TRICHLOROETHYLENE†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 79-01-6
Formula

C₂HCl₃

Synonyms

ethylene trichloride; TCE; trichloroethene; trilene

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid (unless dyed blue) with a chloroform-like odor.
Boiling point 189°F Molecular weight 131.4
Freezing point/melting point -99°F Vapor pressure 58 mmHg
Flash point >200°F Vapor density 4.53
Specific gravity 1.46 Ionization potential 9.45 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 8% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 10.5%
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 1
NFPA reactivity rating 0 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2490 2490
Sampling group OVSG-1
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) [SKC 226-01] SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler [SKC 575-002]
Sampling time*

240 min (1 min Peak; ≤5 min C)

<240 min TWA; >5min C, Peak

Sampling volume (TWA)*

12 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.05 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.05 L (Peak); 0.25 L (C)

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.05 L/min

Analytical method instruments GC-FID GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 5000 (fully validated) OSHA 1001 (fully validated)
Notes

To obtain sampling and analytical error similar to that available with active sampling, knowledge of the atmospheric pressure and temperature are required, and these should be obtained using NIST-traceable devices.

If that is not possible, temperature is assumed to be 22.2 °C, and the atmospheric pressure is estimated based on the elevation of the sampling location.

When estimates are used in place of traceable measurements the sampling and analytical error associated with passive sampling is substantially increased, and this makes it more difficult to demonstrate overexposures after considering the 95% lower confidence limit.

Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device CMS Chip
Model/Type Trichloroethylene, 5-100 ppm range
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA

100 ppm

REL-TWA TLV-TWA

10 ppm [2006]

PEL-TWA

25 ppm (135 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL REL-STEL TLV-STEL

25 ppm [2006]

PEL-STEL

100 ppm (537 mg/m³)

PEL-C

200 ppm; 300 ppm (Peak), for a single time period up to 5 min in any 2 hours

REL-C TLV-C PEL-C

300 ppm

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Notes:

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-2. OSHA Construction and Maritime Industry PEL is 100 ppm (535 mg/m³) as an 8 hr TWA. See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A and 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards.

Notes:

CARCINOGEN (Ca): REDUCE EXPOSURE TO LOWEST FEASIBLE CONCENTRATION. See Appendix A, NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens and Appendix C, Supplementary Exposure Limits.

Notes:

BEI®

Notes:
Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH

1000 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-2A, NIOSH-Ca, TLV-A2, NTP-R Notes:

Ca

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:

100 ppm/500 ppm/5000 ppm

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Trichloroethylene

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Trichloroethylene

Literature References

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Trichloroethylene. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Trichloroethylene. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Bringmann, G, God, R., Fahr, S., Feineis, D., Fornadi, K. and Fornadi, F.: Identification of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline in human blood after intake of the hypnotic chloral hydrate. Anal. Biochem. 270(1): 167-175, 1999.
  • Cai, H. and Guengerich, F.P.: Reaction of trichloroethylene and trichloroethylene oxide with cytochrome P450 enzymes: inactivation and sites of modification. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14(4): 451-458, 2001.
  • Forkert, P.-G., Lash, L., Tardif, R., Tanphaichitr, N., Vandevoort, C. and Moussa, M.: Identification of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in human seminal fluid of workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Drug Metab. Dispos. 31(3): 306-311, 2003.
  • Guehl, D., Bezard, E., Dovero, S., Boraud, T., Bioulac, B. and Gross, C.: Trichloroethylene and parkinsonism: a human and experimental observation. Eur. J. Neurol. 6(5): 609-611, 1999.
  • Lipscomb, J.C., Garrett, C.M. and Snawder, J.E.: Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene: interindividual differences in humans. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 142(2): 311-318, 1997.
  • Nakajima, T., Yamanoshita, O., Kamijima, M., Kishi, R. and Ichihara, G.: Generalized skin reactions in relation to trichloroethylene exposure: a review from the viewpoint of drug-metabolizing enzymes. J. Occup. Health 45(1): 8-14, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Trichloroethylene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp.2250-2253.

Last Updated Date : 04/14/2021