PHENANTHRENE†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 85-01-8
Formula
 

C₁₄H₁₀

Synonyms
 

coal tar pitch volatiles; phenanthrin

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless monoclinic crystals with a faint aromatic odor. Solutions exhibit a blue fluorescence.
Boiling point 642°F Molecular weight 178.24
Freezing point/melting point 212°F Vapor pressure depends upon the specific compound
Flash point 340°F Vapor density 6.14
Specific gravity 1.025 Ionization potential
Lower explosive limit (LEL) Upper explosive limit (UEL)
NFPA health rating 1 NFPA fire rating 0
NFPA reactivity rating 0 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2038
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles (CTPV) Sampling Filters and Cassette [SLTC109]
Sampling time*
 

480 min

Sampling volume (TWA)*
 

960 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*
 

2 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*
 

 

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*
 

 

Analytical method instruments HPLC
Method reference OSHA 58 (fully validated in conjunction with Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles and Coke Oven Emissions)
Notes
 

After sampling, filter must be transferred to a glass vial with a Teflon-lined cap. Sample must be protected from direct sunlight.

Special requirements
 

These media are prepared by SLTC as needed and are not available for immediate shipment. Please allow time for SLTC to prepare these media prior to sampling.

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
 

 

Bulk Method
Bulk Method
 

 

On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device
Model/Type
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA
 

0.2 mg/m³ as Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction)

REL-TWA
 

0.1 mg/m³ (cyclohexane-extractable fraction)

TLV-TWA
 

0.2 mg/m³ (benzene-soluble aerosol) [1984]

PEL-TWA
 

0.2 mg/m³

PEL-STEL
 

 

REL-STEL
 

 

TLV-STEL
 

 

PEL-STEL
 

 

PEL-C
 

 

REL-C
 

 

TLV-C
 

 

PEL-C
 

 

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Notes:
 

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

Notes:
 

CARCINOGEN (Ca): REDUCE EXPOSURE TO LOWEST FEASIBLE CONCENTRATION. See Appendix A, NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens. See also Appendix C, Supplementary Exposure Limits.

Notes:
 

BEI®

Notes:
 

As Coal tar pitch volatiles, see footnote [i].

Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH
Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-3, EPA-D, TLV-A1, NIOSH-Ca Notes:
 

 

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
 

 

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Phenanthrene

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Coal tar pitch volatiles

Literature References

 
  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Coal tar pitch volatiles [65996-93-2], as benzene soluble aerosol. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System. Phenanthrene (CASRN 85-01-8).
  • Campo, L., et al. Biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by determination of unmetabolized compounds in urine. Toxicol. Lett. 162(2-3): 132-138, 2006.
  • Elovaara, E., Mikkola, J., Makela, M., Paldanious, B. and Priha, E. Assessment of soil remediation workers' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): biomonitoring of naphthols, phenanthrols, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Toxicol. Lett. 162(2-3): 158-163, 2006.
  • Hecht, S.S., Chen, M., Yagi, H., Jerina, D.M. and Carmella, S.G. r-1,t-2,3,c-4-Tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene in human urine: a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 12(12): 1501-1508, 2003.
  • Jacob, J. and Seidel, A. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 778(1-2): 31-47, 2002.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor) Phenanthrene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1817-1818.
  • Popp, W., et al. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 54(3): 176-183, 1997.
  • Rihs, H.P., et al. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in German industries: association between exogenous exposure and urinary metabolites and its modulation by enzyme polymorphisms. Toxicol. Lett. 157(3): 241-255, 2005.

Last Updated Date : 01/29/2021