XYLENE, ALL ISOMERS (DIMETHYLBENZENE)†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 1330-20-7
Formula

C₈H₁₀

Synonyms

1,2(3 or 4)-dimethylbenzene; ortho(meta or para)-xylene; o(m or p)-xylol

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor.
Boiling point 281°F Molecular weight 106.17
Freezing point/melting point Vapor pressure 9 mmHg for m and p-xylene, 7 mmHg for o-xylene
Flash point 81-90°F Vapor density
Specific gravity 0.86-0.88 Ionization potential 8.44-8.56 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 0.9-1.1% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 6.7-7.0%
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 3
NFPA reactivity rating 0 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2590 2590
Sampling group OVSG-1
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) [SKC 226-01] SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler [SKC 575-002]
Sampling time*

240 min

240 min

Sampling volume (TWA)*

12 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.05 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*
Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*
Analytical method instruments GC-FID GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 5000 (fully validated) OSHA 1002 (fully validated)
Notes

To obtain sampling and analytical error similar to that available with active sampling, knowledge of the atmospheric pressure and temperature are required, and these should be obtained using NIST-traceable devices. If that is not possible, temperature is assumed to be 22.2 °C, and the atmospheric pressure is estimated based on the elevation of the sampling location.

When estimates are used in place of traceable measurements the sampling and analytical error associated with passive sampling is substantially increased, and this makes it more difficult to demonstrate overexposures after considering the 95% lower confidence limit.

Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device Detector tube Detector tube CMS Chip
Model/Type Gastec 123 Matheson-Kitagawa 8014-143SA Xylene, 10-300 ppm range
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
0.5 to 2 strokes, 1-625 ppm range, uncertainty 16% for 10-50 ppm, 8% for 50-200 ppm 2 strokes, 2-1000 ppm range
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA

100 ppm (435 mg/m³)

REL-TWA

100 ppm (435 mg/m³)

TLV-TWA

20 ppm [2021]

PEL-TWA

100 ppm (435 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL REL-STEL

150 ppm (655 mg/m³)

TLV-STEL PEL-STEL

150 (655 mg/m³)

PEL-C REL-C TLV-C PEL-C

300 ppm

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Notes:

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

Notes: Notes:

BEI®, OTO (ototoxicant) for p-xylene and mixtures that contain p-xylene

Notes:

See also Section 5198.

Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH

900 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-3, TLV-A4, EPA-I Notes:
AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Xylene, [mixed isomers]

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - m-Xylene

Literature References

  • o-Xylene, p-Xylene.
  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Xylene (all isomers). See annual publication for most recent information.
  • EPA: Hazard Summary - Xylenes.
  • ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Xylene, 2007
  • EPA: Integrated Risk Information System - Xylenes. 2003.
  • Gonzalez-Reche, L.M., Schettgen, T. and Angerer, J.: New approaches to the metabolism of xylenes: verification of the formation of phenylmercapturic acid metabolites of xylenes. Arch. Toxicol. 77(2): 80-85, 2003.
  • Korsak, Z; Wisniewska-Knypl, J; Swiercz, R. (1994) Toxic effects of subchronic combined exposure to n-butyl alcohol and m-xylene in rats. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 7:155-166.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Health Guideline for Xylene. 1978.
  • Hood RD, Ottley MS Developmental effects associated with exposure to xylene: a review.
  • Drug Chem Toxicol. 1985;8(4):281-97.
  • Sulkowski, W.J. et al.: Effects of occupational exposure to a mixture of solvents on the inner ear - a field study. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health 15(3): 247-256, 2002.

Last Updated Date : 04/06/2021