dusty job?                   3. Does not Apply ___

12C. Was dust exposure:     1. Mild ___   2. Moderate ___  3. Severe ___

12D. In the past year, were you        1. Yes ___       2. No ___
     exposed to gas or chemical
     fumes in your work?

12E. Was exposure:          1. Mild ___   2. Moderate ___  3. Severe ___

12F. In the past year,
     what was your:         1. Job/occupation? _________________________
                            2. Position/job title? _____________________

13.  RECENT MEDICAL HISTORY

13A. Do you consider yourself to
     be in good health?                Yes  ___        No ___

     If NO, state reason ______________________________________________

13B. In the past year, have you
     developed:                                        Yes     No
                                    Epilepsy?          ___    ___
                                    Rheumatic fever?   ___    ___
                                    Kidney disease?    ___    ___
                                    Bladder disease?   ___    ___
                                    Diabetes?          ___    ___
                                    Jaundice?          ___    ___
                                    Cancer?            ___    ___

14.  CHEST COLDS AND CHEST ILLNESSES

14A. If you get a cold, does it "usually" go to your chest?
     (usually means more than 1/2 the time)
                                                  1. Yes ___   2. No ___
                                                  3. Don't get colds ___

15A. During the past year, have you had
     any chest illnesses that have kept you       1. Yes ___   2. No ___
     off work, indoors at home, or in bed?        3. Does Not Apply  ___

     IF YES TO 15A:

15B. Did you produce phlegm with any              1. Yes ___   2. No ___
     of these chest illnesses?                    3. Does Not Apply  ___

15C. In the past year, how many such              Number of illnesses ___
     illnesses with (increased) phlegm            No such illnesses   ___
     did you have which lasted a week
     or more?

16.  RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

     In the past year have you had:

                         Yes or No       Further Comment on Positive
                                                  Answers
     Asthma                _____

     Bronchitis            _____

     Hay Fever             _____

     Other Allergies       _____


                         Yes or No       Further Comment on Positive
                                                  Answers
     Pneumonia             _____

     Tuberculosis          _____

     Chest Surgery         _____

     Other Lung Problems   _____

     Heart Disease         _____

     Do you have:

                         Yes or No       Further Comment on Positive
                                                  Answers

     Frequent colds        _____

     Chronic cough         _____

     Shortness of breath
     when walking or
     climbing one flight
     or stairs             _____

     Do you:

     Wheeze                _____

     Cough up phlegm       _____

     Smoke cigarettes      _____   Packs per day ____  How many years ___


Date __________________    Signature ____________________________________

[58 FR 35538, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix E Interpretation and Classification of Chest

Roentgenograms - Mandatory

(a) Chest roentgenograms shall be interpreted and classified in accordance with a professionally accepted Classification system and recorded on an interpretation form following the format of the CDC/NIOSH (M) 2.8 form. As a minimum, the content within the bold lines of this form (items 1 though 4) shall be included. This form is not to be submitted to NIOSH.

(b) Roentgenograms shall be interpreted and classified only by a B-reader, a board eligible/certified radiologist, or an experienced physician with known expertise in pneumoconioses.

(c) All interpreters, whenever interpreting chest roentgenograms made under this section, shall have immediately available for reference a complete set of the ILO-U/C International Classification of Radiographs for Pneumoconioses, 1980.

[58 FR 35551, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix F Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Automotive Brake Repair Operations - Non-Mandatory

This appendix is intended as guidance for employers in the automotive brake and clutch repair industry who wish to reduce their employees' asbestos exposures during repair operations to levels below the new standard's action level (0.1 f/cc). OSHA believes that employers in this industry sector are likely to be able to reduce their employees' exposures to asbestos by employing the engineering and work practice controls described in Sections A and B of this appendix. Those employers who choose to use these controls and who achieve exposures below the action level will thus be able to avoid any burden that might be imposed by complying with such requirements as medical surveillance, Recordkeeping, training, respiratory protection, and regulated areas, which are triggered when employee exposures exceed the action level or PEL.

Asbestos exposure in the automotive brake and clutch repair industry occurs primarily during the replacement of clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings. Asbestos fibers may become airborne when an automotive mechanic removes the asbestos-containing residue that has been deposited as brakes and clutches wear. Employee exposures to asbestos occur during the cleaning of the brake drum or clutch housing.

Based on evidence in the rulemaking record (Exs. 84-74, 84-263, 90-148), OSHA believes that employers engaged in brake repair operations who implement any of the work practices and engineering controls described in Sections A and B of this appendix may be able to reduce their employees' exposures to levels below the action level (0.1 fiber/cc). These control methods and the relevant record evidence on these and other methods are described in the following sections.

A. "Enclosed Cylinder/HEPA Vacuum System Method"

The enclosed cylinder-vacuum system used in one of the facilities visited by representatives of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) during a health hazard evaluation of brake repair facilities (Ex. 84-263) consists of three components:

(1) A wheel-shaped cylinder designed to cover and enclose the wheel assembly;

(2) A compressed-air hose and nozzle that fits into a port in the cylinder; and

(3) A HEPA-filtered vacuum used to evacuate airborne dust generated within the cylinder by the compressed air.

To operate the system, the brake assembly is enclosed in a cylinder that has viewing ports to provide visibility and cotton sleeves through which the mechanic can handle the brake assembly parts. The cylinder effectively isolates asbestos dust in the drum from the mechanic's breathing zone. One company manufactures the brake assembly isolation cylinder in two sizes to fit brake drums in the 7-to-12-inch size range common to automobiles and light trucks and the 12-to-19-inch size range common to large commercial vehicles. The cylinder is equipped with built-in compressed-air guns and a connection for a vacuum cleaner equipped with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. This type of filter is capable of removing all particles greater than 0.3 microns from the air. When the vacuum cleaner's filter is full, it must be replaced according to the manufacturer's instruction, and appropriate HEPA-filtered dual cartridge respirators should be worn during the process. The filter of the vacuum cleaner is assumed to be contaminated with asbestos fibers and should be handled carefully, wetted with a fine mist of water, placed immediately in a labelled plastic bag, and disposed of properly. When the cylinder is in place around the brake assembly and the HEPA vacuum is connected, compressed air is blown into the cylinder to loosen the residue from the brake assembly parts. The vacuum then evacuates the loosened material from within the cylinder, capturing the airborne material on the HEPA filter.

The HEPA vacuum system can be disconnected from the brake assembly isolation cylinder when the cylinder is not being used. The HEPA vacuum can then be used for clutch facing work, grinding, or other routine cleaning.

B. "Compressed Air/Solvent System Method"

A compressed-air hose fitted at the end with a bottle of solvent can be used to loosen the asbestos-containing residue and to capture the resulting airborne particles in the solvent mist. The mechanic should begin spraying the asbestos-contaminated parts with the solvent at a sufficient distance to ensure that the asbestos particles are not dislodged by the velocity of the solvent spray. After the asbestos particles are thoroughly wetted, the spray may be brought closer to the parts and the parts may be sprayed as necessary to remove grease and other material. The automotive parts sprayed with the mist are then wiped with a rag, which must then be disposed of appropriately. Rags should be placed in a labelled plastic bag or other container while they are still wet. This ensures that the asbestos fibers will not become airborne after the brake and clutch parts have been cleaned. (If cleanup rags are laundered rather than disposed of, they must be washed using methods appropriate for the laundering of asbestos-contaminated materials.) OSHA believes that a variant of this compressed-air/solvent mist process offers advantages over the compressed-air/solvent mist technique discussed above, both in terms of costs and employee protection. The variant involves the use of spray cans filled with any of several solvent cleaners commercially available from auto supply stores. Spray cans of solvent are inexpensive, readily available, and easy to use. These cans will also save time, because no solvent delivery system has to be assembled, i.e., no compressed-air hose/mister ensemble. OSHA believes that a spray can will deliver solvent to the parts to be cleaned with considerably less force than the alternative compressed-air delivery system described above, and will thus generate fewer airborne asbestos fibers than the compressed-air method. The Agency therefore believes that the exposure levels of automotive repair mechanics using the spray can/solvent mist process will be even lower than the exposures reported by NIOSH (Ex. 84-263) for the compressed-air/solvent mist system (0.08 f/cc).

C. "Information on the Effectiveness of Various Control Measures"

The amount of airborne asbestos generated during brake and clutch repair operations depends on the work practices and engineering controls used during the repair or removal activity. Data in the rulemaking record document the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA(8)) asbestos exposure levels associated with various methods of brake and clutch repair and removal.

NIOSH submitted a report to the record entitled "Health Hazard Evaluation for Automotive Brake Repair" (Ex. 84-263). In addition, Exhibits 84-74 and 90-148 provided exposure data for comparing the airborne concentrations of asbestos generated by the use of various work practices during brake repair operations. These reports present exposure data for brake repair operations involving a variety of controls and work practices, including:

. Use of compressed air to blow out the brake drums;

. Use of a brush, without a wetting agent, to remove the asbestos-containing residue;

. Use of a brush dipped in water or a solvent to remove the asbestos-containing residue;

. Use of an enclosed vacuum cleaning system to capture the asbestos-containing residue; and

. Use of a solvent mixture applied with compressed air to remove the residue.

"Prohibited Methods"

The use of compressed air to blow the asbestos-containing residue off the surface of the brake drum removes the residue effectively but simultaneously produces an airborne cloud of asbestos fibers. According to NIOSH (Ex. 84-263), the peak exposures of mechanics using this technique were as high as 15 fibers/cc, and 8-hour TWA exposures ranged from 0.03 to 0.19 f/cc.

Dr. William J. Nicholson of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (Ex. 84-74) cited data from Knight and Hickish (1970) that indicated that the concentration of asbestos ranged from 0.84 to 5.35 f/cc over a 60-minute sampling period when compressed air was being used to blow out the asbestos-containing residue from the brake drum. In the same study, a peak concentration of 87 f/cc was measured for a few seconds during brake cleaning performed with compressed air. Rohl et al. (1976) (Ex. 90-148) measured area concentrations (of unspecified duration) within 3-5 feet of operations involving the cleaning of brakes with compressed air and obtained readings ranging from 6.6 to 29.8 f/cc. Because of the high exposure levels that result from cleaning brake and clutch parts using compressed air, OSHA has prohibited this practice in the revised standard.

"Ineffective Methods"

When dry brushing was used to remove the asbestos-containing residue from the brake drums and wheel assemblies, peak exposures measured by NIOSH ranged from 0.61 to 0.81 f/cc, while 8-hour TWA levels were at the new standard's permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 f/cc (Ex. 84-263). Rohl and his colleagues (Ex. 90-148) collected area samples 1-3 feet from a brake cleaning operation being performed with a dry brush, and measured concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 3.6 f/cc; however, sampling times and TWA concentrations were not presented in the Rohl et al. study.

When a brush wetted with water, gasoline, or Stoddart solvent was used to clean the asbestos-containing residue from the affected parts, exposure levels (8-hour TWAs) measured by NIOSH also exceeded the new 0.2 f/cc PEL, and peak exposures ranged as high as 2.62 f/cc (Ex. 84-263).

"Preferred Methods"

Use of an engineering control system involving a cylinder that completely encloses the brake shoe assembly and a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter-equipped vacuum produced 8-hour TWA employee exposures of 0.01 f/cc and peak exposures ranging from nondetectable to 0.07 f/cc (Ex. 84-263). (Because this system achieved exposure levels below the standard's action level, it is described in detail above.) Data collected by the Mount Sinai Medical Center (Ex. 90-148) for Nilfisk of America, Inc., the manufacturer of the brake assembly enclosure system, showed that for two of three operations sampled, the exposure of mechanics to airborne asbestos fibers was nondetectable. For the third operator sampled by Mt. Sinai researchers, the exposure was 0.5 f/cc, which the authors attributed to asbestos that had contaminated the operator's clothing in the course of previous brake repair operations performed without the enclosed cylinder/vacuum system.

Some automotive repair facilities use a compressed-air hose to apply a solvent mist to remove the asbestos-containing residue from the brake drums before repair. The NIOSH data (Ex. 84-263) indicated that mechanics employing this method experienced exposures (8-hour TWAs) of 0.8 f/cc, with peaks of 0.25 to 0.68 f/cc. This technique, and a variant of it that OSHA believes is both less costly and more effective in reducing employee exposures, is described in greater detail above in Sections A and B.

D. "Summary"

In conclusion, OSHA believes that it is likely that employers in the brake and clutch repair industry will be able to avail themselves of the action level trigger built into the revised standard if they conscientiously employ one of the three control methods described above: the enclosed cylinder/HEPA vacuum system, the compressed air/solvent method, or the spray can/solvent mist system.

[58 FR 35551, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 App G Substance Technical Information for Asbestos - Non-Mandatory

I. "Substance Identification"

A. Substance: "Asbestos" is the name of a class of magnesium-silicate minerals that occur in fibrous form. Minerals that are included in this group are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos.

B. Asbestos is used in the manufacture of heat-resistant clothing, automative brake and clutch linings, and a variety of building materials including floor tiles, roofing felts, ceiling tiles, asbestos-cement pipe and sheet, and fire-resistant drywall. Asbestos is also present in pipe and boiler insulation materials, and in sprayed-on materials located on beams, in crawlspaces, and between walls.

C. The potential for a product containing asbestos to release breathable fibers depends on its degree of friability. Friable means that the material can be crumbled with hand pressure and is therefore likely to emit fibers. The fibrous or fluffy sprayed-on materials used for fireproofing, insulation, or sound proofing are considered to be friable, and they readily release airborne fibers if disturbed. Materials such as vinyl-asbestos floor tile or roofing felts are considered nonfriable and generally do not emit airborne fibers unless subjected to sanding or sawing operations. Asbestos-cement pipe or sheet can emit airborne fibers if the materials are cut or sawed, or if they are broken during demolition operations.

D. Permissible exposure: Exposure to airborne asbestos fibers may not exceed 0.2 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.2 f/cc) averaged over the 8-hour workday.

II. "Health Hazard Data"

A. Asbestos can cause disabling respiratory disease and various types of cancers if the fibers are inhaled. Inhaling or ingesting fibers from contaminated clothing or skin can also result in these diseases. The symptoms of these diseases generally do not appear for 20 or more years after initial exposure.

B. Exposure to asbestos has been shown to cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, and cancer of the stomach and colon. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the thin membrane lining of the chest and abdomen. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the walls of the chest, and/or abdominal pain.

III. "Respirators and Protective Clothing"

A. Respirators: You are required to wear a respirator when performing tasks that result in asbestos exposure that exceeds the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 f/cc. These conditions can occur while your employer is in the process of installing engineering controls to reduce asbestos exposure, or where engineering controls are not feasible to reduce asbestos exposure. Air-purifying respirators equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter can be used where airborne asbestos fiber concentrations do not exceed 2 f/cc; otherwise, air-supplied, positive-pressure, full facepiece respirators must be used. Disposable respirators or dust masks are not permitted to be used for asbestos work. For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly. Your employer is required to conduct fit tests when you are first assigned a respirator and every 6 months thereafter. Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

B. Protective Clothing: You are required to wear protective clothing in work areas where asbestos fiber concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 f/cc to prevent contamination of the skin. Where protective clothing is required, your employer must provide you with clean garments. Unless you are working on a large asbestos removal or demolition project, your employer must also provide a change room and separate lockers for your street clothes and contaminated work clothes. If you are working on a large asbestos removal or demolition project, and where it is feasible to do so, your employer must provide a clean room, shower, and decontamination room contiguous to the work area. When leaving the work area, you must remove contaminated clothing before proceeding to the shower. If the shower is not adjacent to the work area, you must vacuum your clothing before proceeding to the change room and shower. To prevent inhaling fibers in contaminated change rooms and showers, leave your respirator on until you leave the shower and enter the clean change room.

IV. "Disposal Procedures and Cleanup"

A. Wastes that are generated by processes where asbestos is present include:

1. Empty asbestos shipping containers.

2. Process wastes such as cuttings, trimmings, or reject material.

3. Housekeeping waste from sweeping or vacuuming.

4. Asbestos fireproofing or insulating material that is removed from buildings.

5. Building products that contain asbestos removed during building renovation or demolition.

6. Contaminated disposable protective clothing.

B. Empty shipping bags can be flattened under exhaust hoods and packed into airtight containers for disposal. Empty shipping drums are difficult to clean and should be sealed.

C. Vacuum bags or disposable paper filters should not be cleaned, but should be sprayed with a fine water mist and placed into a labeled waste container.

D. Process waste and housekeeping waste should be wetted with water or a mixture of water and surfactant prior to packaging in disposable containers.

E. Material containing asbestos that is removed from buildings must be disposed of in leak-tight 6-mil thick plastic bags, plastic-lined cardboard containers, or plastic-lined metal containers. These wastes, which are removed while wet, should be sealed in containers before they dry out to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during handling.

V. "Access to Information"

A. Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this standard and appendices for asbestos. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for handling materials containing asbestos, and the correct use of protective equipment.

B. Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to asbestos. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure, and, if you are exposed above the permissible limit, he or she is required to inform you of the actions that are being taken to reduce your exposure to within the permissible limit.

C. Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These exposure records must be kept for at least thirty (30) years. Medical records must be kept for the period of your employment plus thirty (30) years.

D. Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to your physician or designated representative upon your written request.

[58 FR 35552, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix H Medical Surveillance Guidelines for Asbestos Non-Mandatory

I. "Route of Entry Inhalation, Ingestion"

II. "Toxicology"

Clinical evidence of the adverse effects associated with exposure to asbestos is present in the form of several well-conducted epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed workers, family contacts of workers, and persons living near asbestos mines. These studies have shown a definite association between exposure to asbestos and an increased incidence of lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestoses. The latter is a disabling fibrotic lung disease that is caused only by exposure to asbestos. Exposure to asbestos has also been associated with an increased incidence of esophageal, kidney, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and buccal cavity cancers. As with other known chronic occupational diseases, disease associated with asbestos generally appears about 20 years following the first occurrence of exposure: There are no known acute effects associated with exposure to asbestos.

Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer among exposed workers who smoke cigarettes is greatly increased over the risk of lung cancer among non-exposed smokers or exposed nonsmokers. These studies suggest that cessation of smoking will reduce the risk of lung cancer for a person exposed to asbestos but will not reduce it to the same level of risk as that existing for an exposed worker who has never smoked.

III. "Signs and Symptoms of Exposure-Related Disease"

The signs and symptoms of lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer induced by exposure to asbestos are not unique, except that a chest X-ray of an exposed patient with lung cancer may show pleural plaques, pleural calcification, or pleural fibrosis. Symptoms characteristic of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, pain in the walls of the chest, or abdominal pain. Mesothelioma has a much longer latency period compared with lung cancer (40 years versus 15-20 years), and mesothelioma is therefore more likely to be found among workers who were first exposed to asbestos at an early age. Mesothelioma is always fatal.

Asbestoses is pulmonary fibrosis caused by the accumulation of asbestos fibers in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and vague feelings of sickness. When the fibrosis worsens, shortness of breath occurs even at rest. The diagnosis of asbestoses is based on a history of exposure to asbestos, the presence of characteristic radiologic changes, end-inspiratory crackles (rales), and other clinical features of fibrosing lung disease. Pleural plaques and thickening are observed on X-rays taken during the early stages of the disease. Asbestoses is often a progressive disease even in the absence of continued exposure, although this appears to be a highly individualized characteristic. In severe cases, death may be caused by respiratory or cardiac failure.

IV. "Surveillance and Preventive Considerations"

As noted above, exposure to asbestos has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestoses among occupationally exposed workers. Adequate screening tests to determine an employee's potential for developing serious chronic diseases, such as cancer, from exposure to asbestos do not presently exist. However, some tests, particularly chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests, may indicate that an employee has been overexposed to asbestos increasing his or her risk of developing exposure-related chronic diseases. It is important for the physician to become familiar with the operating conditions in which occupational exposure to asbestos is likely to occur. This is particularly important in evaluating medical and work histories and in conducting physical examinations. When an active employee has been identified as having been overexposed to asbestos, measures taken by the employer to eliminate or mitigate further exposure should also lower the risk of serious long-term consequences.

The employer is required to institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to asbestos at or above the action level (0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air). All examinations and procedures must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, at a reasonable time and place, and at no cost to the employee.

Although broad latitude is given to the physician in prescribing specific tests to be included in the medical surveillance program, OSHA requires inclusion of the following elements in the routine examination:

(i) Medical and work histories with special emphasis directed to symptoms of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and digestive tract.

(ii) Completion of the respiratory disease questionnaire contained in Appendix D.

(iii) A physical examination including a chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function test that includes measurement of the employee's forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV(1)).

(iv) Any laboratory or other test that the examining physician deems by sound medical practice to be necessary.

The employer is required to make the prescribed tests available at least annually to those employees covered; more often than specified if recommended by the examining physician; and upon termination of employment.

The employer is required to provide the physician with the following information: A copy of this standard and appendices; a description of the employee's duties as they relate to asbestos exposure; the employee's representative level of exposure to asbestos; a description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used; and information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the physician. Making this information available to the physician will aid in the evaluation of the employee's health in relation to assigned duties and fitness to wear personal protective equipment, if required.

The employer is required to obtain a written opinion from the examining physician containing the results of the medical examination; the physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of exposure-related disease; any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment; and a statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions related to asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment. This written opinion must not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to exposure to asbestos, and a copy of the opinion must be provided to the affected employee.

[58 FR 35553, July 1, 1993]

1915.1001 Appendix I Smoking Cessation Program Information for Asbestos - Non-Mandatory

The following organizations provide smoking cessation information and program material.

1. The National Cancer Institute operates a toll-free Cancer Information Service (CIS) with trained personnel to help you. Call 1-800-4-CANCER* to reach the CIS office serving your area, or write: Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 10A24, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

2. American Cancer Society, 3340 Peachtree Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30062, (404) 320-3333.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a voluntary organization composed of 58 divisions and 3,100 local units. Through "The Great American Smokeout" in November, the annual Cancer Crusade in April, and numerous educational materials, ACS helps people learn about the health hazards of smoking and become successful ex-smokers.

3. American Heart Association, 7320 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75231, (214) 750-5300.

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a voluntary organization with 130,000 members (physicians, scientists, and laypersons) in 55 state and regional groups. AHA produces a variety of publications and audiovisual materials about the effects of smoking on the heart. AHA also has developed a guidebook for incorporating a weight-control component into smoking cessation programs.

4. American Lung Association, 1740 Broadway, New York, New York 10019, (212) 245-8000.

A voluntary organization of 7,500 members (physicians, nurses, and laypersons), the American Lung Association (ALA) conducts numerous public information programs about the health effect of smoking. ALA has 59 state and 85 local units. The organization actively supports legislation and information campaigns for non-smokers' rights and provides help for smokers who want to quit, for example, through "Freedom From Smoking," a self-help smoking cessation program.

5. Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Department of Health and, Human Services, 5600 Fishers Lane, Park Building, Room 110, Rockville, Maryland 20857.

The Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) is the Department of Health and Human Services' lead agency in smoking control. OSH has sponsored distribution of publications on smoking-realted topics, such as free flyers on relapse after initial quitting, helping a friend or family member quit smoking, the health hazards of smoking, and the effects of parental smoking on teenagers.

. In Hawaii, on Oahu call 524-1234 (call collect from neighboring islands), Spanish-speaking staff members are available during daytime hours to callers from the following areas: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey (area code 210), New York, and Texas. Consult your local telephone directory for listings of local chapters.

(Reporting and Recordkeeping requirements in paragraphs (d)(2), (3), (5), and (7), (f)(2) and (3)(i), (j)(5), (l), and (m) as they apply to the excursion limit have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1218-0133 and 1218-0134. The OMB clearance expires on February 29, 1992.)

(Reporting and Recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (j)(5)(iv)(C) have received OMB paperwork clearance under OMB clearance number 1218-0133. The OMB clearance expires on April 30, 1993.)

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0133)

[58 FR 35553, July 1, 1993]

1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; Interpretation of term.

As used in 1915.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic matter. Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS 64742-93-4) is not covered under the "coal tar pitch volatiles" standard.

[58 FR 35554, July 1, 1993]

1915.1003 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which 4-Nitrobiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92933 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Nitrobiphenyl. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl where containment prevents the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Nitrobiphenyl or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl which may result in exposure to or contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, which is impervious to the passage of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Nitrobiphenyl." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Nitrobiphenyl within an isolated system such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while 4-Nitrobiphenyl is contained within: (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Nitrobiphenyl handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS
AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS,
AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT ALL
TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 4-Nitrobiphenyl contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance. "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(i) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of 4-Nitrobiphenyl in each regulated area.

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Nitrobiphenyl is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0085)

[58 FR 35554, July 1, 1993]

1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which alpha-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 134327 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of alpha-Naphthylamine.

(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of alpha-Naphthylamine. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine where containment prevents the release of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of alpha-Naphthylamine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of alpha-Naphthylamine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of alpha-Naphthylamine which may result in exposure to or contact with alpha-Naphthylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of alpha-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to the passage of alpha-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to alpha-Naphthylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing alpha-Naphthylamine." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where alpha-Naphthylamine is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with alpha-Naphthylamine within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where alpha-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while alpha-Naphthylamine is contained within: (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where alpha-Naphthylamine is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), and shoe covers and gloves prior to entering a regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in alpha-Naphthylamine handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exist of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with alpha-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected areas shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with alpha-Naphthylamine, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove alpha-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS
AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS,
AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of alpha-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of alpha-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have alpha-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of alpha-Naphthylamine, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of alpha-Naphthylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of alpha-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which alpha-Naphthylamine is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of alpha-Naphthylamine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0084)

[58 FR 35557, July 1, 1993]

1915.1005 [Reserved]

[Reserved]

1915.1006 Methyl chloromethyl ether.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which methyl chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 107302 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of methyl chloromethyl ether.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of methyl chloromethyl ether. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether where containment prevents the release of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of methyl chloromethyl ether or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of methyl chloromethyl ether from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of methyl chloromethyl ether which may result in exposure to or contact with methyl chloromethyl ether.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of methyl chloromethyl ether, which is impervious to the passage of methyl chloromethyl ether, and which would prevent the entry of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to methyl chloromethyl ether.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing methyl chloromethyl ether." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where methyl chloromethyl ether is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with methyl chloromethyl ether within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where methyl chloromethyl ether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while methyl chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where methyl chloromethyl ether is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in methyl chloromethyl ether handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance with 1910.134.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with methyl chloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with methyl chloromethyl ether, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove methyl chloromethyl ether from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA IMPERVIOUS SUIT
INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of methyl chloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of methyl chloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii) (B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have methyl chloromethyl ether contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of methyl chloromethyl ether, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of methyl chloromethyl ether;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of methyl chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which methyl chloromethyl ether is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of methyl chloromethyl ether into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances be taken, with specific completion dates, of the incident, and measures taken or to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0086)

[58 FR 35559, July 1, 1993]

1915.1007 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts).

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 91941 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1 percent by weight or volume of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts). The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) where containment prevents the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which may result in exposure to or contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment, of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), which is impervious to the passage of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and which would prevent the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated" area means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts)." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) Prohibited statements. No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts);

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination, and (C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids of cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0083)

[58 FR 35562, July 1, 1993]

1915.1008 bis-Chloromethyl ether.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which bis-chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 542881 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of bis-chloromethyl ether.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of bis-chloromethyl ether. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system means" an operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether where containment prevents the release of bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of bis-chloromethyl ether or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of bis-chloromethyl ether from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of bis-chloromethyl ether which may result in exposure to or contact with bis-chloromethyl ether.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment, of bis-chloromethyl ether, which is impervious to the passage of, bis-chloromethyl ether and which would prevent the entry of bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to bis-chloromethyl ether.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing bis-chloromethyl ether." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where bis-chloromethyl ether is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with bis-chloromethyl ether within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where bis-chloromethyl ether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while bis-chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where bis-chloromethyl ether is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this paragraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in bis-chloromethyl ether handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance with 1910.134.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with bis-chloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with bis-chloromethyl ether such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove bis-chloromethyl ether from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identifications." (i) Containers of bis-chloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of bis-chloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have bis-chloromethyl ether contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of bis-chloromethyl ether, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of bis-chloromethyl ether;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and inplant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of bis-chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which bis-chloromethyl ether is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of bis-chloromethyl ether into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0087)

[58 FR 35564, July 1, 1993]

1915.1009 beta-Naphthylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which beta-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 91598 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of beta-Naphthylamine.

(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Naphthylamine. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine where containment prevents the release of beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Naphthylamine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Naphthylamine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of beta-Naphthylamine which may result in exposure to or contact with beta-Naphthylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of beta-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to the passage of beta-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry of beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to beta-Naphthylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Naphthylamine." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where beta-Naphthylamine is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved: (1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Naphthylamine within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where beta-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while beta-Naphthylamine is contained within; (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Naphthylamine is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this paragraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Naphthylamine handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with beta-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Naphthylamine, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove beta-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of beta-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of beta-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have beta-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Naphthylamine, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Naphthylamine which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of beta-Naphthylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of beta-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which beta-Naphthylamine is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Naphthylamine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination;

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0089)

[58 FR 35567, July 1, 1993]

1915.1010 Benzidine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which Benzidine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92875 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume in Benzidine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono dispense aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of Benzidine. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Benzidine where containment prevents the release of Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Benzidine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Benzidine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of Benzidine which may result in exposure to or contact with Benzidine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of Benzidine, which is impervious to the passage of Benzidine, and which would prevent the entry of Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving Benzidine within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving Benzidine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to Benzidine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing Benzidine." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where Benzidine is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Benzidine within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Benzidine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Benzidine is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Benzidine is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply. (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in Benzidine handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with Benzidine could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Benzidine such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove Benzidine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Benzidine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of Benzidine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have Benzidine contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Benzidine, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving Benzidine which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of Benzidine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of Benzidine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which Benzidine is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Benzidine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0082)

[58 FR 35570, July 1, 1993]

1915.1011 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which 4-Aminodiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92671 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change" room means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Aminodiphenyl. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl where containment prevents the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated area, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Aminodiphenyl or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Aminodiphenyl from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl which may result in exposure to or contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of 4-Aminodiphenyl, which is impervious to the passage of 4-Aminodiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Aminodiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of 4-Aminodiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Aminodiphenyl." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 4-Aminodiphenyl is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Aminodiphenyl within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Aminodiphenyl is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while 4-Aminodiphenyl is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Aminodiphenyl is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Aminodiphenyl handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove 4-Aminodiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING
GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 4-Aminodiphenyl contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by subparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive including, but not necessarily limited to: A training and indoctrination program. (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Aminodiphenyl, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in this application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of 4-Aminodiphenyl in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Aminodiphenyl is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0090)

[58 FR 35572, July 1, 1993]

1915.1012 Ethyleneimine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which Ethyleneimine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 151564 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of Ethyleneimine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of Ethyleneimine. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine where containment prevents the release of Ethyleneimine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Ethyleneimine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Ethyleneimine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of Ethyleneimine which may result in exposure to or contact with Ethyleneimine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of Ethyleneimine, which is impervious to the passage of Ethyleneimine, and which would prevent the entry of Ethyleneimine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving Ethyleneimine within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of Ethyleneimine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to Ethyleneimine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing Ethyleneimine." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where Ethyleneimine is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Ethyleneimine within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Ethyleneimine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Ethyleneimine is contained within: Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Ethyleneimine is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in Ethyleneimine handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance with 1910.134.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with Ethyleneimine could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Ethyleneimine, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running potable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same level with locations where a direct exposure of Ethyleneimine would be most likely as a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove Ethyleneimine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Ethyleneimine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of Ethyleneimine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii) (B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)5 of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have Ethyleneimine contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Ethyleneimine, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving Ethyleneimine which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of Ethyleneimine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of Ethyleneimine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which Ethyleneimine is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Ethyleneimine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0080)

[58 FR 35575, July 1, 1993]

1915.1013 beta-Propiolactone.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which beta-Propiolactone, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 57578 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of beta-Propiolactone.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Propiolactone. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone where containment prevents the release of beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Propiolactone or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Propiolactone from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of beta-Propiolactone which may result in exposure to or contact with beta-Propiolactone.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of beta-Propiolactone, which is impervious to the passage of beta-Propiolactone, and which would prevent the entry of beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving beta-Propiolactone within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to beta-Propiolactone.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Propiolactone." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where beta-Propiolactone is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Propiolactone within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where beta-Propiolactone is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while beta-Propiolactone is contained within. Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Propiolactone is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Propiolactone handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance with 1910.134.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with beta-Propiolactone could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Propiolactone, such employee shall be required to shower soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running potable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same level with locations where a direct exposure to beta-Propiolactone would be most likely as a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove beta-Propiolactone from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of beta-Propiolactone and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of beta-Propiolactone and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have beta-Propiolactone contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches. Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Propiolactone, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Propiolactone which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of beta-Propiolactone;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of beta-Propiolactone in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which beta-Propiolactone is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Propiolactone into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include: (A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agent, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0079)

[58 FR 35577, July 1, 1993]

1915.1014 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which 2-Acetylaminofluorene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 53963 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 2-Acetylaminofluorene. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene where containment prevents the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 2-Acetylaminofluorene or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene which may result in exposure to or contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, which is impervious to the passage of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, and which would prevent the entry of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 2-Acetylaminofluorene." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 2-Acetylaminofluorene is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 2-Acetylaminofluorene within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 2-Acetylaminofluorene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while 2-Acetylaminofluorene is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 2-Acetylaminofluorene is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 2-Acetylaminofluorene handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification, limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 2-Acetylaminofluorene contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by subparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance; "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees, shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of 2-Acetylaminofluorene in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 2-Acetylaminofluorene is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0088)

[58 FR 35580, July 1, 1993]

1915.1015 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 60117 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene where containment prevents the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which may result in exposure to or contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, which is impervious to the passage of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which would prevent the entry of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving "laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exist of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clear, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d) (1) and (2) (ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change room shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required under paragraph (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii) (B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii) (B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, including local and sytemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for the application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examination, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examination. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0044)

[58 FR 35582, July 1, 1993]

1915.1016 N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 62759 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) Absolute filter is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of N-Nitrosodimethylamine. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine where containment prevents the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination means" the inactivation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine or its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of N-Nitrosodimethylamine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine which may result in exposure to or contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, which is impervious to the passage of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, and which would prevent the entry of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing N-Nitrosodimethylamine." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where N-Nitrosodimethylamine is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with N-Nitrosodimethylamine within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where N-Nitrosodimethylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while N-Nitrosodimethylamine is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving " laboratory type hoods," or in locations where N-Nitrosodimethylamine is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in N-Nitrosodimethylamine handling operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1910.134. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5) "Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where direct contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine could result, each authorized employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garment, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with 1910.134.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved]

(2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1910.141(e), for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean make-up air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove N-Nitrosodimethylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of N-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii) (B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of N-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have N-Nitrosodimethylamine contents with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose of and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices.

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15 calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which N-Nitrosodimethylamine is present in each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. Upon termination of an employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0081)

[58 FR 35585, July 1, 1993]

1915.1017 Vinyl chloride.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.

(3) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(b) "Definitions." (1) "Action level" means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.

(2) "Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or his designee.

(3) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require him to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.

(4) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or his designee.

(5) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(6) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(7) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(8) "OSHA Area Director" means the Director for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Area Office having jurisdiction over the geographic area in which the employer's establishment is located.

(9) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(10) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer.

(c) "Permissible exposure limit." (1) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and

(2) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(3) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.

(d) "Monitoring." (1) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(2) Where a determination conducted under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shows any employee exposures, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee shall be established. Such a program:

(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than 5 working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(3) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be performed.

(4) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 50 percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus 35 percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, and plus or minus 25 percent over 1.0 ppm. (Methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available in the "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods").

(5) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this paragraph.

(e) "Regulated area." (1) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(2) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(f) "Methods of compliance." Employee exposures to vinyl chloride shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in paragraph (c) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:

(1) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(2) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section. A program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.

(3) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director. Such plans shall be updated at least every six months.

(g) "Respiratory protection." Where respiratory protection is required under this section:

(1) The employer shall provide a respirator which meets the requirements of this paragraph and shall assure that the employee uses such respirator, except that until April 1, 1976, wearing of respirators shall be at the discretion of each employee for exposures not in excess of 25 ppm, measured over any 15-minute period. Until April 1, 1976, each employee who chooses not to wear an appropriate respirator shall be informed at least quarterly of the hazards of vinyl chloride and the purpose, proper use, and limitations of respiratory devices.

(2) Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, Department of the Interior, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11.

(3) A respiratory protection program meeting the requirements of 1910.134 shall be established and maintained.

(4) Selection of respirators for vinyl chloride shall be as follows:

Atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride Required apparatus
(i) Unknown, or above 3,600 p/m Open-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type, with full facepiece
(ii) Not over 3,600 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or
(iii) Not over 1,000 p/m (B) Combination type, supplied air respirator continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply Type C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet or hood
(iv) Not over 100 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied air respirator demand type, with full facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or
(B) Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece, in demand mode; or
(C) Type C supplied air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece
(v) Not over 25 p/m (A) A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m, or
(B) Gas mask, front-or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m
(vi) Not over 10 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or
(B) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece; or
(C) Any chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 p/m.

(5)(i) Entry into unknown concentrations or concentrations greater than 36,000 ppm (lower explosive limit) may be made only for purposes of life rescue; and

(ii) Entry into concentrations of less than 36,000 ppm, but greater than 3,600 ppm may be made only for purposes of life rescue, firefighting, or securing equipment so as to prevent a greater hazard from release of vinyl chloride.

(6) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges shall be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and (ii) A continuous monitoring and alarm system shall be provided where concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.

(7) Apparatus prescribed for higher concentrations may be used for any lower concentration.

(h) "Hazardous operations." (1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (g) of this section; and

(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i) "Emergency situations." A written operational plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. The plan shall specifically provide that:

(1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in paragraph (h) of this section;

(2) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in paragraph (f) of this section and the emergency is abated.

(j) "Training." Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(1) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for, and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures;

(viii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(2) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(k) "Medical surveillance." A program of medical surveillance shall be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this paragraph. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(1) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed, with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (See Appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:

(A) Alcohol intake;

(B) Past history of hepatitis;

(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals;

(D) Past history of blood transfusions; and

(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and determinations made of: (A) Total bilirubin; (B) Alkaline phosphatase; (C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT); (D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT); and (E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(2) Examinations provided in accordance with this paragraph shall be performed at least:

(i) Every 6 months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for 10 years or longer; and

(ii) Annually for all other employees.

(3) Each employee exposed to an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(4) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(5) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.

(6) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examinations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR part 74.

(7) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of paragraph (k)(1) of this section, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(l) "Signs and labels." (1) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(2) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currently exists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(4) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME)
CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE
VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(5) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:

(i)

VINYL CHLORIDE
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

or (ii) In accordance with 49 CFR parts 170 through 189, with the additional legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

applied near the label or placard.

(6) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of, any required warning, information or instruction.

(m) "Records." (1) All records maintained in accordance with this section shall include the name and social security number of each employee where relevant.

(2) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120(a) through (e) and (g) through (i). These records shall be provided upon request to the Director. Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(3) In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor to receive and retain his records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the Director, and each employee individually notified in writing of this transfer. The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in 29 CFR 1915.1120(h).

(n) "Reports." (1) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a regulated area, the following information shall be reported to the OSHA Area Director. Any changes to such information shall be reported within 15 days.

(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more regulated areas; and

(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal operations, including maintenance.

(2) Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within 24 hours to the OSHA Area Director. Upon request of the Area Director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of similar nature.

(3) Within 10 working days following any monitoring and measuring which discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee shall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible exposure limit.

(o) "Effective dates." (1) Until April 1, 1975, the provisions currently set forth in 1910.93q of this part shall apply.

(2) Effective April 1, 1975, the provisions set forth in 1910.93q of this part shall apply.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0010)

[58 FR 35588, July 1, 1993]

1915.1017 Appendix A Supplementary Medical Information.

When required tests under paragraph (k)(1) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within 3 to 4 weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made. Additional tests which may be useful:

A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.

B. Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume at 1 second, and chest roentgenogram (posterioranterior, 14 X 17 inches (35.56 X 43.18 cm)).

C. Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

D. For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

[58 FR 35591, July 1, 1993]

1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic.

(a) "Scope and application." This section applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.

(b) "Definitions." Action level means a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 ug/m(3)) averaged over any eight (8) hour period.

"Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under paragraph (e) of this section.

"Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or designee.

"Inorganic arsenic" means copper aceto-arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(c) "Permissible exposure limit." The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 ug/m(3)), averaged over any 8-hour period.

(d) "Notification of use." (1) By October 1, 1978 or within 60 days after the introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer who is required to establish a regulated area in his workplaces shall report in writing to the OSHA area office for each such workplace:

(i) The address of each such workplace;

(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulated areas; and

(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and the actions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.

(2) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section the employer shall report the changes in writing within 60 days to the OSHA area office.

(e) "Exposure monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight (8) hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(2) "Initial monitoring." Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic arsenic to which employees may be exposed.

(3) "Frequency." (i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.

(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring at least every six months.

(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven (7) days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in paragraph (e)(4) of this section occur.

(4) "Additional monitoring." Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic, additional monitoring which complies with paragraph (e) of this section shall be conducted.

(5) "Employee notification." (i) Within five (5) working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposures.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(6) "Accuracy of measurement." (i) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 ug/m(3).

(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5 ug/m(3) but less than 10 ug/m(3).

(f) "Regulated area" - (1) "Establishment." The employer shall establish regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.

(2) "Demarcation." Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.

(3) "Access." Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto to enter such areas.

(4) "Provision of respirators." All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section.

(5) "Prohibited activities." The employer shall assure that in regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under paragraph (m) of this section. Drinking water may be consumed in the regulated area.

(g) "Methods of compliance" - (1) "Controls." (i) The employer shall institute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979, engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section and other necessary personal protective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy before respiratory protection is instituted.

(2) "Compliance Program." (i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted; e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary to meet the permissible exposure limit;

(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit with engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, the employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the Assistant Secretary, Director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) The plans required by this paragraph shall be revised and updated at least every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.

(h) "Respiratory protection" - (1) "General." The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee exposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(i) During the time period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work practice controls;

(ii) In work operations such as maintenance and repair activities in which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) In work situations in which engineering controls and supplemental work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; or (iv) In emergencies. (2) "Respirator selection." (i) Where respirators are required under this section the employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I below for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, or Table II below for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vapor pressure.

(ii) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gasses such as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employee as permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filter with an appropriate gas sorbent. (See footnote in Table 1)

TABLE I - RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC PARTICULATE EXCEPT FOR THOSE WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) or firefighting (A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) (A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode
(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3) (10 mg/m(3)) (A) Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high efficiency filters.(1) (B) Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode
(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3) (A) Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1) (B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator. (C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus
(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3) (A) Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1) (B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator
Footnote(1) High-efficiency filter - 99.97 percent efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

TABLE II - RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENICALS
(SUCH AS ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE(2) AND ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE) WITH
SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3))or firefighting (A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) (A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode
(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3) (10 mg/m(3)) (A) Half-mask(2) supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode
(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3) (A) Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas canister
(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus
(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3) (A) Half-mask(2) air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas cartridge.
(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator

Footnote(1) High efficiency filter - 99.97 percent efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

Footnote(2) Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.

(iii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against dust, fume, and mist by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11.

(3) "Respirator usage." (i) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.

(iii) Employers with more than 20 employees wearing respirators shall perform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I or II.

(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(4) "Respirator program." (i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134(b), (d), (e) and (f).

(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(5) "Commencement of respirator use." (i) The employer's obligation to provide respirators commences on August 1, 1978 for employees exposed over 500 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later than October 1, 1978 for employees exposed to over 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978 for employees exposed between 10 and 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic.

(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic may choose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.

(iii) After December 1, 1978 any employee required to wear air-purifying respirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if it will give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and in addition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for times where exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) "Protective work clothing and equipment" - (1) "Provision and use."

Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;

(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye irritation, which comply with the requirements of 1915.133(a)(2)-(6); and

(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic trichloride.

(2) "Cleaning and replacement." (i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in paragraph (j)(1) of this section in a freshly laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works in areas where exposures are over 100 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic or in areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.

(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in paragraph (m)(1) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful effects including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed from the workplace are labelled as follows:

Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, State or Federal regulations.

(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.

(k) "Housekeeping" - (1) "Surfaces." All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.

(2) "Cleaning floors." Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(3) "Vacuuming." Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic into the workplace.

(4) "Housekeeping plan." A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection equipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the Assistant Secretary.

(5) "Maintenance of equipment." Periodic cleaning of dust collection and ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.

(l) [Reserved]

(m) "Hygiene facilities and practices" - (1) "Change rooms." The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.141(e).

(2) "Showers." (i) The employer shall assure that employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with 1910.141(d)(3).

(3) "Lunchrooms." (i) The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(4) "Lavatories." The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which comply with 1910.141(d)(1) and (2)(ii) through (vii).

(5) "Vacuuming clothes." The employer shall provide facilities for employees working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds 100 ug/m(3) to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower rooms required by paragraph (j) of this section and shall assure that such employees use such facilities.

(6) "Avoidance of skin irritation." The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(n) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General" - (i) "Employees covered."

The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the following employees:

(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, at least 30 days per year; and

(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without regard to respirator use, for 30 days or more per year for a total of 10 years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. The determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls utilized and materials used by that employer.

(ii) "Examination by physician." The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(2) "Initial examinations." By December 1, 1978, for employees initially covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed over the action level at least 30 days per year, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.

(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:

(A) A 14" by 17" (35.56 X 43.18 cm) posterior-anterior chest X-ray and International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(B) A nasal and skin examination;

(C) A sputum cytology examination; and

(D) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

(3) "Periodic examinations." (i) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) (A), (B), and (D) at least annually for covered employees who are under 45 years of age with fewer than 10 years of exposure over the action level without regard to respirator use.

(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section at least semi-annually for other covered employees.

(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section within six (6) months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(4) "Additional examinations." If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(5) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(6) "Physician's written opinion." (i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(o) "Employee information and training" - (1) "Training program." (i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that those employees participate in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978, for employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least quarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at least annually for other covered employees thereafter; and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program as required by paragraph (n) of this section;

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment; and

(F) A review of this standard.

(2) "Access to training materials." (i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide; upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(p) "Signs and labels" - (1) "General." (i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this paragraph.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this paragraph which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign or label.

(2) "Signs." (i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas bearing the legend;

DANGER
INORGANIC ARSENIC
CANCER HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
NO SMOKING OR EATING
RESPIRATOR REQUIRED

(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this paragraph are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(3) "Labels." The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shipping and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing inorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure to inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass). The label shall bear the following legend:

DANGER
CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC
CANCER HAZARD
HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED
USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION
OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

(q) "Recordkeeping" - (1) "Exposure monitoring." (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name, social security number, and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least 40 years or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever, is longer.

(2) "Medical surveillance." (i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by paragraph (n) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name, social security number, and description of duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records;

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under paragraph (n) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;

(C) The initial X-ray;

(D) The X-rays for the most recent 5 years;

(E) Any X-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent X-rays;

(F) The initial cytologic examination slide and written description;

(G) The cytologic examination slide and written description for the most recent 5 years; and

(H) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if such atypia persists for 3 years, and all subsequent slides and written descriptions.

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least 40 years, or for the duration of employment plus 20 years whichever is longer.

(3) "Availability." (i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by paragraph (q) of this section to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.1120 (a) through (e) and (g) through (i).

(4) "Transfer of records." (i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the Director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the Director at least 3 months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the Director if he requests them within that period.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving the transfer of records set in 29 CFR 1915.1120(h).

(r) "Observation of monitoring" - (1) "Employee observation." The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic conducted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) "Observation procedures." (i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenic performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

(s) "Effective date." This standard shall become effective August 1, 1978.

(t) "Appendices." The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

(u) "Startup dates" - (1) "General." The startup dates of requirements of this standard shall be the effective date of this standard unless another startup date is provided for either in other paragraphs of this section or in this paragraph.

(2) "Monitoring." Initial monitoring shall be commenced on August 1, 1978, and shall be completed by September 15, 1978.

(3) "Regulated areas." Regulated areas required to be established as a result of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after the results of that monitoring is known and no later than October 1, 1978.

(4) "Compliance program." The written program required by paragraph (g)(2) as a result of initial monitoring shall be made available for inspection and copying as soon as possible and no later than December 1, 1978.

(5) "Hygiene and lunchroom facilities." Construction plans for change- rooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed no later than December 1, 1978, and these facilities shall be constructed and in use no later than July 1, 1979. However, if as part of the compliance plan it is predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls and work practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit by December 31, 1979, for affected employees, then such facilities need not be completed until 1 year after the engineering controls are completed or December 31, 1980, whichever is earlier, if such controls have not in fact succeeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.

(6) "Summary of startup dates set forth elsewhere in this standard."

"Startup Dates"

August 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 500 ug/m(3).

"as soon as possible but no later than"

September 15, 1978 - Completion of initial monitoring. October 1, 1978 - Complete establishment of regulated areas. Respirator use for employees exposed above 50 ug/m(3). Completion of initial training. Notification of use.

December 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 10 ug/m(3). Completion of initial medical. Completion of compliance plan. Optional use of powered air-purifying respirators.

July 1, 1979 - Completion of lunch rooms and hygiene facilities. December 31, 1979 - Completion of engineering controls.

All other requirements of the standard have as their startup date August 1, 1978.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0104)

[58 FR 35591, July 1, 1993]

1915.1018 Appendix A Inorganic Arsenic Substance Information Sheet.

I. SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION

A. "Substance." Inorganic Arsenic.

B. "Definition." Copper acetoarsenite, arsenic and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

C. "Permissible Exposure Limit." 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air as determined as an average over an 8-hour period. No employee may be exposed to any skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride or to skin or eye contact likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

D. "Regulated Areas." Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area.

II. HEALTH HAZARD DATA

A. "Comments." The health hazard of inorganic arsenic is high.

B. "Ways in which the chemical affects your body." Exposure to airborne concentrations of inorganic arsenic may cause lung cancer, and can be a skin irritant. Inorganic arsenic may also affect your body if swallowed. One compound in particular, arsenic trichloride, is especially dangerous because it can be absorbed readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly prior to eating or smoking.

III. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT

A. "Respirators." Respirators will be provided by your employer at no cost to you for routine use if your employer is in the process of implementing engineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or insufficient. You must wear respirators for non-routine activities or in emergency situations where you are likely to be exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic in excess of the permissible exposure limit. Since how well your respirator fits your face is very important, your employer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator seals properly when you wear it. These tests are simple and rapid and will be explained to you during training sessions.

B. "Protective clothing." If you work in a regulated area, your employer is required to provide at no cost to you, and you must wear, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment. The purpose of this equipment is to prevent you from bringing to your home arsenic-contaminated dust and to protect your body from repeated skin contact with inorganic arsenic likely to cause skin irritation. This clothing should include such items as coveralls or similar full-body clothing, gloves, shoes or coverlets, and aprons. Protective equipment should include face shields or vented goggles, where eye irritation may occur.

IV. HYGIENE FACILITIES AND PRACTICES

You must not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. If you work in a regulated area your employer is required to provide lunchrooms and other areas for these purposes.

If you work in a regulated area, your employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. You must wash your face, and hands before eating and must shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of change rooms without your employer's permission. Your employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of your protective clothing.

V. SIGNS AND LABELS

Your employer is required to post warning signs and labels for your protection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn that a cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter the area, and that no smoking or eating is allowed, and that respirators must be worn.

VI. MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

If your exposure to arsenic is over the Action Level (5 ug/m(3)) - (including all persons working in regulated areas) at least 30 days per year, or you have been exposed to arsenic for more than 10 years over the Action Level, your employer is required to provide you with a medical examination. The examination shall be every 6 months for employees over 45 years old or with more than 10 years exposure over the Action Level and annually for other covered employees. The medical examination must include a medical history; a chest x-ray; skin examination; nasal examination and sputum cytology exam for the early detection of lung cancer. The cytology exams are only included in the initial exam and examinations given after you are either 45 years or older or have 10 or more years employment over the Action Level. The examining physician will provide a written opinion to your employer containing the results of the medical exams. You should also receive a copy of this opinion. The physician must not tell your employer any conditions he detects unrelated to occupational exposure to arsenic but must tell you those conditions.

VII. OBSERVATION OF MONITORING

Your employer is required to monitor your exposure to arsenic and you or your representatives are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you must also be provided with and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.

VIII. ACCESS TO RECORDS

You or your representative are entitled to records of your exposure to inorganic arsenic and your medical examination records if you request your employer to provide them.

IX. TRAINING AND NOTIFICATION

Additional information on all of these items plus training as to hazards of exposure to inorganic arsenic and the engineering and work practice controls associated with your job will also be provided by your employer. If you are exposed over the permissible exposure limit, your employer must inform you of that fact and the actions he is taking to reduce your exposures.

[58 FR 35596, July 1. 1993]

1915.1018 Appendix B Substance Technical Guidelines

ARSENIC, ARSENIC TRIOXIDE, ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE (THREE EXAMPLES)

I. "Physical and chemical properties"

    A. Arsenic (metal).
      1. Formula: As. 2. Appearance: Gray metal. 3. Melting point: Sublimes without melting at 613 deg. C. 4. Specific Gravity: (H(2)O=1):5.73. 5. Solubility in water: Insoluble.
    B. Arsenic Trioxide.
      1. Formula: As2O3, (As4O6). 2. Appearance: White powder. 3. Melting point: 315 deg. C. 4. Specific Gravity (H(2)O=1):3.74. 5. Solubility in water: 3.7 grams in 100cc of water at 20 deg. C.
    C. Arsenic Trichloride (liquid).
      1. Formula: AsC 13. 2. Appearance: Colorless or pale yellow liquid. 3. Melting point: -8.5 deg. C. 4. Boiling point: 130.2 deg. C. 5. Specific Gravity (H(2)O=1):2.16 at 20 deg. C. 6. Vapor Pressure: 10mm Hg at 23.5 deg. C. 7. Solubility in Water: Decomposes in water.

II. "Fire, explosion and reactivity data."

A. Fire: Arsenic, Arsenic Trioxide and Arsenic Trichloride are nonflammable.

B. Reactivity:

1. Conditions Contributing to instability: Heat.

2. Incompatibility: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.

III. "Monitoring and Measurement Procedures"

Samples collected should be full shift (at least 7-hour) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size membrane filter (37mm diameter). Volatile arsenicals such as arsenic trichloride can be most easily collected in a midget bubbler filled with 15 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH.

The method of sampling and analysis should have an accuracy of not less than plus or minus 25 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 ug/m(3)) and plus or minus 35 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for concentrations of inorganic arsenic between 5 and 10 ug/m(3).

[58 FR 35597, July 1, 1993]

1915.1018 Appendix C Medical Surveillance Guidelines

I. GENERAL

Medical examinations are to be provided for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic above the action level (5 ug/m(3)) for at least 30 days per year (which would include among others, all employees, who work in regulated areas). Examinations are also to be provided to all employees who have had 10 years or more exposure above the action level for more than 30 days per year while working for the present or predecessor employer though they may no longer be exposed above the level.

An initial medical examination is to be provided to all such employees by December 1, 1978. In addition, an initial medical examination is to be provided to all employees who are first assigned to areas in which worker exposure will probably exceed 5 ug/m(3) (after the effective date of this standard) at the time of initial assignment. In addition to its immediate diagnostic usefulness, the initial examination will provide a baseline for comparing future test results. The initial examination must include as a minimum the following elements:

(1) A work and medical history, including a smoking history, and presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;

(2) A 14" by 17" (35.56 X 43.18 cm) posterior-anterior chest X-ray and an International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(3) A nasal and skin examination;

(4) A Sputum Cytology examination; and

(5) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

Periodic examinations are also to be provided to the employees listed above. The periodic examinations shall be given annually for those covered employees 45 years of age or less with fewer than 10 years employment in areas where employee exposure exceeds the action level (5 ug/m(3)). Periodic examinations need not include sputum cytology and only an updated medical history is required.

Periodic examinations for other covered employees, shall be provided every six (6) months. These examinations shall include all tests required in the initial examination, except that the medical history need only be updated.

The examination contents are minimum requirements. Additional tests such as lateral and oblique X-rays or pulmonary function tests may be useful. For workers exposed to three arsenicals which are associated with lymphatic cancer, copper acetoarsenite, potassium arsenite, or sodium arsenite the examination should also include palpation of superficial lymph nodes and complete blood count.

II. Noncarcinogenic Effects

The OSHA standard is based on minimizing risk of exposed workers dying of lung cancer from exposure to inorganic arsenic. It will also minimize skin cancer from such exposures.

The following three sections quoted from "Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition", Revised Edition, June 1977, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is included to provide information on the nonneoplastic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Such effects should not occur if the OSHA standards are followed.

A. "Local" - Trivalent arsenic compounds are corrosive to the skin. Brief contact has no effect but prolonged contact results in a local hyperemia and later vesicular or pustular eruption. The moist mucous membranes are most sensitive to the irritant action. Conjunctiva, moist and macerated areas of skin, the eyelids, the angles of the ears, nose, mouth, and respiratory mucosa are also vulnerable to the irritant effects. The wrists are common sites of dermatitis, as are the genitalia if personal hygiene is poor. Perforations of the nasal septum may occur. Arsenic trioxide and pentoxide are capable of producing skin sensitization and contact dermatitis. Arsenic is also capable of producing keratoses, especially of the palms and soles.

B. "Systemic" - The acute toxic effects of arsenic are generally seen following ingestion of inorganic arsenical compounds. This rarely occurs in an industrial setting. Symptoms develop within 1/2 to 4 hours following ingestion and are usually characterized by constriction of the throat followed by dysphagia, epigastric pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Blood may appear in vomitus and stools. If the amount ingested is sufficiently high, shock may develop due to severe fluid loss, and death may ensue in 24 hours. If the acute effects are survived, exfoliative dermatitis and peripheral neuritis may develop.

Cases of acute arsenical poisoning due to inhalation are exceedingly rare in industry. When it does occur, respiratory tract symptoms - cough, chest pain, dyspnea - giddiness, headache, and extreme general weakness precede gastrointestinal symptoms. The acute toxic symptoms of trivalent arsenical poisoning are due to severe inflammation of the mucous membranes and greatly increased permeability of the blood capillaries.

Chronic arsenical poisoning due to ingestion is rare and generally confined to patients taking prescribed medications. However, it can be a concomitant of inhaled inorganic arsenic from swallowed sputum and improper eating habits. Symptoms are weight loss, nausea and diarrhea alternating with constipation, pigmentation and eruption of the skin, loss of hair, and peripheral neuritis. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis have been described. Polyneuritis may be the salient feature, but more frequently there are numbness and parasthenias of "glove and stocking" distribution. The skin lesions are usually melanotic and keratotic and may occasionally take the form of an intradermal cancer of the squamous cell type, but without infiltrative properties. Horizontal white lines (striations) on the fingernails and toenails are commonly seen in chronic arsenical poisoning and are considered to be a diagnostic accompaniment of arsenical polyneuritis.

Inhalation of inorganic arsenic compounds is the most common cause of chronic poisoning in the industrial situation. This condition is divided into three phases based on signs and symptoms.

First Phase: The worker complains of weakness, loss of appetite, some nausea, occasional vomiting, a sense of heaviness in the stomach, and some diarrhea.

Second Phase: The worker complains of conjunctivitis, a catarrhal state of the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, and respiratory passage. Coryza, hoarseness, and mild tracheobronchitis may occur. Perforation of the nasal septum is common, and is probably the most typical lesion of the upper respiratory tract in occupational exposure to arsenical dust. Skin lesions, eczematoid and allergic in type, are common.

Third Phase: The worker complains of symptoms of peripheral neuritis, initially of hands and feet, which is essentially sensory. In more severe cases, motor paralyses occur; the first muscles affected are usually the toe extensors and the peronei. In only the most severe cases will paralysis of flexor muscles of the feet or of the extensor muscles of hands occur.

Liver damage from chronic arsenical poisoning is still debated, and as yet the question is unanswered. In cases of chronic and acute arsenical poisoning, toxic effects to the myocardium have been reported based on EKG changes. These findings, however, are now largely discounted and the EKG changes are ascribed to electrolyte disturbances concomitant with arsenicalism. Inhalation of arsenic trioxide and other inorganic arsenical dusts does not give rise to radiological evidence or pneumoconiosis. Arsenic does have a depressant effect upon the bone marrow, with disturbances of both erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis.

Bibliography

Dinman, B. D. 1960. Arsenic; chronic human intoxication. J. Occup. Med. 2:137.

Elkins, H. B. 1959. The Chemistry of Industrial Toxicology, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Holmquist, L. 1951. Occupational arsenical dermatitis; a study among employees at a copper-ore smelting works including investigations of skin reactions to contact with arsenic compounds. Acta. Derm. Venereol. (Supp. 26) 31:1.

Pinto, S. S., and C. M. McGill. 1953. Arsenic trioxide exposure in industry. Ind. Med. Surg. 22:281.

Pinto, S. S., and K. W. Nelson. 1976. Arsenic toxicology and industrial exposure. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 16:95.

Vallee, B. L., D. D. Ulmer, and W. E. C. Wacker. 1960. Arsenic toxicology and biochemistry. AMA Arch. Indust. Health 21:132.

III. Sputum Cytology

Sputum can be collected by aerosol inhalation during the medical exam or by spontaneous early morning cough at home. Sputum is induced by transoral inhalation of an aerosolized solution of eight per cent (8 percent) sodium chloride in water. After inhaling as few as three to five breaths the subject usually yields an adequate sputum. All sputum should be collected directly into sixty percent (60 percent) alcohol.

Scientific evidence suggests that chest X-rays and sputum cytology should be used together as screening tests for lung tests for lung cancer in high risk populations such as workers exposed to inorganic arsenic. The tests are to be performed every six months on workers who are 45 years of age or older or have worked in the regulated area for 10 or more years. Since the tests seem to be complementary, it may be advantageous to alternate the test procedures. For instance, chest X-rays could be obtained in June and December and sputum cytologies could be obtained in March and September. Facilities for providing necessary diagnostic investigation should be readily available as well as chest physicians, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists and immunotherapists to provide any necessary treatment services.

[58 FR 35597, July 1, 1993]

1915.1025 Lead

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2).

(2) This section does not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by 29 CFR Part 1928.

(b) "Definitions." "Action level" means employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 ug/m(3)) averaged over an 8-hour period.

"Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

"Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, or designee.

"Lead" means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

(c) "Permissible exposure limit (PEL)." (1) The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 ug/m(3)) averaged over an 8-hour period.

(2) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula:

Maximum permissible limit (in ug/m(3))=400 divided by hours worked in the day.

(3) When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL and all the requirements of paragraph (f) have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.

(d) "Exposure monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) For the purposes of paragraph (d), employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(ii) With the exception of monitoring under paragraph (d)(3), the employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.

(2) "Initial determination." Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.

(3) "Basis of initial determination." (i) The employer shall monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:

(A) Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;

(B) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and

(C) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.

(ii) Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.

(iii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding 12 months may be used to satisfy the requirement to monitor under paragraph (d)(3)(i) if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of paragraph (d)(9) of this section.

(4) "Positive initial determination and initial monitoring." (i) Where a determination conducted under paragraphs (d) (2) and (3) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.

(ii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding 12 months may be used to satisfy this requirement if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of paragraph (d)(9) of this section.

(5) "Negative initial determination." Where a determination, conducted under paragraphs (d) (2) and (3) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the information specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section and shall also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and social security number of each employee monitored.

(6) "Frequency." (i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.

(ii) If the initial determination or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring in accordance with this paragraph at least every 6 months. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.

(iii) If the initial monitoring reveals that employee exposure is above the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring quarterly. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer shall repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in paragraph (d)(6)(ii), except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.

(7) "Additional monitoring." Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring in accordance with this paragraph shall be conducted.

(8) "Employee notification." (i) Within 5 working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(9) "Accuracy of measurement." The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 20 percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 ug/m(3).

(e) "Methods of compliance" - (1) Engineering and work practice controls. (i) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than 30 days per year, the employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls (including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the implementation schedule in Table I below, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section.

(ii) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit, but for 30 days or less per year, the employer shall implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 ug/m(3), but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 ug/m(3)

TABLE I - IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
Compliance dates
Industry(1) 200 ug/m(3) 100 ug/m(3) 50 ug/m(3)
Primary lead production (3) June 29, 1984(2) June 29, 1991(2)
Secondary lead production (3) June 29, 1984(2) June 29, 1986(2)
Lead acid battery manufacture (3) June 29, 1983(2) June 29, 1986(2)
Automobile manufacture/solder grinding (3) N/A June 29, 1986(2)
Electronics, gray iron
foundries, ink manufacture,
paints and coatings
manufacture, wall paper
manufacture, can
manufacture, and printing (3) N/A June 29, 1982(2)
Brass and bronze ingot
manufacture, lead chemical
manufacture, and secondary
copper smelting (3) N/A 5 years(4)
Non-ferrous foundries (3) N/A 5 years(4)(5)
All other industries (3) N/A 2 1/2 years(4)

Footnote(1) Includes ancillary activities located on the same worksite.

Footnote(2) This date is calculated by counting, from June 29, 1981 (the date when the United States Supreme court denied certiorari and lifted the stay on the implementation of paragraph (e)(1)), the number of years specified for the particular industry in the original lead standard for compliance with the given airborne exposure level. The denial of certiorari followed a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit finding compliance with paragraph (e)(1) to be feasible for the relevant industries.

Footnote(3) On the effective date of this standard, March 1, 1979. This continues an obligation from Table Z-2 of 29 CFR 1910.1000, which has been in effect since 1971 but was deleted from the Code of Federal Regulations upon the effectiveness of this standard.

Footnote(4) Expressed as the number of years from the date on which the court lifts the stay on the implementation of paragraph (e)(1) for the particular industry.

Footnote(5) Large non-ferrous foundries (20 or more employees) are required to achieve 50 ug/m(3) by means of engineering and work practice controls. Small non-ferrous foundries (fewer than 20 employees), however, are only required to achieve 75 ug/m(3) by such controls. All foundries are required to comply within five years.

(2) "Respiratory protection." Where engineering and work practice controls do not reduce employee exposure to or below the 50 ug/m(3) permissible exposure limit, the employer shall supplement these controls with respirators in accordance with paragraph (f).

(3) "Compliance program." (i) Each employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, and interim levels if applicable, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls in accordance with the implementation schedule in paragraph (e)(1).

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which lead is emitted; e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;

(F) A work practice program which includes items required under paragraphs (g), (h) and (i) of this regulation;

(G) An administrative control schedule required by paragraph (e)(6), if applicable;

(H) Other relevant information. (iii) Written programs shall be submitted upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the Assistant Secretary, Director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) Written programs shall be revised and updated at least every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.

(4) "Bypass of interim level." Where an employer's compliance plan provides for a reduction of employee exposures to or below the PEL solely by means of engineering and work practice controls in accordance with the implementation schedule in table I, and the employer has determined that compliance with the 100 ug/m(3) interim level would divert resources to the extent that it clearly precludes compliance, otherwise attainable, with the PEL by the required time, the employer may proceed with the plan to comply with the PEL in lieu of compliance with the interim level if:

(i) The compliance plan clearly documents the basis of the determination;

(ii) The employer takes all feasible steps to provide maximum protection for employees until the PEL is met; and

(iii) The employer notifies the OSHA Area Director nearest the affected workplace in writing within 10 working days of the completion or revision of the compliance plan reflecting the determination.

(5) "Mechanical ventilation." (i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made at least every 3 months. Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure shall be made within 5 days of any change in production, process, or control which might result in a change in employee exposure to lead.

(ii) "Recirculation of air." If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the employer shall assure that (A) the system has a high efficiency filter with reliable back-up filter; and (B) controls to monitor the concentration of lead in the return air and to bypass the recirculation system automatically if it fails are installed, operating, and maintained.

(6) "Administrative controls." If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer shall establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:

(i) Name or identification number of each affected employee;

(ii) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and

(iii) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.

(f) "Respiratory protection" - (1) "General." Where the use of respirators is required under this section, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(i) During the time period necessary to install or implement engineering or work practice controls, except that after the dates for compliance with the interim levels in table I, no employer shall require an employee to wear a negative pressure respirator longer than 4.4 hours per day;

(ii)