- Record Type:OSHA Instruction
- Current Directive Number:CPL 2-1.33
- Old Directive Number:CPL 2-1.33
- Title:National Emphasis Program on Amputation
- Information Date:
|DATE:||October 26, 2001|
|MEMORANDUM FOR:||REGIONAL ADMINISTRATORS|
|FROM:||JOHN L. HENSHAW|
|SUBJECT:||Site Specific Targeting 2001 (SST-01): Extension|
This memorandum extends the effective date of OSHA Notice 01-01 (CPL 2) Site Specific Targeting 2001 (SST-01), issued July 13, 2001 (copy attached), from November 13, 2001 to March 13, 2002, or until superseded by a new directive.
If you have any questions please contact Helen Rogers in the Office of General Industry Compliance Assistance (202) 693-1867.
|Directive Number: CPL 2-1.33||Effective Date: November 9, 2001|
|Subject: National Emphasis Program on Amputations|
|Purpose:||This directive describes policies and procedures for implementing a National Emphasis Program (NEP) to identify and reduce or eliminate the workplace incidence of hazards which are causing or are likely to cause amputations.|
|Scope:||This instruction applies OSHA-wide.|
|References:||OSHA Instruction CPL 2-0.102A, November 10, 1999, Procedures for Approval of Local Emphasis Programs and Experimental Programs.|
|Cancellations:||OSHA Instruction CPL 2-1.24, Feb. 28,1997, National Emphasis Program on Mechanical Power Presses.|
|State Impact:||See paragraph V|
|Action Offices:||National, Regional, and Area Offices|
|Originating Office:||Directorate of Compliance Programs|
|Contact:||Willie F. Robinson (202) 693-1827 or|
Kim-Anh Nguyen (202) 693-1934
Directorate of Compliance Programs
200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N3107
Washington, DC 20210
By and Under the Authority of
John L. Henshaw
On February 28, 1997 CPL 2-1.24 established and implemented a National Emphasis Program on mechanical power presses as part of the Agency's strategic goal of reducing amputations in general industry workplaces. In order to capitalize on the success of the Program, OSHA, through this Instruction CPL 2-1.33, National Emphasis Program on Hazardous Machinery Associated With Amputations, is expanding the scope to target more types of machinery and allow the Regions and Area Offices greater flexibility in targeting and scheduling inspections in workplaces that are likely to use the selected machinery. In addition to mechanical power presses, this new Program targets all types of power presses (including press brakes), as well as saws, shears, slicers, and slitters. Collectively called "The Four S's and a P," these machines account for a significant number of severe amputation injuries in general industry.
This Instruction, CPL 2-1.33, National Emphasis Program on Hazardous Machinery Associated With Amputations builds upon and expands the existing National Emphasis Program on Mechanical Power Presses. Major changes include:
In addition to mechanical power presses, all types of power presses (hydraulic, pneumatic, etc.), as well as press brakes, saws, shears, slicers, and slitters will be included in the Program.
Greater flexibility for Regions and Area Offices is also built into this new Program by allowing for the targeting and scheduling of workplaces for inspection using regional and/or local data rather than, or in addition to, the national data in this Instruction.
Appendix A is designed to reflect each industry's amputation rates accounting for the size of the industry, that is, the number of employees per SIC Code. This is a significant change, since, in the past, the number of amputations per industry were observed, regardless of the size of the industry. The current statistical information will identify SIC Codes based on Amputation Rates and thus enable more efficient allocation of resources by targeting the most hazardous workplaces.
Table of Contents
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes.
Industries That Rank High (Descending Order) on Multiple Amputations Criteria During 1996 - 1998
Sample Employer Self-inspection Checklist Safeguards and Other Hazards
Applicable ANSI and ASME Standards
Purpose. This directive describes policies and procedures for implementing a National Emphasis Program (NEP) to identify and reduce or eliminate the workplace incidence of machine hazards which are causing or are likely to cause amputations.
Scope. This instruction applies OSHA-wide.
OSHA Instruction CPL 2-0.102A, November 10, 1999, Procedures for Approval of Local Emphasis Programs and Experimental Programs.
OSHA Standards at Subpart O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
OSHA Standards at Subpart P, Hand and Portable Powered Tools & Other Hand Held Equipment.
OSHA's Safety and Health Management Guidelines, 54 FR 3904, January 26, 1989.
OSHA Instruction CPL 2.25I, January 4, 1995, Scheduling System for Programmed Inspections.
Executive Order 12196, Section 1-201.
OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1960.16.
OSHA Instruction STP 2-0.22B, March 21, 2001, State Plan Policies and Procedures Manual (SPM).
OSHA Instruction CPL 2.103, September 26, 1994, Field Inspection Reference Manual (FIRM).
OSHA Publication 3157, A Guide for Protecting Workers from Woodworking Hazards.
OSHA Technical Links Web Page, Machine Guarding, http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/machineguarding/index.html
Cancellation. CFR 1910.217, OSHA Instruction CPL 2-1.24, 2-28-1997, National Emphasis Program on Mechanical Power Presses
Federal Program Change. This instruction describes a Federal Program Change for which State adoption is not required. States are asked to keep their Regional Administrators informed of State-developed local emphasis programs, experimental programs, local problem solving projects, etc., especially any that relate to State Strategic Plan goals. They should also coordinate the assignment of an IMIS identifier code with their Regional Administrator and submit the coding instructions necessary for IMIS and OPTMS Strategic Plan tracking, as appropriate.
Action. OSHA Regional Administrators, Area Directors and National Office Directors must ensure that the policies and procedures set forth in this directive are followed. Regional Administrators must also ensure that the State Consultation Program Managers and the State Plan State Designees in their Regions are apprised of the contents of this NEP and its required Area Office Outreach initiatives. Regional Administrators are to encourage Consultation Programs' involvement in this Agency-wide effort.
Application. This instruction applies to general industry workplaces where saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses (the Four S's and a P) are present. If applicable, see the SIC codes listed in Appendix A. This instruction also applies to workplaces identified pursuant to paragraph IX(C).
Background. OSHA has determined that the current National Emphasis Program on mechanical power presses needs to be expanded because of the continuing incidence of amputations that have resulted from the operation of saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses of all types. The goal of OSHA's enforcement policy is achieving optimal worker protection.
The operation of saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses can be extremely dangerous and compliance with OSHA's machine guarding and safeguarding standards is frequently not achieved. Injuries involving these machines often result in death or permanent disability and OSHA's inspection history indicates that employee exposures to these unguarded or inadequately guarded machines are prevalent in many workplaces. Subparts O and P of 29 CFR 1910 provide for safety measures that need to be used for the safe operation of saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and mechanical power presses. This NEP provides additional information on how to identify and guard against hazards associated with these machines.
The machines identified by the Four S's and a P were determined from three sources: a 1990 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research project on machine safety, the OSHA IMIS accident database, and BLS data. The NIOSH project reported that workers who operate and maintain machinery suffer numerous amputations and over 800 deaths per year. According to BLS, about 10,000 occupational amputations occur each year (10,167 in 1996; 10,852 in 1997; and 10,243 in 1998). Saws and presses consistently account for the top two sources of amputations. NIOSH identified shears and slicers as important sources of amputations which was confirmed by BLS. Shears are classified in a category which ranks in the top sources of amputations in manufacturing for 1996, 1997, and 1998. Slicers are classified under "food and beverage processing machinery" which ranks in the top sources for manufacturing and retail trade for 1996, 1997, and 1998. Slitters do not rank as high as the other four sources related to amputations. They are classified under paper production machinery for 1996, 1997, and 1998. Consolidation of the NIOSH, OSHA, and BLS data revealed that these types of machines cause the most amputations.
Saws: The two types of saws most frequently reported are table saws and radial arm saws. These types of saws are used primarily in woodworking shops and manufacturing maintenance shops. Other types of saws to be considered include, but are not limited to, hand held saws, chop saws, miter saws, and band saws.
The guards normally used on many of these saws are self-adjusting to the thickness of the material being cut, meaning that, by themselves, they do not necessarily prevent contact with the saw blade. However, when used in conjunction with push sticks or push blocks as required under 29 CFR 1910.213(s)(9), these safeguards can minimize the potential for injuries. For repetitive sawing operations or for jobs when standard guards cannot be used, jigs, featherboards, or a combination of the two can be used to minimize or eliminate employee exposure during sawing operations. See 1910.213 (a)(15). When the saws are used for ripping, additional safeguards are required in the form of spreaders and/or anti-kickback fingers. See 1910.213(c), (d), (e), and (f). For saws used to cut material other than wood, (metal, plastic, meat, etc.) safeguarding of moving parts and points of operation is required under 1910.212 and .219.
Requirements for safeguarding of hand held portable powered tools (saws, shears, etc.) are found at 1910.243.
Shears: Mechanical power shears are self-contained machines using a mechanically driven ram for the shearing action. The ram moves a non-rotary blade at a constant rate past the edge of a fixed blade. The machine components generally consist of the frame, ram, blades, hold-down(s), guards, drive, clutch, brake, motor, and controls. According to OSHA's database, shear-associated amputation injuries occurred primarily on three types of equipment:
- Squaring shears used in metal working shops to cut sheets of metal;
- Alligator shears used to cut metal stock in fabrication shops and scrap metal in scrap yards; and
- Guillotine shears used in many industries, such as the paper and plastic film industries, to trim or cut/slice rolls and slabs of paper, plastic film, and other materials.
Slicers: The most common slicers are meat and food slicers. These are powered machines that use a rotary blade to cut sections of meat or other foods into thin slices. The OSHA database indicates that slicer-associated amputation injuries have occurred primarily on meat slicers used in restaurants and grocery stores.
Slitters: Slitters are machines or systems that use rotary knives to slit flat rolled metal coils, plastic film rolls, paper rolls, or other bulk stock into single or multiple strands and rewind the strands into smaller coils or rolls. Many of the injuries associated with slitters involve contact with the slitter blades, in-going nip points, pinch points, and moving coils and rolls.
Power Presses: This NEP covers all types of power presses, including, but not limited to mechanical power presses, hydraulic presses, pneumatic presses, and press brakes. Power presses are powered machines used to work on metal or other material with cutting, shaping, or combination dies attached to plungers, platens, or slides (rams). A press consists of a stationary bed or anvil, and a slide. The slide has a controlled reciprocating motion toward and away from the bed surface and at right angles to it. It is guided in the frame of the machine to give a definite path of motion. Power presses are used in a wide variety of industries to punch, shear, and form metal, metal products, and other materials.
Requirements for safeguarding of the referenced machines (Four S's and a P) can be found at Subparts O and P of 29 CFR 1910. See Appendix C for a list of related ANSI and ASME standards. Compliance Officers need to use professional judgement in determining if a machine being evaluated is one of the pieces of equipment briefly described above.
Program Procedures. This NEP includes four major field activities: program approval, outreach, targeting/selection, and inspection. The outreach phase of the Program is to begin 45 to 60 days from the effective date of this directive. Inspections are to begin 45 days after the outreach period is initiated.
Program approval. According to CPL 2-0.102B, Procedures Approval for Local Emphasis Programs, Regional Administrators are authorized to approve LEPs requested by an Area Director/District Supervisor or developed by the Regional Office through the concurrence from the Regional Office of Solicitor (RSOL) and the Regional Office of Federal State Operations (FSO) provided that all of the guidelines of CPL 2-0.102B are met.
Outreach. Each Regional and Area Office must concurrently develop outreach programs that support the purpose of this NEP to identify, reduce and eliminate workplace hazards associated with saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses of all types. Programs may include letters to employers, professional associations, and local unions, or other activities designed to involve employee and management stakeholders in the identification and elimination of hazards associated with these machines. The Office of Public Affairs will provide consultation and advice to the Regional and Area Offices. At the discretion of the Regional and Area Offices, outreach materials may either be mailed directly or made available upon request to employers, professional associations, and local unions. The attached appendices and a PowerPoint® presentation summarizing this NEP provide useful information which may be used, in whole or in part, by the Regional and Area Offices.
Site Selection. Inspections conducted under this NEP must be scheduled and conducted pursuant to the following priorities. Inspections must concentrate on industries and particular establishments where saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses are used and/or where there have been injuries involving these types of machines. The continuance of existing Regional and Local Emphasis Programs that target amputation hazards is encouraged by either combining them with the NEP, or continuing them as written. Establishments with fewer than ten employees are to be included in this Program, except those industry sectors exempted from programmed inspections under the most recent version CPL 2-0.51. The following is a list of sources for obtaining information to develop a list of establishments to be inspected.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes. Using the most recently available Dun and Bradstreet employer list, prepared and administered by the National Office, each Area Office will prepare a master list of establishments in the SICs in the tables below. The twenty-nine (29) SICs listed are those which, based on nationwide IMIS data, had the highest number of violations of 29 CFR 1910.212, .213, and .217 for the period October 1997 through September 1998. Alternatively, an Area Office or Regional Office may use the SICs with the highest number of violations of 29 CFR 1910.212, .213, and .217 for the last five years based on local IMIS data. Additionally, the SICs in Appendix A may be substituted for the target machines (Four S's and a P) and SIC, if local data indicates that substitution will promote more efficient use of Area Office resources. Consult current appropriations riders and the current version of OSHA instruction CPL 2-0.51 for the listing of employers and/or SICs exempt from programmed inspections in a particular fiscal year.
1910.212, All Machines
Rank SIC Code Industry 1. 3089 Plastics Products, not elsewhere classified (nec) 2. 3444 Sheet Metal Work 3. 3441 Fabricated Structural Metal 4. 3469 Metal Stampings, not elsewhere classified 5. 3499 Fabricated Metal Products, nec 6. 3714 Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories 7. 3599 Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Equipment, nec 8. 3442 Metal Doors, Sash, Frames, Molding, and Trim 9. 3443 Fabricated Plate Work (boiler shops)
1910.213, Woodworking Machinery
1. 2511 Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered 2. 2431 Millwork 3. 2499 Wood Products, not elsewhere classified 4. 3089 Plastics Products, not elsewhere classified 5. 2421 Sawmills and Planing Mills, General 6. 2434 Wood Kitchen Cabinets 7. 3732 Boat Building and Repairing 8. 2448 Wood Pallets and Skids 9. 2451 Mobile Homes 10. 2541 Wooden Office and Store Fixtures, Partitions, Shelving, and Lockers
1910.217, Power Presses
1. 3469 Metal Stampings, Not Elsewhere Classified 2. 3499 Fabricated Metal Products, Not Elsewhere Classified 3. 3444 Sheet Metal Work 4. 3442 Metal Doors, Sash, Frames, Moldings, and Trim 5. 3441 Fabricated Structural Metal 6. 3496 Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products 7. 3429 Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified 8. 3443 Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) 9. 2542 Office and Store Fixtures, Partitions, Shelving, and Lockers, Except Wood 10. 3714 Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories
Additions to the master list based on other data:
Area Offices may add to the master list general industry establishments where amputation injuries or fatalities related to saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses are known to have occurred in the last five years. Local knowledge of amputations may be based on IMIS data and, if available, workers' compensation data; OSHA 200 data; NIOSH data; and other reliable sources of information. Area Offices may also use the SICs in Appendix A to target workplaces with amputation hazards. In all cases, the basis for development of the master list and additions to it must be documented.
Establishments on the master list prepared pursuant to IX(C)(1) are to be arranged alphabetically by company name. Additions to the master list from the list prepared pursuant to IX(C)(2) are to be arranged alphabetically and added to the bottom of the master list.
Based on local knowledge, Regional and Area offices may delete facilities that are not likely to have the targeted machinery, or firms known to be out of business, documenting the basis for such determinations. Further, any establishment [other than those where amputations are known to have occurred] having had a comprehensive safety inspection in the previous 24 months will be deleted from the list. This process will simplify Regional and Area Office paperwork and reporting requirements by streamlining the targeting and site selection process, inspection coding, and program evaluation criteria.
Once the master list, with additions, is completed, each establishment is to be assigned a sequential number starting at the top of the list with number one. The random numbers table (see the most current version of OSHA instruction CPL 2.25) will then be applied to create the first cycle from five to fifty establishments. Subsequent cycles will then be created in the same way until all establishments on the list have been assigned to a cycle. Cycles may be created all at once or as needed, and need not be the same size.
Inspections may then be scheduled using the first cycle list. Establishments on the cycle list may be inspected in any order so that area office resources are efficiently used. Once a cycle is begun, all establishments in the cycle are to be inspected before a new cycle is begun, except that carryovers will be allowed, as provided for in OSHA Instruction CPL 2.25I, at paragraph B.1.b.(1)(e)(1).
Alternatively, if cycles are not prepared, establishments on the inspection list are to be inspected in the order determined by the application of the random numbers table.
Inspection Procedures. Inspections initiated under this NEP will be scheduled and conducted in accordance with provisions of the FIRM, except as noted below.
Once an inspection has been scheduled and assigned, the OSHA IMIS database will be searched for the employer's citation and fatality/accident history prior to the opening conference. This can be accomplished by conducting an establishment search in the IMIS Database Access section on the CSHO Home Page of the OSHA web site.
At the opening conference the CSHO will inquire of the employer whether any of the referenced types of machines are present in the workplace. If any of these machines are present in the workplace the CSHO must conduct a thorough inspection of the machine(s) with particular attention to employee exposure to nip points, pinch points, shear points, cutting actions, and other point(s) of operation. When possible, the CSHO also should evaluate employee exposures during any of the following:
- Regular operation of the machine.
- Setup/threading/preparation for regular operation of the machine.
- Clearing jams or upset conditions.
- Making running adjustments while the machine is operating.
- Cleaning of the machine.
- Oiling or greasing of the machine or machine parts.
- Scheduled/unscheduled maintenance.
The CSHO will review all available OSHA 200 logs for amputation injuries or hazards.
Inspections routinely will be limited to hazards associated with power presses, saws, shears, slicers, and slitters, but the CSHO may expand the scope of the inspection beyond those machines if other hazards or apparent violations are observed during the walkaround or documented in the OSHA 200 logs. Inspections will be scheduled beginning the current fiscal year, and will continue until further notice or until all establishments on the list have been inspected.
Because the nature of this program may yield a number of significant cases, Area Directors, Supervisors, Team Leaders, and CSHOs should ensure that the requirements for case development are being met.
This is a National initiative, which affects existing inspection scheduling priorities, as indicated below. Area Offices must develop and implement targeting systems which are suited to the Region's resources and the needs of workers in their jurisdictions.
Resources. Regional Administrators must ensure that adequate resources are designated for this NEP.
Planning. Each Regional Administrator will report, to the Director of Compliance Programs, the number of NEP inspections that are planned for each fiscal year.
Priority. Inspections conducted under this NEP have a lower priority than inspections conducted under Site Specific Targeting (SST), but have a higher priority than other programmed inspections. When possible, inspections conducted under this NEP will be combined with SST inspections and/or other programmed and unprogrammed inspections.
Conflicts. Other National, Regional or local Programs, including redesigned Area Office activities, problem solving initiatives, partnerships, etc., may compete with this NEP for available staff resources. Nonetheless, conflicts must be resolved to ensure that the NEP is implemented in each Area Office. This NEP may be combined with other existing initiatives which identify targets on a different basis. For example, a Local Emphasis Program (LEP) which targets specific industries, rather than hazards, may be combined with this NEP by addressing the relevant hazards as part of a combination NEP/LEP inspection. Regional or Area offices may also supplement this NEP with LEPs focusing on some or all of the SICs in Appendix A.
National Office. This NEP will be coordinated in the Office of General Industry Compliance Assistance, Directorate of Compliance Programs. Questions and comments should be directed to Willie Robinson, National Coordinator.
Field. Each Regional Administrator will name a coordinator for this National Emphasis Program.
Consultation Programs. Area Offices should develop Local Emphasis Programs (LEP) on hazardous machinery associated with amputations in concert with the Consultation Project in the same state jurisdiction. The development and implementation of outreach programs for the LEPs may be a joint activity for the Area Office and Consultation Program. When appropriate, 21(d) Consultation Projects are encouraged to develop their own strategic approaches to address the need to reduce injuries and accidents related to saws, shears, slicers, slitters, and power presses.
Training. Because of the technical nature of some of these inspections and/or machines, CSHOs who conduct inspections under this NEP, and consultation staff, must have had adequate training or experience with both general and specific machine guarding and safeguarding concepts and techniques.
The OSHA Training Institute (OTI).
The OTI provides training materials to CSHOs, consultation staff, and employers. Also, additional sessions of the OTI's mechanical power press and machine guarding courses can be made available. Technical training at the OTI can be expanded to include the use of a stop time measuring device to measure the safety distance on a mechanical power press, should it be determined that such training is needed.
On-the-Job Training. Area Directors and supervisors must ensure that inexperienced CSHOs also receive on-the-job training by accompanying experienced compliance officers during these NEP inspections.
Enforcement and Compliance Issues. Continuing guidance regarding enforcement and compliance issues will be provided by the office of General Industry Compliance Assistance as new issues arise.
Federal Agencies. This instruction describes a change that affects Federal agencies. Executive Order 12196, Section 1-201, and 29 CFR 1960.16, maintains that Federal agencies must follow the enforcement policy and procedures contained in this Directive.
Program Evaluation. Area Offices will collect data relevant to the effectiveness of this NEP and submit it to the Regional Office. The Regional Office, after summarizing the information, will forward it to the National Office after the end of each fiscal year. At a minimum the evaluation should respond to the requirements of CPL 2-0.102A, Section D.
IMIS Coding. All General Industry inspections (programmed and unprogrammed) must be coded as an amputation hazard in the IMIS by marking "amputations"in the Strategic Plan Activity item 25(f) on the OSHA 1, when there is potential worker exposure to an amputation hazard due to working with saws, slitters, slicers, shears, and power presses, (Four S's and a P). This coding must be done regardless of whether the piece of machinery was guarded and the amputation hazard removed.
Any settlement agreement (formal or informal) where the employer commits to implementing or improving a safety and health program must be designated as such by entering the informal conference date in item 13A on the OSHA Form 167I and then marking item 13D, "S&H Prgm Initiated." Any settlement agreement where the employer commits to providing OSHA-200 data in future years must be identified by entering the informal conference date in item 13A on the Form 167I and then marking item 13C, "OSHA-200 Required" and entering the number of years the data must be provided.
Current instruction for completing enforcement forms OSHA-1, OSHA-7, OSHA-36, and OSHA-90 and Consultation Request Form-20 and Visit Form-30 will be applied when recording inspections conducted under this NEP as follows:
The OSHA-1 Form for any programmed inspection covered under this national emphasis program for amputations will be marked "PLANNED" (Item 24h) and "NATIONAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM" (Item 25d). Record "amputate"in the space in item 25d.
The OSHA-1 Form for any unprogrammed inspection will be marked as unprogrammed (Item 24a through g as appropriate). In addition, it will be marked "NATIONAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM" (Item 25d). Record "amputate" in the space in item 25d.
Whenever an OSHA-7 is completed by a Federal office and the applicable complaint alleges the presence of amputation hazards, complete the OSHA-7 in the usual manner, and record "amputate" in the space in item 50.
Whenever an OSHA-36 is completed by a Federal office and the inspecting CSHO is able to identify at the site of the fatality / catastrophe the presence of amputation hazards, complete the OSHA-36 in the usual manner, and record "amputate" in the space in item 36.
Whenever an OSHA-90 is completed by a Federal office and the applicable referral case has amputation hazards as one of the subjects, complete the OSHA-90 in the usual manner and record "amputate" in the space in item 30.
Whenever a visit is made in response to this NEP, a Consultation Request Form and/or Visit Form is to be completed as follows:
Complete the Consultation Request Form-20 in the usual manner and record "amputate" in the space in item 25.
Complete the Visit Form-30 in the usual manner and record "amputate" in the space in item 28.
Appendices. The Appendices and a PowerPoint® presentation summarizing this NEP contain a variety of information developed to assist employers, employees, and compliance officers in the implementation, training and outreach requirements of this Program. The Area Office may use its discretion in selecting whatever materials it deems appropriate and feasible for outreach purposes.
It is highly recommended that when accessing NON-HTML file links, such as DOC, EXE, PDF, PPT, WPD, ZIP, etc., that you "RIGHT Click" on the hyper links and save these files directly to your local disk. Attempting to view these files through your browser with a plug-in viewer (particularly large files > .5 MB), can result in technical difficulties and the need for unnecessary/multiple downloads.
Save the file to a temporary location on your hard drive. Open the file by double-clicking on the icon. The application will prompt you for a saving location, and will then extract the PowerPoint presentation file to the location you specify.
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Industries That Rank High (Descending Order) on Multiple Amputations Criteria During 1996 - 1998
FOUR DIGIT SICs
3089 - Plastics Products, Not Elsewhere Classified
3444 - Sheet Metal Work
3441 - Fabricated Structural metal
3714 - Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories
3599 - Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified
3443 - Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops)
2431 - Millwork
2421 - Sawmills and Planing Mills, General
2434 - Wood Kitchen Cabinets
2448 - Wood Pallets and Skids
2541 - Wood Office and Store Fixtures, Partitions, Shelving, and Lockers
3496 - Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products
3429 - Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified
This chart is the convergence of high number of machine violations combined with high rates and/or number of amputations for data collected from 1996 through 1998.
Sample Employer Self-inspection Checklist Safeguards and Other Hazards
Answers to the following questions should help the interested reader to determine the safeguarding needs of his or her own workplace by drawing attention to hazardous conditions or practices requiring corrections.
Requirements for All Safeguards
1. Do the safeguards provided meet the minimum OSHA requirements?
2. Do the safeguards prevent workers' hands, arms, and other body parts from making contact with dangerous moving parts?
3. Are the safeguards firmly secured and not easily removable?
4. Do the safeguards ensure that no objects will fall into the moving parts?
5. Do the safeguards permit safe, comfortable, and relatively easy operation of the machine?
6. Can the machine be oiled without removing the safeguard?
7. Is there a system for shutting down the machinery and locking/tagging out before safeguards are removed?
8. Can the existing safeguards be improved?
The Point of Operation:
1. Is there a point-of-operation safeguard provided for the machine?
2. Does it keep the operator's hands, fingers, body out of the danger area?
3. Is there evidence that the safeguards have been tampered with or removed?
4. Could you suggest a more practical, effective safeguard?
5. Could changes be made on the machine to eliminate the point-of-operation hazard entirely?
Power Transmission Apparatus:
1. Are there any unguarded gears, sprockets, pulleys, or flywheels on the apparatus?
2. Are there any exposed belts or chain drives?
3. Are there any exposed set screws, key ways, collars, etc.?
4. Are starting and stopping controls within easy reach of the operator?
5. If there is more than one operator, are separate controls provided?
Other Moving Parts:
1. Are safeguards provided for all hazardous moving parts of the machine, including auxiliary parts?
1. Have appropriate measures been taken to safeguard workers against noise hazards?
2. Have special guards, enclosures, or personal protective equipment been provided, where necessary to protect workers from exposure to harmful substances used in machine operation?
1. Is the machine installed in accordance with National Fire Protection Association and National Electrical Code requirements?
2. Are there loose conduit fittings?
3. Is the machine properly grounded?
4. Is the power supply correctly fused and protected?
5. Do workers occasionally received minor shocks while operating any of the machines?
Applicable ANSI and ASME Standards
1. ANSI B11.1-1988 (R1994) Mechanical Power Presses
2. ANSI B11.2-1995 Hydraulic Power Presses
3. ANSI B11.3-1982 (R1994) Power Press Brakes
4. ANSI B11.4-1993 Shears
5. ANSI B11.5-1988 (R1994) Ironworkers
6. ANSI B11.6-1984 (R1994) Lathes
7. ANSI B11.7-1995 Cold Headers and Cold Formers
8. ANSI B11.8-1983 (R1994) Drilling, Milling, and Boring Machines
9. ANSI B11.9-1975 (R1997) Grinding Machinery
10. ANSI B 11.10-1990 (R1997) Metal Sawing Machines
11. ANSI B11.11-1985 (R1994) Gear Cutting Machines
12. ANSI B11.12-1996 Roll-Forming and Roll-Bending Machines
13. ANSI B11.14-1996 Coil-Slitting Machines
14. ANSI B11.15-1984 (R1994) Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending Machines
15. ANSI B11.16-1988 Metal Powder Compacting Presses
16. ANSI B11.17-1996 Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses
17. ANSI B11.18-1997 Machinery and Machine Systems for Processing Strip, Sheet, or Plate From Coiled Configuration
18. ANSI B11.19-1990 (R1997) Safeguarding When Referenced by the Other B11 Machine Tool Safety Standards
19. ANSI B5.37-1970 (R1994) External Cylindrical Grinding Machines (Centerless)
20. ANSI B5.42- 1981 (R1994) External Cylindrical Grinding Machines (Universal)
21. ANSI B65.1-1995 Printing Press Systems
22. ANSI B65.3-1991 Safety Standard for Guillotine Paper Cutters
23. ANSI B7.1-2000 Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels
24. ANSI B151.5-1982 (R1988) Plastic Film and Sheet Winding Equipment
25. ANSI B151.20-1999 Plastic Sheet Production Machinery
26. ANSI B155.1-1994 Packaging Machinery and Packaging-Related Converting Machinery
27. ANSI B177.1-1997 Three Roller Printing Ink Mills
28. ANSI O1.1-1992 Woodworking Machinery
29. ASME B5.52M-1980 (R1994) Mechanical Power Presses, General Purpose Single Point
30. ASME B15.1-1996 Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus
31. ASME B15.1A-1997 Addenda to B15.1-1996
32. ASME B15.1B-1998 Addenda to B15.1-1996
33. ASME B20.1-1996 Conveyors and Related Equipment, with Interpretations A and B
34. ASME B20.1A and B20.1B Addenda to B20.1-1996
35. ASME/CEMA 350-1988 Screw Conveyors
36. ASME/CEMA 401-1994 Unit Handling Conveyors - Roller Conveyors - Non-Powered
37. ASME/CEMA 402-1992 Unit Handling Conveyors - Belt Conveyors
38. ASME/CEMA 403-1985 Unit Handling Conveyors - Belt Driven Live Roller Conveyors
39. ASME/CEMA 404-1985 Unit Handling Conveyors - Chain Driven Live Roller Conveyors
40. ASME/CEMA 405-1985 Packaging Handling Conveyors - Slant Conveyors
Four S's and a P