DIACETYL

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 431-03-8
Formula

C₄H₆O₂

Synonyms

biacetyl; 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-butadione, 2,3-diketobutane, dimethyl diketone, dimethylglyoxal, glyoxal, dimethyl-

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid with a strong chlorine-like odor.
Boiling point 190°F Molecular weight 86.09
Freezing point/melting point 27.7°F Vapor pressure
Flash point 80°F Vapor density 3
Specific gravity 0.99 at 59°F Ionization potential
Lower explosive limit (LEL) Upper explosive limit (UEL)
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 3
NFPA reactivity rating 0 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) D740
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media 2 Specially dried silica gel tubes in series; each tube has a single 600 mg section and a GFF, filter faces forward when sampling [SKC 226-183]
Sampling time*

180 min

Sampling volume (TWA)*

9 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.05 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*

3 L

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.2 L/min

Analytical method instruments GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 1012 (fully validated)
Notes

Use an opaque tube holder or wrap tubes with aluminum foil or other opaque material while sampling.

Separate the two tubes and cap both ends of each tube as soon as possible after sampling. Individually seal the two tubes. Protect tubes from light after sampling.

Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device
Model/Type
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA REL-TWA

5 ppb (0.005 ppm) 8-hr TWA [2.6 ppb (0.0026 ppm) Action Level]

TLV-TWA

0.01 ppm [2011]

PEL-TWA
PEL-STEL REL-STEL

25 ppb (0.025 ppm) [15 minutes]

TLV-STEL

0.02 ppm [2011]

PEL-STEL
PEL-C REL-C TLV-C PEL-C
Skin notation

NA

Skin notation

NA

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

NA

Notes:

Not established

Notes: Notes: Notes:

Not established

Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH
Carcinogenic classifications: TLV-A4 Notes:
AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Diacetyl

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Diacetyl

Literature References

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Diacetyl. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • CDC: Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry - California, 2004-2007. MMWR 56(16): 389-393, 2007.
  • Hubbs AF, Goldsmith WT, Kashon ML, Frazer D, Mercer RR, Battelli LA, Kullman GJ, Schwegler-Berry D, Friend S, Castranova V Respiratory toxicologic pathology of inhaled diacetyl in sprague-dawley rats.:, Toxicologic Pathology Vol. 36 (2), pp. 330-44.
  • Kanwal, R. et al.: Evaluation of flavorings-related lung disease risk at six microwave popcorn plants. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 48(2): 149-157, 2006.
  • Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J. and Enright, P.L.: Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. New Eng. J. Med. 347(5): 330-338, 2002.
  • Kullman, G., Boylstein, R., Jones, W., Piacitelli, C., Pendergrass, S. and Kreiss, K.: Characterization of respiratory exposures at a microwave popcorn plant with cases of bronchiolitis obliterans. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2(3): 169-178, 2005.
  • NIOSH: Preventing Lung Disease in Workers Who Use or Make Flavorings. NIOSH Publication No. 2004-110. 2004.
  • NIOSH: Safety and Health Topic - Flavorings-Related Lung Disease. 2006.

Last Updated Date : 12/22/2020