Label Abbreviations & Descriptions
Name: The substances are primarily listed by the chemical name as it appears in the OSHA PELs, 29 CFR 1910.1000, TABLES Z-1, Z-2, Z-3; the ACGIH TLVs; or by common name.
CAS #: CAS numbers, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number.
NFPA 704: National Fire Protection Association’s Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response. The standard presents a simple, readily recognized, and easily understood system of markings (commonly referred to as the “NFPA hazard diamond”) that provides an immediate general sense of the hazards of a material and the severity of these hazards as they relate to emergency response.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Sampling method for OSHA compliance.
SLTC: Salt Lake Technical Center, OSHA. Sandy, UT 84070.
IMIS, IMIS code no.: The substance code currently assigned by OSHA to each substance in the integrated management system. IMIS Codes are reported on pre-printed OSHA-91B forms.
Analytical method instruments: Describes the type of analysis performed at the SLTC. The following abbreviations are used:
|1,2-PP||1-(2-Pyridyl)piperazine||GF||Graphite furnace||Nitro Reagent||p-Nitrobenzyl-N-n-propylamine|
|2-HMP||2-(Hydroxymethyl)piperadine||GFF||Glass fiber filter||NPD||Nitrogen-phosphorus detector|
|AAS||Atomic absorption spectroscopy||GRAV||Gravimetric||OVS||OSHA versatile sampler|
|AES||Atomic emission spectroscopy||HPLC||High-performance liquid chromatography||PCM||Phase contrast microscopy|
|BUP||Backup pad||IC||Ion chromatography||PID||Photoionization detector|
|CSC||Coconut shell charcoal||ICP||Inductively coupled plasma||PVC||Poly(vinyl chloride)|
|DID||Discharge ionization detector||IR||Infrared||TBC||4-tert-Butyl Catechol|
|DNPH||2,4-Dinitrophenyl)hydrazine||ISE||Ion-selective electrode||TCD||Thermal conductivity detector|
|ECD||Electron-capture detector||LC||Liquid chromatography||TEA||Thermal energy analyzer|
|FID||Flame ionization detector||MCEF||Mixed cellulose ester filter||TLC||Thin-layer chromatography|
|FL||Fluorescence Detector||MS||Mass spectrometry||UV||Ultraviolet|
|FPD||Flame photometric detector||NBD-Chloride||7-chloro-4-nitrobenzyl-2-oxa-1,3-diazole||XRD||X-ray diffraction|
|FTIR||Fourier transform infrared||NITC||1-Naphthylisothiocyanate||XRF||X-ray fluorescence|
The following method status classifications have been assigned to OSHA methods. NIOSH method classification is taken from the method evaluation status published in their methods.
|Fully Validated:||sampling and analytical methods that have been thoroughly evaluated for sampler capacity, analytical recovery, storage stability, precision, and limits of detection and quantitation by following established OSHA methods evaluation guidelines|
|Partially Validated:||sampling and analytical methods that have been partially evaluated for sampler capacity, analytical recovery, storage stability, precision, and limit of quantitation by following established OSHA methods evaluation guidelines|
|Not Validated:||literature review and very limited or no evaluation data.|
Note special instructions on sampling or obtaining sampling media from the SLTC. These instructions pertain to OSHA and 18(b) or 7(c)(1) state programs.
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods
Detector tubes, chip measurement systems and direct reading instrument information has not been reviewed, except as noted.
Colorimetric detector tubes and Dräger Chip Measurement Systems (CMS) are used for screening to determine whether additional sampling is needed. If these readings exceed ½ the PEL, CSHOs should conduct additional sampling.
NOTE: OSHA has evaluated detector tubes for internal use; however, the number and type of tubes is limited. OSHA evaluates detector tubes primarily to select tubes for OSHA use. OSHA does not certify detector tubes, nor endorse products of any manufacturer. Omission of other manufacturers tubes does not mean the tubes have been found unsatisfactory.
- NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM®), 4th Ed., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication no. 94-113 (August, 1994); 1st Supplement, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication no. 96-135; 2nd Supplement, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication no. 98-119; and 3rdSupplement, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication no. 2003-154; Schlecht, P.C. and O'Connor, P.F., (email@example.com) Eds. Also, NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd Ed., Volume 1-7, Taylor, D.G., Ed. DHHS (NIOSH), Cincinnati, Ohio. Current NIOSH methods are available online.
- OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods , USDOL, OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC), 8660 South Sandy Parkway, Sandy, UT 84070-6406. Sampling and Analytical Methods are available at this website.
- McLean, J.D. and Holland, J.F.: Development of a Portable Polarograph for Determination of Aldehydes in Automotive Exhaust and Production Plant Samples. Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 9, pp. 127-131, (1975).
- Mattocks, A.R.: Spectrophotometric Determination of Pyrazoline and Some Acrylic Amides and Esters. Anal. Chem., Vol. 40, pp. 1347, (1968).
- Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Human and Environmental Samples. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Pesticide and Toxic Substances Effects Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, N.C., (1974).
- Orion Electrode Instruction Manual. Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., (1971).
- Thomsen, E. and Stern, R.M.: A Simple Analytical Technique for the Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in Welding Fumes and other Complex Materials. The Danish Welding Institute Report No. 79-01, Scand. J. Work. Environ. & Health, Vol. 5, pp. 386-403, (1979).
- The Industrial Environment--Its Evaluation and Control. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Washington, D.C., (1973).
- Brief, R.S., Venable, F.L.S., and Ajemian, R.S.: Nickel Carbonyl: Its Detection and Potential for Formation. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J., Vol. 26, pp. 72-76, (1965).
- King, J.R., Nony, C.R., and Boeman, M.C.: Trace Analysis Diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Animal Chow by Parallel High-Speed Liquid Chromatography, Electron-Capture Gas Chromatography, and Radioassays. J. Chromatographic Science, Vol. 15, pp. 14, (1977).
- OSHA Technical Manual (OTM), OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.20B, USDOL OSHA Directorate of Technical Support, Washington, D.C. (1990). Current OSHA Technical Manual (OTM) (TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A]) is available at this website.
- Occupational Exposure Sampling Strategy Manual (77-173), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, Ohio, (1977).
- Brief, R.S., Ajemian, R.S., and Confer, R.G.: Iron Pentacarbonyl: Its Toxicity, Detection, and Potential for Formation. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J., Vol. 28, pp. 21-30, (1967).
- U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 29, Part 1910, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
- Eller, P.E.: Determination of Nickel Carbonyl by charcoal tube collection and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Appl. Ind. Hyg. (1)3, pp 115-118, (1986, Sept).
- Follow Manufacturer's Instruction Sheet. The Salt Lake Technical Center has not evaluated this product.
OSHA General Industry PEL: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for the General Industry - Action Level, Excursion Limit (EL), 8-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), Ceiling, or Stayed. Includes all changes to 29 CFR 1910.1000 to end published in the Federal Register.
OSHA Construction Industry PEL: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for the Construction Industry - Action Level, Excursion Limit (EL), 8-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), Ceiling, or Stayed. Includes all changes to 29 CFR 1926.1100 to end published in the Federal Register.
OSHA Maritime Industry PEL: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for the Maritime Industry - Action Level, Excursion Limit (EL), 8-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), Ceiling, or Stayed. Includes all changes to 29 CFR 1915.1000 to end published in the Federal Register.
ACGIH TLV: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV). Includes Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs), Sensitization, and Skin notations. For current information, references, and footnotes, see the yearly printed ACGIH TLV® and BEIs® Booklet.
NIOSH REL: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL).
Cal/OSHA: State of California, Divison of Occupational Safety and Health, Table AC-1 Permissible exposure limits for chemical contaminants.
Health Effects Code(s): Principal effect(s) of exposure to each substance, listed by OSHA Health Code and Health Effects. Health codes are used in determining if a violation of an air contaminant standard is serious or other-than- serious, based on guidelines in the Field Operations Manual, OSHA Instruction CPL 2.45B, chapter IV.
|HE1||Cancer---Currently regulated by OSHA as carcinogen|
|HE2||Chronic (Cumulative) Toxicity---Known or Suspected animal or human carcinogen, mutagen (except Code HE1 chemicals)|
|HE3||Chronic (Cumulative) Toxicity---Long-term organ toxicity other than nervous, respiratory, hematologic or reproductive|
|HE4||Acute Toxicity---Short-term high risk effects|
|HE5||Reproductive Hazards---Teratogenesis or other reproductive impairment|
|HE6||Nervous System Disturbances---Cholinesterase inhibition|
|HE7||Nervous System Disturbances---Nervous system effects other than narcosis|
|HE8||Nervous System Disturbances---Narcosis|
|HE9||Respiratory Effects Other Than Irritation---Respiratory sensitization (asthma or other)|
|HE10||Respiratory Effects Other Than Irritation---Cumulative lung damage|
|HE11||Respiratory Effects---Acute lung damage/edema or other|
|HE12||Hematologic (Blood) Disturbances---Anemias|
|HE13||Hematologic (Blood) Disturbances---Methemoglobinemia|
|HE14||Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked|
|HE15||Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate|
|HE16||Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild|
|HE18||Explosive, Flammable, Safety (No adverse effects encountered when good housekeeping practices are followed)|
|HE19||Generally Low Risk Health Effects---Nuisance particulates, vapors or gases|
|HE20||Generally Low Risk Health Effects---Odor|
NTP, carcinogenic classification as listed in or prior to the National Toxicology Program's (NTP) Report on Carcinogens (RoC). Search NTP for updated information.
Known To Be Human Carcinogens (also known as HUMAN CARCINOGEN):
There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans*, which indicates a causal relationship between exposure to the agent, substance, or mixture, and human cancer.
Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogens (also known as SUSPECT HUMAN CARCINOGEN):
There is limited evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans*, which indicates that causal interpretation is credible, but that alternative explanations, such as chance, bias, or confounding factors, could not adequately be excluded,
there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals, which indicates there is an increased incidence of malignant and/or a combination of malignant and benign tumors (1) in multiple species or at multiple tissue sites, or (2) by multiple routes of exposure, or (3) to an unusual degree with regard to incidence, site, or type of tumor, or age at onset,
there is less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans or laboratory animals; however, the agent, substance, or mixture belongs to a well-defined, structurally related class of substances whose members are listed in a previous Report on Carcinogens as either known to be a human carcinogen or reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, or there is convincing relevant information that the agent acts through mechanisms indicating it would likely cause cancer in humans.
*This evidence can include traditional cancer epidemiology studies, data from clinical studies, and/or data derived from the study of tissues or cells from humans exposed to the substance in question that can be useful for evaluating whether a relevant cancer mechanism is operating in people.
IARC, carcinogenic classification as indicated by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Data includes chemicals covered through Volume 88.
Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans.
Group 2A: The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans.
The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans.
Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans.
The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans.
Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
Group 4: The agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.
AIHA Emergency Response Planning Guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
ERPGs are air concentration guidelines for single exposures to agents and are intended for use as tools to assess the adequacy of accident prevention and emergency response plans, including transportation emergency planning, community emergency response plans and incident prevention and mitigation.For further information or most current values, please see the AIHA website.
Additional Resources and Literature References
NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals Database of Hazardous Materials.
NIOSH: NIOSH Pocket Guide.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 29 Part 1910, USDOL, OSHA, Washington, D.C. Also available U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Fourteenth Edition, Van Nostrand Co., New York, 2001.
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France. (90+ volumes). Available WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, N.Y. 12210.
The Merck Index, Fourteenth Edition, Merck & Co., Rahway, N.J., 2006.
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH. Available U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH. September, 2005, DHHS (NIOSH) 2005-149. Available U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
NIOSH/OSHA Health Guidelines, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Washington, D.C., January, 1981, DHHS (NIOSH) No. 81-123. Available U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Current listing of NIOSH Health Guidelines.
Report on Carcinogens (RoC). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Toxicology Program (NTP), (latest edition), Washington, D.C.
Toxic Substances Control Act Inventory, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C. Additional information is available online from EPA.
Pohanish, Richard P.:Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 6th Ed., Elsevier, William Andrew Publishing, 2012.
Cohrssen, B., Bingham E. (eds.):Patty's Toxicology, 6th Ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
Wexler, Philip. Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd ed. New York: Elsevier, Academic Press, 2014.Back to Top