FURFURAL†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 98-01-1
Formula

C₅H₄O₂

Synonyms

fural; 2-furancarboxaldehyde; furfuraldehyde; 2-furfuraldehyde

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless to amber liquid with an almond-like odor.
Boiling point 323°F Molecular weight 96.1
Freezing point/melting point -34°F Vapor pressure 2 mmHg
Flash point 140°F Vapor density
Specific gravity 1.16 Ionization potential 9.21 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 2.1% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 19.3%
NFPA health rating 3 NFPA fire rating 2
NFPA reactivity rating 1 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 1325
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media Anasorb 747 (140/70 mg) [SKC 226-81A]
Sampling time*

180 min

Sampling volume (TWA)*

180 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

1 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*

15 L

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*

1 L/min

Analytical method instruments GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 72 (fully validated)
Notes
 

 

Special requirements
 

 

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
 

 

Bulk Method
Bulk Method
 

 

On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device
Model/Type
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA
 

5 ppm (20 mg/m³)

REL-TWA
 

 

TLV-TWA
 

0.2 ppm [2016]

PEL-TWA
 

2 ppm (8 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL
 

 

REL-STEL
 

 

TLV-STEL
 

 

PEL-STEL
 

 

PEL-C
 

 

REL-C
 

 

TLV-C
 

 

PEL-C
 

 

Skin notation
 

Y

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

Y

Skin notation
 

Y

Notes:
 

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

Notes:
 

See Appendix D - Substances with No Established RELs.

Notes:
 

BEI®

Notes:
 

 

Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH
 

100 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-3, TLV-A3 Notes:
 

 

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
 

2 ppm/10 ppm/50 ppm

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Furfural

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Furfural

Literature References

 
  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Furfural. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System: Furfural (CASRN 98-01-1).
  • U.S. EPA Multi-Year Workplan for Conventional Pesticide Registration.
  • Adams, T.B., et al.: The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association. Food Chem. Toxicol. 35(8): 739-751, 1997.
  • Arts, J.H.E., de Heer, C. and Woutersen, R.A.: Local effects in the respiratory tract: relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 79(4): 283-298, 2006.
  • Arts, J.H., Muijser, H., Appel, M.J., Frieke Kuper, C. Bessems, J.G. and Woutersen, R.A.: Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route. Food. Chem. Toxicol. 42(9): 1389-1399, 2004.
  • Boylstein, R., Piacitelli, C., Grote, A., Kanwal, R., Kullman, G. and Kreiss, K.: Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 3(10): 530-535, 2006.
  • Ewing, A., Phelka, A., Ball, G. and McLellan, C.: Human health risk assessment of furfural to determine drinking water action levels (Abstract). Toxicologist 78(Suppl. 1): 151, 2004.
  • Flek, J. and Šedivec, V.: The absorption, metabolism and excretion of furfural in man. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 41(3): 159-168, 1978.
  • Hollmann, R., Hort, C.E., Kammer, E., Naegele, M., Sigrist, M.W. and Meuli-Simmen, C.: Smoke in the operating theater: an unregarded source of danger. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114(2): 458-463, 2004.
  • Mishra, A., et al.: Pathological and biochemical alterations induced by inhalation of furfural vapor in rat lung. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 47(): 668-674, 1991.
  • NIOSH Alert: Preventing Lung Disease in Workers Who Use or Make Flavorings. HHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2004-110.
  • No authors listed: 2-Furaldehyde. Concise international chemical assessment document 21. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000, 43 pp.
  • No authors listed: Furfural. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 63: 409-429, 1995.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Furfural. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1196-1198.
  • Rodriguez-Kabana, R., Kloepper, J.W., Weaver, C.F. and Robertson, D.G.: Control of plant parasitic nematodes with furfural: a naturally occurring fumigant. Nematropica 23(1): 63-73, 1993.

Last Updated Date : 12/29/2020